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- Assembly Modeling
- Ripeness Evaluation of Mango using Image Processing
- Product Redesign Book
- p279-chen
- Touch Less
- Basic Pencil Shading
- play-any-latest-3d-game-without-graphic
- Car Plate Recognition System
- Guidelines Basic Elements R
- mEDICAL iMAGING
- WPSE_eng
- Light Torus
- Related Literature Smart Home System
- Image Segmentation
- Image Enhancement
- Introduction to ICC Profiles
- The Elements
- CMIG_729_image Fusion in Neuroradiology
- color part 1 questions
- Redesign Booklet

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4

Hidden – Line - Surface - Solid removal algorithms

shading – coloring. Introduction to parametric and

variational geometry based software’s and their

principles creation of prismatic and lofted parts using

these packages.

REALISM IN 3D GRAPHICS

Many computer graphics applications involve the display of 3D

objects.

components, automobile bodies and aircraft parts.

of objects may be essential to the program’s success.

many problems.

How is depth, the third dimension, to be displayed on the

screen?

How are parts of objects that are hidden by other objects to be

identified and removed from the image?

How can lighting, colour, shadows contribute to the

rendering?

Techniques for Achieving Realism

representation of an actual scene.

applications.

scene.

Depth Cueing

The basic problem addresses by visualization techniques is

sometimes called depth cueing.

information about the depth of objects in the images tends to be

reduced or lost entirely.

enhance the communication of depth to the observer.

Modeling Information and Realism

5

UNIT

4

Hidden – Line - Surface - Solid removal algorithms

shading – coloring. Introduction to parametric and

variational geometry based software’s and their

principles creation of prismatic and lofted parts using

these packages.

Hidden Line Removal

constructed from opaque material in real life.

challenging task in computer graphics.

Hidden Line Elimination

The lines that are hidden from view are removed from the image.

Techniques used:

and maximum x and y coordinates).

Then checks for the intersection for any two boxes in both X and Y

directions.

8

Minimax test for typical polygon and edges

9

Containment Test (Surroundedness)

The containment test checks whether a given point lies inside a given

polygon.

Draw a line from the point, is intersected with the polygon edges.

10

Computing Silhouettes

A set of edges that separates visible faces from invisible faces

of an object with respect to a given viewing direction is called

silhouette edges or silhouettes.

intersection of one visible face and invisible face.

does not contribute to the silhouette.

edge.

11

Hidden Line Removal Algorithm- Three Approaches

Test of all edges against all surfaces.

It is inefficient because it tests all the edges, whether they

intersect or not.

2. Silhouette approach

Testing all the edges against all the silhouette edges only.

It calculates the silhouette edges and connects them to form

areas.

Priority Algorithm- Hidden Line Removal

Priority algorithm is also called the depth or z- algorithm.

ASSIGNMENT OF PRIORITIES: sorting the faces (polygons)

according to the largest z co-ordinate value of each.

If a face intersects more than one face other visibility tests are used.

1. Utilize the proper orthographic projection to obtain

the desired view (whose hidden lines are to be

removed) of the scene. To perform the depth test,

the plane equation of any face (polygon) in the

image can be obtained by

2. Face list will be stored to assign priorities. For the given figure,

six faces F1-F6 form such a list.

assignment is determined by comparing two faces at any one

time. The priority list is continuously changes, and the final list is

obtained after few iterations.

• The first face in the face list is assigned the highest priority 1.

• F1 is intersected with the other faces in the list, that is, F 2-F6.

2. F1 intersects F2 and F3 in edges. Therefore both faces are assigned

priority 1.

3. F1 and F4 intersect in an area. The depth of F 4 is less than that of

F1. F4 is assigned priority 2.

4. No intersection between F1 and F5, no priority assignment is

possible for F5.

5. Face F1 is moved to the end of the face list, and the sorting

process to determine priority started all over again.

6. In iteration 4, faces F4 to F6 are assigned the priority 1 first. When

F4 is intersected with F1, the F1 has higher priority. Thus, F1 is

assigned priority 1 and the priority of F4 to F6 is dropped to 2.

7. Reorder the face and priority lists so that the highest priority is on

top of the list. In this case, the face and priority lists are

[F1,F2,F3,F4,F5,F6] and [1,1,1,2,2,2] respectively.

Area oriented algorithm

Area oriented algorithm

• Identify silhouette polygons

Area oriented algorithm

• Assign quantitative hiding (QH)values to

edges of silhouette polygons.

Area oriented algorithm

• Determine the visible silhouette segments.

Area oriented algorithm

• Intersect the visible silhouette polygons with

partially visible faces

Area oriented algorithm

• Display the interior of the visible or partially

visible polygons

UNIT

4

Hidden – Line - Surface - Solid removal algorithms

shading – coloring. Introduction to parametric and

variational geometry based software’s and their

principles creation of prismatic and lofted parts using

these packages.

