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TSUNAMI

SUBMITTED BY: Dr. RASHMI


SHARMA
INTRODUCTION
 SYNONMS : Bonsal/Harakiri/Maremoto

 Tsunami (pronounced as sunah-mee)- is basically a


Japanese word meaning “HARBOUR WAVES”.

 DEFINATION- Tsunami is a series of large waves


( up to 10-20 km) of extremely long wavelengths and
period usually generated by violent impulsive
underwater disturbances or activity near the coast or
in the sea.
TSUNAMI SOURCES
      

Point or area of tsunami


origin are usually the
following:

•The site of an
earthquake
•Volcanic eruption
• landslide

which causes large scale


rapid displacement of Tsunamis can be generated by 
the water to initiate the submarine landslides, or by
subaerial landslides that enter 
tsunami waves. the water.
TSUNAMI GENERATION
 Tsunamis are generated primarily by tectonic
dislocations under the sea which are caused by
shallow focus earthquakes along areas of
subduction.

 The upthrusted and downthrusted crustal block s


impart potential energy into the overlying water
mass with drastic changes in the sea level over the
affected region.

 The energy imparted into the water mass results in


tsunami generation, i.e. energy radiating away from
the source region in the form of long period waves.
TSUNAMI GENERATION
EARTHQUAKES VOLCANIC ERUPTION
TSUNAMI WHEN HITS
THE SHORE
 After a underwater earthquakes due to shifting
of the earth crust water become destabilized .
 To stabilize itself and also to dissipate energy
generated during earthquakes ,waves are
generated .
 Initially the waves have very speed up to
900km/hr but as it reaches to shore because of
increasing resistance and decreasing depth of
the sea the height of waves increases ( may
be up to 20 km) until they finally break
Wave height and water depth. In the open ocean, a tsunami
is often only a tens of centimetres high, but its wave height
grows rapidly in shallow water.
CLASSIFICATION OF TSUNAMI
 It is of 7 types which are as follow:

 Historical tsunami
 Meteorological tsunami

 Micro tsunami

 Ocean wide tsunami

 Paleotsunami

 Local tsunami

 Regional tsunami
TSUNAMI – “ A
HAZARD ”
 Tsunami are a relatively a
rare phenomenon but still
its the most terrifying and
complex physical
phenomena and have been
responsible for great loss
of life and extensive
damage.

Tsunami flow depths exceeding 
 Over the past 3500 years, 10 m and flow velocities over
there have been 279 fatal 6 m/s overturned and dragged 
tsunamis and more than 3­story buildings as much as
50 m during the 11 March 
600,000 deaths.
2011 Japan tsunami. 
Onagawa, Japan.
The four images above show confirmed tsunami source locations in the Pacific
Ocean, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Caribbean Sea. The symbols indicate
cause of the tsunami: Brown Square is a landslide, Red Triangle is a volcanic 
eruption, Question Mark is an unknown cause, and White Circle is an earthquake
and the size of the circle is graduated to indicate the earthquake magnitude.
MOST DISASTROUS
TSUNAMI IN
WORLD’S HISTORY

 1929 GRAND BANKS
 1952 KAMCHATKA

 1956 AELUTIN

 1960 CHILE TSUNAMI

 1964 PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND

 1975 HAWAII

 1996 PERU

 2004 SUMATRA

 2011 JAPAN
CHILE TSUNAMI
 On May 22, 1960, at 7:11 , an
earthquake occurred off the
coast of South Central Chile.

 There was a tsunami triggered


by the earthquake, which had
a surface- wave magnitude of
8.6 depth of 33 km.

 The number of deaths caused Damage  caused  by the 22 


by both the tsunami and the May 1960 Chilean tsunami
earthquake and approximately
490 to 2,290 and a damage
cost of over half a million
INDIAN TSUNAMI
 The worst tsunami
catastrophe in history
occurred in the Indian Ocean
on 26 December 2004, when
a M9.3 earthquake off of the
northwest coast of Sumatra
,Indonesia, produced an ocean-
wide tsunami that hit Thailand
and Malaysia to the east, and
The tsunami of 26 December 
Sri Lanka, India, the Maldives, 2004 destroyed the nearby 
and Africa to the west as it city of  Bandas Aceh, 
traversed across the Indian Indonesia, leaving only a 
few structures standing
Ocean.
 DEVASTATION OF THE 
SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL AREAS OF 
THE BAY OF BENGAL DURING 26 
DECEMBER, 2004 TSUNAMI
(TSUNAMI
PICTURES 
TOOK BY 
SATELLITE
26/12/2004)

