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Human body :70 % water. Animals = 100% molecules bonded together

& plants = 65 ± 95 %. at freezing point to become solid.
Physical properties : liquid at I) ;&  Breaks up other
ambient temperature. Boiling point substances --Breaking up bonds in
100 degrees C, freezing large molecules. E.g.
Polysaccharide becomes simple
0o C. Occupies space in container,
sugar. Speeded up by enzymes.
transparent, most dense at 4o C.
Low viscosity, universal solvent. II) , &
- reaction that
Difficult to compress, poor produces water (reverse of
conductor of electricity, adhesion hydrolysis) Monosaccharide
to other molecules, cohesion to condenses to polysaccharide &
own molecules, Specific heat water.
capacity 1 calorie = 4184 J kg-1 oC- III) 3
 : Awater is broken
1 = to raise 1 kg water by 1oC. 3 up) light reaction
states : solid, liquid, gas. High Properties of water important as a
surface tension. component and medium of
Hydrogen bonds, 3-D linkage. PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLES:
15% of molecules bound together. 7 & '
Ambient temperature = liquid. Ice 
poles (1450). Therefore,
polar solvent
Even though a lot of heat lost,
  ] temperature only goes down a
little. A body of water has a
more or less constant
2) Universal solvent : Consists of temperature. So, suitable
polar molecules, easily dissolves medium for life.
other polar compounds. ii) Main component of
3) Ions & molecules free only if organisms : because of high
dissolved, cellular reactions only specific heat capacity. preserves
occur in an aqueous medium, so constant body temperature.
water is main component of 7) Surface tension : suitable
medium for organisms ± Small
4) 90% of blood plasma is water. ones supported and live on the
Materials dissolved in the plasma
can be transported throughout the surface, or stuck to the
body ± water is important underside, e.g. water boatman.
constituent of living things. This property is important in
plants ± brings water in narrow
5) Gases and mineral salts can be
dissolved in water for aquatic life. 8)Density decreases with
So, it¶s suitable as a medium for decreasing temperature.
them. Maximum at 40C. Water at 0oC
6) High specific heat capacity : freezes on the surface=
i) water absorbs a lot of heat to Insulation preventing freezing
raise a temperature slightly of the whole pond .
Why is the specific heat
  " capacity of water so high?
1) The heat energy disrupts H-
9) High latent heat of fusion and bonds, & then makes water
evaporation molecules move faster. As heat
A lot of heat needs to be lost from is absorbed when the bonds
water at 00C before it freezes. break, water absorbs and stores
Contents of cell and surrounding a large amount of heat while
water difficult to freeze. Water =
suitable medium and component of warming up only a few degrees.
cells. High heat of vaporization= 2) Conversely, when water is
transpiration effective for reducing cooled, more hydrogen bonds
heat. 10) Transparent: Aquatic form. Heat energy is released
plants can carry out photosynthesis. when the H-bonds form,
light can penetrate water to reach slowing the cooling process.
chlorophyll. Water moderates temperature
11) Low viscosity: Main by evaporative cooling. The
component of plasma. Particles molecules with the greatest
flow quickly in the body. Aquatic energy vaporize first.
organisms navigate smoothly.
Lubricant in the body. Movement Why is ice less dense than
of faeces in the rectum, reduces liquid water?
friction between joints. H-bonds in ice are stable, with
12) Adhesion and Cohesion: Sends each molecule bonded to 4
water & minerals up xylem vessels neighbours.
under pressure.
Basic formula: CnH2nOn (1:2:1) Benedict¶s/Fehling¶s solution.
Organic compound. Functions :
1) Energy source. 2) OXIDATION REDUCTION
Important component of nucleic
acid. 3) Cell structure ± wall &
4) Defence & protection - chitin, Add oxygen Add hydrogen
thick gum 5) Storage
compound ± energy.
 !# ± 1) MONO (1
molecule) 2), di (2 molecules)
3) Poly (many molecules) Remove Remove
CLASSIFICATION OF hydrogen oxygen
1) According to the number of C
Remove Add electrons
Triose (C3H603) = 3C, Pentose
C5H1005 = 5C, Hexose(C6H1206) = electrons
2) According to the functional
group ±aldehyde (H-C=0); Increase Decrease
carbonyl (C=0).
valency valency
Physical characteristics ± soluble in
water. Sweet, small molecules, low
mass, can crystallize.