Hidden surface removal

• Drawing polygonal faces on screen

consumes CPU cycles

– Illumination

• We cannot see every surface in

scene

– We don’t want to waste time rendering

primitives which don’t contribute to

the final image.

Visibility (hidden surface

removal)

• A correct rendering requires correct visibility

calculations

• Correct visibility

– when multiple opaque polygons cover the same

screen space, only the closest one is visible

(remove the other hidden surfaces)

Visibility of primitives

• A scene primitive can be invisible for 3 reasons:

– Primitive lies outside field of view

– Primitive is back-facing

– Primitive is occluded by one or more objects nearer

the viewer

Visible-Surface Detection

Object space: Determine which part of the object

are visible

Image space: Determine per pixel which point of

an object is visible

Visible surface algorithms.

Definitions:

•Back face culling, Painter’s algorithm, BSP trees

•Z-buffering

Hidden Surface Removal

1. Z- buffer algorithm

2. Watkin’s algorithm

3. Wornock’s algorithm

4. Painter’s algorithm

Z- buffer algorithm

This is also known as the depth buffer algorithm.

z values can be stored for each pixel in the frame buffer.

For each polygon in the scene, find all the pixels (x,y) that lie

inside or on the boundaries of the polygon when projected onto

the screen.

For each of theses pixels, calculate the depth z of the polygon at

(x,y).

If z > depth (x,y), the polygon is closer to the viewing eye than

others already stored in the pixel.

Z-Buffer Algorithm

each pixel to depth in z buffer

• If less, place shade of pixel in color buffer and update z

buffer

Why is z-buffering so popular ?

Advantage

• Simple to implement in hardware.

– Memory for z-buffer is now not expensive

• Diversity of primitives – not just polygons.

• Unlimited scene complexity

• Don’t need to calculate object-object intersections.

Disadvantage

• Extra memory and bandwidth

• Waste time drawing hidden objects

• Z-precision errors

• May have to use point sampling

Painter’s Algorithm

polygons behind others are simply painted over

Depth-Sorting Algorithm

A polygon S can be drawn if all remaining polygons S’

satisfy one of the following tests:

2. S is completely behind plane of S’

3. S’ is completely in front of plane of S

4. Projections S and S’ do not overlap

Depth-Sorting Algorithm

yv S

S

S’

S’

xv xv

display

zv

Depth-Sorting Algorithm

Substitute all vertices of S in plane equation S’, and

test if the result is always negative.

yv S

S

S’

S’

xv xv

display

zv

Depth-Sorting Algorithm

Substitute all vertices of S’ in plane equation of S, and

test if the result is always positive

yv S

S

S’

S’

xv xv

display

zv

Depth-Sorting Algorithm

yv S

S’

S

S’

xv xv

display

zv

Depth-Sorting Algorithm

and restart with S’.

S’

S S’’

xv

display

zv

UNIT

4

Hidden – Line - Surface - Solid removal

algorithms - shading – coloring. Introduction to

parametric and variational geometry based software’s

and their principles creation of prismatic and lofted

parts using these packages.

Hidden Solid Removal

In the hidden solid removal, display of solid models with hidden lines

or surfaces removed.

Ray tracing algorithm for solid models consists of three main

modules.

Ray / Primitive intersection

Ray / Primitive classification

Ray / Solid classification

Ray/Primitive intersection

Ray enters and exists the solid via the faces and the

surfaces of the primitives.

No intersection-ray misses the primitives.

Ray is tangent to the primitives –touches at one point.

Ray intersects the primitive at two different points.

Ray / Primitive classification

segments of the ray can be found.

If the ray intersects the primitive in two different points, it is

divided into three segments.

out - in – out.

If the ray lies on a face of the primitive, it is classified as

out – on – out.

Ray / Solid classification

Ray / Solid classification produces the “in” and “out” segments of

the ray with respect to the solid.

The combine operation is a three step process:

First, the ray/primitive intersection points from left and right subtrees

are merged , forming a segmented ray.

boolean operator and the classification.

classification.

UNIT

4

Hidden – Line - Surface - Solid removal algorithms –

shading – coloring. Introduction to parametric and

variational geometry based software’s and their

principles creation of prismatic and lofted parts using

these packages.

Shading

Line drawings are limited in their ability to represent complex shapes.

Hence we adopt shaded images.

represented in line drawings.

Shaded images can also convey features other than shape such as

surface finish or material type (plastic or metallic look).

Shading process must take into account the position and color of the

light sources and the position, orientation and surface properties of

the visible objects.

Shading models simulate the way

visible surfaces of objects reflect

light.

of an object in terms of light sources,

surface characteristics, and the

positions and orientations of the

surfaces and sources.

Light source in shading

Point light source and Ambient light.

Objects illuminated with point light sources appear harsh, because

they are illuminated from one direction only.

Ambient light is a light of uniform brightness and is caused by the

multiple reflections of light from many surfaces.

The input to a shading model is intensity and color of light source,

surface characteristics at the point to be shaded, and the positions

and orientations of surfaces and sources.