 
TSUNAMI DAMAGES IN
 

INDIA
 According to Ministry Of Home Affairs

In India alone 1,76,184 people were affected

 total human lives lost were 6063(2767 males & 2495 females)

Damage to infrastructure and properties

Agricultural crop damage 5630.70 ha

Horticulture crop damage 325.88 ha

Electricity was affected in 62 villages and 146 bridges , culverts


and office buildings were damaged and much more.
Damage to animal husbandry buildings in three phases
Damage to 10,982 fishing crafts and 5,66,845 kg fishing
nets
Also damage to 6,467 outboard motors

Animal lives lost


Kind of  domestic livestock No.of animals
COWS 1393
BULLS AND BUFFALO  141
BULLS

BUFFALO 54
GOATS 10,538
TOTAL  12,124
OTHER DAMAGES CAUSED
BY TSUNAMI

 Secondary damages : fires resulting from damages


 Also from sewage and chemical pollution following
the destruction i.e post tsunami famines
 Destruction of ocean ecosystem

 Destruction of nature our environment etc…..


MITIGATING TSUNAMI
 On of the best way to mitigate tsunami is to predict its
occurrence
 Now-a-days various devices are available for this
purpose which are listed below:

 . Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of


Tsunamis (DART®) -An instrument for the early
detection , measurement , and real-time reporting of
tsunamis in the open ocean.

 Tsunameter - An instrument for the early


detection, measurement, and real -time reporting of
tsunamis in the open ocean. Also known as a
tsunamimeter.
MAREOGRAPH

It is a device
which is used to
measure sea level.

 Also termed as
tide gauge or
marigraph guage
CONTINUATION

 There are certain organization that keep a close


eye over day to day seismic activity, these are:

 GLOSS
 ICG
 PTWS
 ITIC
HOW WE CAN PREPARE FOR A
TSUNAMI?
Avoid building or living in buildings within several hundred
feet of the coastline.

Make a list of items to bring inside in the event of a tsunami.

Elevate coastal homes. Most tsunami waves are less than 10 feet.
Elevating your house will help reduce damage to your property from
most tsunamis.

Follow flood preparedness precautions. Tsunamis are large


amounts of water that crash onto the coastline, creating floods.

Have an engineer check your home and advise about ways to


make it more resistant to tsunami water. There may be ways to
divert waves away from your property. Improperly built walls could
make your situation worse. Consult with a professional for advice.
WHAT TO DO DURING A
TSUNAMI ?
If you feel an earthquake that lasts 20 seconds or longer when
you are on the coast; the Red cross advises you to;

Drop, cover, and hold on. You should first protect yourself from
the earthquake.

When the shaking stops, gather your family members and


evacuate quickly. Leave everything else behind. A tsunami may
be coming within minutes. Move quickly to higher ground away
from the coast.

Be careful to avoid downed power lines and stay away from


buildings and bridges from which heavy objects might fall during
an aftershock.
WHAT TO DO AFTER
A TSUNAMI ?
•Continue listening to a NOAA Weather Radio, Coast
Guard emergency frequency station, or other reliable
source for emergency information.

•Help injured or trapped persons. Give first aid where


appropriate.

•Help a neighbor who may require special assistance--


infants, elderly people, and people with disabilities.

•Use the telephone only for emergency calls.

•Stay out of the building if waters remain around it.

•Wear sturdy shoes. .

•Use battery-powered lanterns or flashlights when


examining buildings.

•Inspect foundations for cracks or other damage.


THANK YOU
SOURCES
 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. Revised Edition 2013. Tsunami
Glossary, 2013. Paris, UNESCO. IOC Technical Series, 85. (English.) (IOC/2008/TS/85rev)
Published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific andCultural Organization
7 Place de Fontenoy, 75 352 Paris 07 SP, France Printed by UNESCO/IOC - National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA )
International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) 737 Bishop St., Ste. 2200, Honolulu,
Hawaii 96813, U.S.A.
o DISASTER ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT by DR. S.L. GOEL
 NOAA / National Geophysical Data Center
 World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology
 Facts about Tsunami: Its origin, earthquake link and prediction A.B. Roy INSA
Honorary Scientist
 Department of Geology, Presidency University,KOLKATA