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Cognitive Definition of Learning

• A semi-permanent change in mental processes
• How is this different from the behaviorist view?
• What are the potential advantages of defining
learning as a change in mental associations ?
Discussion Questions
• Do you agree with the behaviorist view that
learning can be described simply in terms of
stimulus-response relationships? That learning
only occurs if there is an outward manifestation?
Why or why not?
• What are the potential advantages of defining
learning as a change in behavior?
Cognitivism Basics
• Learning is due to experience.
• Meaning is constructed by the learner, rather than
being derived directly from the environment.
• Prior knowledge and beliefs play a major role in
the meanings that people construct.
The Human Information
Processing Model
A Model of Memory
• Sensory Register
• Working Memory
• Long-Term Memory
– Semantic
– Procedural
– Episodic
Working Memory
• What are some of the classroom implications of
the limitations of working memory?
• Let’s test yours:
Working Memory
• What did you learn?
• How might you help your students?
Long-term Memory Encoding
• Rehearsal
• Meaningful Learning
• Organization
• Elaboration
• Visual Imagery
• Mnemonics (if necessary)
Other things we can do…
• Primacy & Recency Effect
• Practice
– Massed
– Distributed
– Enactment
• What does it mean to learn something to
• What are the advantages and disadvantages?
• Learners’ knowledge and beliefs regarding their
own cognitive processes
• Their attempts to regulate those cognitive
processes to maximize learning and memory
• How can we help them develop a realistic view?
In the Classroom
 Make sure you have the students' attention;
 Help students focus on the most important details
and separate less vital information;
 Help students make connections between new
information and what they already know;
 Provide for repetition and review of information;
 Present material (instruction) in a clear,
organized, way;
 Focus on meaning, not memorization, of