REDUCING SUGAR A6 ii)ring iii) Can exist in 2 isomers
(alpha, beta) same molecular
Produces disaccharide(poly-S) formula but different arrangement
through condensation. of atoms. E.g. glucose alpha ±
CLASSIFICATION OF OH group jutting out below C no.1,
MONOSACCHARIDES : but glucose beta ± OH jutting out
According to the number of C above
atoms, or functional group. FRUCTOSE : 3 forms ± chain, 5C
E.g. - Functional group at Carbon ring (furanose), 6C ring (pyranose)
no. 1 = Aldehyde (Propanal), like Monosaccharide test:
Triose - glyceraldehyde ( an aldose 1. All monosaccharides and some
sugar) disaccharides are reducing sugars.-
Other aldose sugars:Pentose ± Because of free functional group in
Ribose, and Hexose ±Glucose. the molecule for donating electrons
!# : Triose ± in the reduction process.
dihydroxyiacetone, Pentose ± 2. When a monosaccharide is
ribulose, and Hexose ± fructose. boiled in Benedict¶s solution,
Functional group = carbonyl copper ions(blue) become brick red
(propanon) precipitate(Cu20)
PENTOSE : Can exist in the form 0   &s: 1. General formula
of a (i) chain(ribose) = C12H22011. 2. Formed by
(ii) ring (when dissolved in water) condensation. 3. Dehydration,
HEXOSE : I) chain (e.g. glucose) because water molecule is
4. Usually involves 2 monosaccharide
molecules(Hexose) Can happen to
ribose (pentose) also.
( wA 
Glucose alpha ±glucose alpha POLYSACCHARIDES
(condensation) becomes maltose. 1) Consists of monosaccharide
Maltose(hydrolysis)becomes units. Condensed and linked by
glucose alpha glycosidic bonds.
1140,)17w7 E.G. 2) 7133)w
SUCROSE- hydrolyzed to glucose A) Not soluble, but forms colloid.
alpha and fructose beta. (By adding B) Not sweet C) Will not
dilute HCl). crystallize. D) High molecular
TESTS: Boiling sucrose with mass
Benedict¶s/Fehling¶s solution ± E) can hydrolyze,
negative result. 3) 0 ' && 
. # !
Add hydrochloric acid. Neutralize w
 %glycogen and cellulose
with sodium bicarbonate
STARCH : consists of glucose
Add Benedict/Fehling and reboil. polymers. General formula =
Product = brick red precipitate. (C6H10O5)n n = 300 ± 1000.
()1B1,)1wB 2 polymers entwined together ±
0)w,,;)0w amylose and amylopectin.
$Maltose ± respiration substrate AMYLOSE : 1) Long straight
2) Sucrose ± Extra carbohydrates chain of glucose alpha units joined
transported in the form of sucrose with glycosidic alpha 1,4 bonds.
because inactive & soluble. 2) Because of more hydroxide
Storage in sugar cane and beet. groups on a side chain, hydrogen
.actose ± CHO source for bonds between glucose sub-units
nursing babies. cause the amylose molecule to
form helix when suspended in
3) Spaces in the helix just big Structure same as amylopectin,
enough to trap iodine molecules EXCEPT chains are shorter &
and form dark blue complex. more branches. Functions: Animal
4) Dissolves in hot water and the food storage compound and energy
blue complex disappears because source.
the molecule has become straight. ,w
Blue again when cold.
General properties same as starch.
Chemical properties : Enzymes can
I) Consists of branching glucose hydrolyze it into glucose beta units.
polymers. 600 ± 6000 glucose sub-
units. (cf. why diabetics shouldn¶t STRUCTURE : 1) A long straight
eat too much rice although not chain, with glucose beta units
sweet) II) Each branch is a linked in glycoside beta 1,4 bonds.
short glucose chain linked with 2) Neighbouring cellulose chains
glycosidic alpha 1,4. The branches cross linked by hydrogen bonds.
are linked by glycosidic 1,6 bonds. This type of bonding is possible as
7 ,71 cellulose chains is formed from
glycoside-beta 1,4 bonds which
Molecular formula = (C6H1005)n straighten the chain. The
N = 300 ± 1000. hydroxide groups jut out in all
Chemical characteristics : I) Can be directions to form H bonds. Forms
hydrolyzed by the enzyme a stable & strong structure. Cell
glycogen phosphorylase to glucose, wall ± 80 to 2000 chains bind to
II) or glucose ±1-phosphate. form thin fibres.
Distribution = liver, brain, muscles,
cytoplasmic granules in plants.
  & A> Needed by the body and which it
can synthesize, e.g. 0leic, stearic &
1) Consists of C,H & O : organic palmitic acids.
compound, with low oxygen ratio. 4) Known as ester alcohol, because
Olive oil = C57H114O6 formed from acid & alcohol.
