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Lecturer :

Yuyun Wirasasmita, M.Farm., Apt


At STIKES IST Buton
•What have you learned about
cell ?
•What is teh last course you
study, regarding cell ?
1. Type of cell :
a. Prokaryotic; bacteria
b. Eukaryotic; from protist to mammals
2. Virus, and special characteristics of plant cells
Virus occupy a special spot between the living and the non-living
organism because it has the same molecules as living cells, and yet
they are incapable of independent existence.
Plants, have their own rigid cell wall that gives shape and structural
rigidity to the organism. It contains vacuola that occupy up to 75%
of the cell volume and contains high concentrated sugar and other
soluble compounds. Water enters the vacuola to dilute these sugar
and creates hydrostatic pressure (as seen in inflated inner tube
inside bycycle tire becomes rigid and stiff). Plant cells also contain
chloroplast to acomodate photosynthesis.
Organels
• consist of ; ...
• Their function ; ...
Cells specialization (types of tissue)
1. Epithelia : sheets of cells covering surface of the body and lining its internal
cavities such lungs and intestines (villies and microvili, and cilia on
bronchioles epithelial surfaces)
2. Connective tissue : includes bone, cartilage, and adipose. They provide
essential support for other tissues in the body. Of the many cell types found
in connective tissues, two main important are fibroblasts that secretes fiber
and ground substances, and macrophage which removes foreign, dead
material from it. (many disease are originated from malfunction of these
two type of cells)
3. Nervous tissue : a highly modified epithelium. Principally are neurons,
axons, glia.
4. Muscle : smooth (contracts long and slowly, usually found in walls of tubular
organ e.g intestines and blood vessel) and striated mainly cardiac and
skeletal muscle.
Cell Metabolism
All process occurs within a
living cells ultimately driven
by energy taken from
NADH & ATP ENERGY outside. Green plants and
some bacteria takes from
sunlight. Other organism,
take compounds made using
sunlight and break them
depletes down to release energy, a
process called catabolism,
by oxydizing them. Energy
trapped in the currency can
then be used for building,
METABOLISM repair, and homeostatic
process termed anabolism.
• When you think about food, protein, and energy,what may
come to mind is the quick meal you squeeze in before racing off
to your next activity. But while you move on, your cells are
transforming the food into fuel (ATPin this case) for energy and
growth.
• As your digestive system works on an apple or a turkey
sandwich, it breaks the food down into different parts, including
molecules of a sugar called glucose. Through a series of
chemical reactions, mitochondria transfer energy in conveniently
sized packets from glucose into ATP. All that’s left are carbon
dioxide and water, which are discarded as wastes
• ATP is plentifully produced and used in virtually
every type of cell. A typical cell contains about
1 billion molecules of ATP at any given time. In
many cells, all of this ATP is used up and
replaced every 1 to 2 minutes!
Mainly a group of
process that occurs
simultanously and feeds
eachother at the same
time. It takes energy but
also releases even more,
which then can be used
for other homeostatic or
chemical reaction process
in the body.
The main process are :
Glycolysis
Glucogenesis
synthesis of pyruvate to
form Acetyl CoA
• Glycolysis : takes place in cytosol, simply means the breakdown
of glucose (in form of piruvate) and function without oxygen.
Overall uses 2 ATP and produces 4 more.
• Glucogenesys : takes place in the liver, where glycogen is
converted back into glucose to provide energy source when
there is none in the gut.
• Gluconeogenesys : when pyruvate is converted back into
glucose (protein as source)
• Protein is the only metabolism source that does not store it’s
excess product (urea is eliminated through kidney, keton bodies
might piled up in the case of metabolic starvation, e.g
untreated diabetic condition)
PLASMA MEMBRAN
SEMI-PERMIABEL
MOLEKUL KECIL HIDROPOBIK
O2, , CO2 , N2 , BENZENA

MOLEKUL KECIL POLAR


H2O, GLISEROL,ETANOL

SENYAWA LIPOFILIK=HIDROPOBIK

ZAT ANORGANIK DAN


ORGANIK LARUT AIR (HIDROPIL)
GLUKOSA, ASAM AMINO, NUKLEOTIDA

TRANSPORT
ION DAN ORGANIK POLAR
- PASIF
- AKTIF (ENERGI)
TERIONISASI

OBAT
TAK TERIONISASI