The output from a shading model is an intensity value at the

point.

Shading models are applicable to points only. To shade an object, a

shading model is applied many times to many points on the object.

Interaction of light with matter

Consider point light sources shining on surface of objects. (Ambient

light adds a constant intensity value to the shade at every point.)

The light reflected off a surface can be divided into two parts- diffuse

& specular.

When light hits an ideal diffuse surface, it is re-radiated equally in all

directions, so that the surface appears to have the same brightness from

all viewing angles.

Ideal specular surfaces re-radiate light in only one direction, the

reflected light direction.

Physically, the difference between these two components is that diffuse

light penetrates the surface of an object and is scattered internally

before emerging again while specular light bounces off the surface.

Real objects contain both diffuse and specular components, and

both must be modeled to create realistic images.

Specular Reflection

Shiny surface appears depend on the directions of the light source and

the viewing eye.

Shading Surfaces

surface.

Relevant points on the surface have the same location in screen

coordinates as the pixels of the raster display.

The important shading algorithms are –

Constant shading,

Gourand shading or first derivative shading and

Phong or second derivative shading.

Constant Shading:

polygon has a single intensity. Constant shading makes the polygonal

representation obvious and produces unsmooth shaded images.

Assumptions are:

The object is modeled using plane polygonal surfaces only.

Gourand Shading:

proposed a technique to eliminate intensity discontinuities caused by

constant shading. The steps involved are:

1.Calculation of surface normals.

2.Calculation of vertex normals.

3.Computation of vertex intensities using the vertex normals.

4.Computation of the shade of each polygon by linear interpolation of vertex

intensities.

Gourand shading takes longer than constant shading and requires more planes

of memory to get the smooth shading for each color.

Surface normal to different polygonal faces

Vertex normal

12 bit of colour output for shading

Phong Shading:

Phong Shading overcomes all the problems

of Gourand Shading, although it requires

more computational time.

normal vectors at the vertices instead of the

shade intensities and to apply the shading

model at each point (pixel).

average normal vector at each vertex.

UNIT

4

Hidden – Line - Surface - Solid removal algorithms –

shading – coloring. Introduction to parametric and

variational geometry based software’s and their

principles creation of prismatic and lofted parts using

these packages.

Coloring

• Display images

wireframe, surface, or solid entities can be assigned different colors to

distinguish them.

Color is one of the two main ingredients (the second one being texture) of

shaded images produced by shading algorithms.

can be used effectively to display contour images such as stress or heat-

flux contours.

Color Properties

Color descriptions and specifications generally include three

properties: Hue, Saturation and Brightness.

Red, Green and Yellow are Hue names.

called the dominant frequency or wavelength or hue of the light.

how diluted the color is by white light.

Pure spectral colors are fully saturated and grays are de-

saturated colors.

color.

Color Models

A color model or a space is a 3D color coordinate system to allow

specifications of colors within some color range.

These models are based on the red, green, and blue (RGB).

For all the models, coordinates are translated into three voltage values in

order to control the display.

• RGB model

• CMY model

• YIQ model

• HSV model

• HSL model

RGB Color Model

Any point (color) in the space is obtained from the three

RGB primaries; that is, the space is additive.

The main diagonal of the cube is the locus of equal amounts

of each primary and therefore represents the gray scale or

levels.

Thus in the RGB model, the lowest intensity (0 for each

color) produces the black color and the maximum

intensity (1 for each color) produces the white color.

RGB Color Model

CMY Model

The CMY (cyan, magenta, yellow) model is the

complimentary of the RGB model.

compliments of the red, green and blue

respectively.

model and the black color is at the point (1,1,1)

which is the opposite of the RGB model. = -

The CMY is considered a subtractive model because the model primary colors

subtract some color from white light.

For example, a red color is obtained by subtracting a cyan color from white light

(instead of adding magenta and yellow).

The unit column vector represents white in the RGB model or black in the

CMY model.

CMY Model

YIQ Model

The YIQ space is used in raster color graphics.

It was designed to be compatible with black and white television broadcasts.

The Y axis of the color model corresponds to the luminance (the total amount of

light).

and the Q axis encodes chrominance information along a yellow-green to magenta

vector.

The conversion from YIQ coordinates to RGB coordinates is defined by the following

equation:

= +

HSV (hue, saturated, value) Model

This color model is user oriented because it is based in what artists use to

produce colors (hue, saturation, and value).

It is contrary to the RGB, CMY and YIQ models which are hardware oriented.

The model approximates the perceptual properties of hue, saturation, and value.

follows:

The hue value H (range from 0⁰ to 360⁰) defines the angle of any point on or

inside the single hexacone.

HSV Model

HSL Model

The HSL (hue, saturation, lightness)

color model forms a double hexacone

space.

and not 1.0 as in the HSV model.

the HSV model.

possible by using the geometry of the

double hexacone as in the HSV model.

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