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CTU TRAINING

Infection Prevention
Objectives
By the end of this session, participants will be able
to:
1. Define infection prevention and explain its
purpose
2. Define the basic infection prevention terms

3. Discuss the disease transmission cycle

4. Describe standard/universal precautions

5. Describe the principles of antisepsis and


disinfection
Objectives

6. Explain the instrument processing procedure

7. Describe the different types of waste and


explain how they are disposed
8. Describe factors that promote a clean working
environment

9. Discuss post-exposure management


Definition

 Infection prevention is a collective effort


made by healthcare providers and clients
to prevent or minimize the risks of
transmitting infections such as Hepatitis B
and HIV or bacteria to clients or to other
healthcare providers.
Key aims of infection prevention are:

 To prevent major post-operative infections when


providing clinical contraceptive methods e.g.,
IUCDs, injectables, implants and male and
female voluntary surgical contraception.
 To prevent the transmission of serious diseases
such as hepatitis B and HIV not only to clients
but also service providers and staff, including
cleaning and housekeeping personnel.
Basic infection prevention terms

 Antiseptic
 Aseptic technique
 Cleaning
 Decontamination
 Disinfectant
 General waste
 Hazardous chemical waste
 Universal precautions
 Sterilization
 Housekeeping, etc.
Universal Precautions
Definition

A simple set of effective practices designed


to protect health workers and patients from
infection with a range of pathogens
including bloodborne viruses. These
practices are used when caring for all
patients regardless of diagnosis.
Universal Precautions

 Wash hands.
 Decontaminate equipment and devices.
 Use and dispose of needles and sharps
safely (avoid recapping, especially two-
handed).
 Wear protective items.
 Promptly clean up blood and body fluid spills.
 Use safe disposal systems for waste
collection and disposal.
Chart 1: Disease Transmission Cycle

Agent
Disease producing
organisms e.g.,
Hepatitis B and HIV

Susceptible Host Reservoir


Person who can become Place where the agent
infected (micro-organism) lives,
e.g., in or on human,
animals, plants, soil

Place of Entry Place of Exit


Where the agent enters Where the agent leaves
the next host (usually the the reservoir
same way as it left the
old host)

Methods Of
Transmission
How the agent travels
from place to place or
host to host

(Adapted from WPR/WHO 1990)


The Infection transmission cycle
Necessary elements to complete the cycle…
 Infectious agent: bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites with ability to
cause infection

 Susceptible host: person, animal, or insect capable of being infected


by agent

 Portal of entry: way an infectious agent enters the host

 Mode of transmission: mechanism an infectious agent uses to move


to a host and survive in the environment

 Portal of exit: way an infectious agent leaves the host

 Reservoir: person, animal, or environment where an infectious agent


can survive and multiply
Steps in the Spread of Disease
To cause an infection, an infectious agent must:

Leave original host


Survive in transit (air, water, surfaces, hands)
Be delivered to a susceptible host
Reach a susceptible part of the host
Escape host defences
Source: Infection Control Systems Inc
Principles of antisepsis and
disinfection
 Aseptic technique - practices performed just
before or during a clinical/surgical procedure to
reduce client’s risk of infection

 Aseptic technique includes: using barriers


(surgical attire), surgical scrub and gloving, client
preparation, maintaining a sterile field, using
good surgical techniques, and creating a safer
surgical procedure area.
Principles of antisepsis and
disinfection
 Disinfection is killing microorganisms on inanimate
objects.
 Disinfectants are used in three ways during
decontamination, during chemical HLD and
sterilization, and during housekeeping.
 High-level disinfectants are used for instruments
processing.
 Low-level disinfectants are used for cleaning
surfaces, such as floors and countertops.
Instrument processing

 Involves:
1. Decontamination- done by
soaking instruments and other items in a
0.5% chlorine soln for 10 minutes
immediately after use.
2.Cleaning

3.HLD/Sterilization
Methods of sterilization

The three methods of sterilization are:

1. Steam sterilization (autoclaving)

2. Dry-heat sterilization (electric oven)

3. Chemical sterilization
Instrument Decontaminate
Processing

Sterilise
Chemical High-Level
Disinfect
High pressure Clean Boil
steam
Steam
Dry heat
Chemical

Dry/Cool and
Store
Types of waste and their disposal

Wastes
 General waste

 Solid medical waste

 Hazardous chemical waste.

Disposal
 Disposal of sharps

 Injection safety.
Handling Needles and Sharps

 Use a puncture-proof
container for storage
and/or disposal.
 Do not recap a needle
before disposal unless
using one-hand
technique.
Factors that promote a clean working
environment

 Good housekeeping practices including laundry

 Control of nosocomial infections

 Good practices in managing blood banks and


transfusion services
 An effective traffic flow pattern.
Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
(PEP)
 Immediate steps post-exposure
 Wash exposed wound or skin with soap and water.
 For needle or sharp injury, allow to bleed for a few seconds
before washing.
 Inform supervisor of type of exposure, and actions taken.
 Assure confidentiality, support, and referral for treatment.
 Short-course of ARV drugs is recommended to
reduce likelihood of infection.
Guidelines for PEP

 It is best to begin PEP within 2–4 hours of


exposure and no later than 72 hours after
exposure.
 If patient is not infected with HIV, discontinue
PEP and retest at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6
months.
 If patient is infected with HIV, counsel,
support, and refer healthcare worker for
continued treatment.
Guidelines for PEP

 It is best to begin PEP within 2–4 hours of


exposure and no later than 72 hours after
exposure.
 If patient is not infected with HIV, discontinue
PEP and retest at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6
months.
 If patient is infected with HIV, counsel,
support, and refer healthcare worker for
continued treatment.
Thank you