2) Formed from fatty acids & glycerol. 5) Hydrophobic organic
A) Fatty acids : consist of
carboxylic acid with long hydrocarbon compound: not soluble ± avoid
chain ; 14 ± 20 C atoms. Saturated water, but soluble in organic
fatty acid: without double bond solvents (acetone & chloro-
between 2 C atoms. Unsaturated : l or form) wB)3)0
more double bonds. 1) Grease spot test
B) Glycerol : a type of alcohol known 2) Fat emulsion with alcohol test:
as propane-1,2,3-trid Usually, ethanol dissolves in water,
3) A) Essential fatty acids but if a little lipid dissolved in 2 ml
(i) needed by the body, but the body of ethanol, and the solution is
cannot synthesize it e.g. Linoleic acid dropped into a test tube of water,
linolenic acid & arachinodic acid for an emulsion of lipid in water is
the control of blood pressure & formed. If the substance is not
clotting. lipid, the ethanol just dissolves
without any emulsion.
(ii)Plants can synthesize linoleic and
linolenic acids ± source of fatty acid in 6) 3 groups : a) Triglycerides
food. b) phospholipids c) steroids
B) Non-essential fatty acids :
1) 1 ester (--O--) is formed from 1 II) Storage medium.
molecule of glycerol and 3 III) Forms plasma membrane : fat
molecules of fatty acid, by with phosphoric acid =
condensation/esterization. phospholipid. IV) Heat insulator
2) All fats & oils are triglycerides. ±mechanical protection, bouyancy
3) 0 

force V) Insulator of
formed from different fatty acids:- Electricity at myelin sheath.
a)saturated fatty acids ± because VI) Water-proof layer on feathers.
packed arrangement, no empty Fatty acid (14 ± 20C) becomes
space. functional group = COOH. triglyceride
stearic acid C17H35COOH. PHOSPHOLIPID : 1) Triglyceride
i) Solid at room temperature in which 1 of the fatty acid groups
(ii) Mostly animal fats. is replaced by another group that
b) Unsaturated ± Oleic Acid : contains phosphorus through
C17H33COOH : i) liquid at room condensation of 1 molecule
temperature ii)Mostly plant fats glycerol and 2 molecules of fatty
4) 0 
 : in adipose tissue, acid and 1 molecule phosphoric
surface of heart, liver, alimentary acid
canal, eggs of birds & insects. 2) Its structure is a glycerol
5. B!
 : I) as energy source ± molecule bound to ester with 2
respiratory substrate. molecules of fatty acid & 1
molecule of phosphoric acid
w)0w A$: 5. The usual phospholipid =
lechitin, i.e. main component of
3) Phosphoric acid residue on a cell membrane bi-layer.
molecule of phospholipid
bound to another molecule. 6. In aqueous medium, lechitin
E.g.Choline forms lechitin. molecules arrange themselves
spontaneously to form a bi-
4) Phospholipid distribution in layer, with hydrophobic tails
the middle of plasma and facing inwards, and
organelle fibres, and on hydrophilic to the outside. This
nerve,heart and kidney tissues. barrier retains water in the cell,
6B1,)1w : which also becomes a living
1) structural component of cell unit, and enables exchange of
membrane materials with aqueous
2) Lechitin involved in environment.
formation of acetylcholine w)0wStructure = Large
transmitters and neurons. molecule which consists of 4 C
3)Transport of fat in the body : atom rings bound together, with
Lipids transported in the form R (a long variable side chain) =
of phospholipid because its Basic framework, different R¶s
head is hydrophilic, being form different steroids.
soluble in water and able to be Examples: cholesterol,
transported by blood. testosterone.
4) Damaged tissue ± Properties : 1)Insoluble in
phospholipid helps in clotting water..
of blood by producing platelets.
2) Soluble in non-polar solvents, like Cholesterol (saturated fat from
ether. animals)
A) Cholesterol : most important Too much = 
component of cell membrane, ( deposits on arterial wall),
especially of nerves, besides ,  
 "  Adeposits
phospholipid. Precursor = raw on wall of coronary artery)
material for synthesis of other lipids.
Testosterone = drug (anabolic
B) Testosterone : Reproductive steroid) ± fat-soluble, diffuses
hormone of male mammal. through cell membrane to nucleus±
C) Estrogen & progesterone : quickens transcription of genes
Reproductive hormones of female that control synthesis of myofibril
mammal. proteins (actin and myosin) =
D) Adreno-cortical hormones : muscle tissue increases.
synthesized in the adrenal cortex gland Abuse = damaged liver, sterility,
for definite responses. death,
E) Bile acids ± emulsifier for fats. Women = male characteristics.
F) Calciferol : (Vit. D) helps
absorption of Ca2+ and PO43 - from
the small intestine.
G) Ecdysone : the hormone that causes
ecdysis (moulting) of arthropods