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PENGENALAN ETAP

PT PLN (Persero) PUSDIKLAT

18/11/2014 1
Simple – Inspiring – Performing - Phenomenal
AGENDA
INTRODUCTION TO ETAP

Load Flow Analysis

Short Circuit Analysis

Optiimal Capacitor Placement

18/11/2014 2
TUJUAN PEMBELAJARAN
• Setelah menyelesaikan pokok bahasan peserta
mampu melaksanakan Penggunaan aplikasi
ETAP untuk perencanaan jaringan distribusi
• Durasi : 16 Jam Pelajaran

3
1. Introduction ETAP
Electric Transient Analysis Program
JENIS PROGRAM APLIKASI
PADA SISTEM TENAGA LISTRIK

• PSS/E
• EDSA
• MATLAB
• MATCAD
• ETAP
• DIGSILENT
• Dll.
APA ITU ETAP...?
• ETAP merupakan salah satu jenis program aplikasi
untuk menghitung parameter sistem tenaga listrik
dengan menginputkan data ke dalam program.
• Program ETAP :
– Versi 4.00
– Versi 5.50
– Versi 6.00
– Versi 7.00
– Versi 7.50
– Versi 11.00
– Versi 12.00
MENGAPA ETAP...?
• ETAP sudah banyak digunakan oleh Unit
Operasional ataupun Unit Pendukung untuk
menunjang kegiatan Unit didalam menyajikan
data-data teknis sistem kelistrikan, misalnya
sebagai data pendukung didalam menyusun
Master Plan Sistem Distribusi
• ETAP mempunyai fitur yang lebih lengkap dan
mudah digunakan daripada aplikasi yang
lainnya
KEGUNAAN ETAP
• Load Flow Analysis
• Short Circuit Analysis
• Harmonic Analysis
• Realibility Analysis
• Protection Analysis
• Motor Starting Analysis
• Transient Stabillity Analysis
• Optimal Power Flow
• Optimal Capacitor Placement
• Dll.
LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS
Analysis Aliran Daya bertujuan untuk :
1. Mengetahui Aliran Daya Nyata dan Daya Reaktif di
setiap bus
2. Memeriksa tegangan dan pengaturan tegangan
3. Memeriksa semua peralatan ( transformator dan
saluran distribusi) apakah mampu untuk mengalirkan
daya yang diinginkan
4. Memperoleh kondisi awal (eksisting) untuk
memperoleh studi-studi operasi ekonomis, hubung
singkat, dan perencanaan pengembangan
sistem
PROGRAM APLIKASI ...?
Tampilan Data di ETAP
• Display Options :
– Dapat dipilih data yang ingin ditampilkan pada
gambar sesuai menu yg tersedia.
• Out put Report :
– Dapat ditampilkan semua data perhitungan
program.
– Dapat dipilih data yang diperlukan saja
Manfaat ETAP dalam MPSD
• Sebagai salah satu alat bantu untuk
mempercepat akurasi perhitungan paramater
jaringan secara teknis
• Mempermudah analisa data jaringan
• Mempercepat proses pengambilan keputusan
• Mendukung KKO & KKF
Praktek aplikasi ETAP pada MPSD
• Gambar jaringan distribusi sederhana dengan
1 atau 2 line dan beban
• Gambar jaringan distribusi dengan beberapa
beban trafo distribusi
• Pemasangan Kapasitor
• Pemasangan AVR
• Menambah Jaringan Baru
• Memperbesar penampang jaringan
• Menaikkan / menurunkan tegangan sumber
• Merubah cos phi beban
2. LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

Electric Transient Analysis Program


Power in Balanced 3-Phase
*
S I
Systems 1 LN

S3 3 1
*
3 LL I
Q
Inductive loads have lagging Power Factors.
Capacitive loads have leading Power Factors.

Lagging Power Factor Leading Power Factor Current and Voltage

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 3
Leading & Lagging Power
Factors
ETAP displays lagging Power Factors as positive and leading Power Factors
as negative. The Power Factor is displayed in percent.

Leading Lagging
Power Power
Factor Factor P Q P - jQ P + jQ

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 4
3-Phase Per Unit System
kVA B S 3VI If you have two bases:
IB Then you may calculate the other two
3kV B V 3ZI
by using the relationships enclosed in
SB brackets. The different bases are:
2 I
(kVB) B
3V B •IB (Base Current)
ZB
MVA B ZB
V 2B •ZB (Base Impedance)

SB •VB (Base Voltage)


•SB (Base Power)
Iactual Vactual ETAP selects for LF:
I pu Vpu •100 MVA for SB which is fixed for the
IB VB entire system.
•The kV rating of reference point is
Zactual Sactual used along with the transformer turn
Z pu S pu ratios are applied to determine the
ZB SB base voltage for different parts of the
system.

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 5
Example 1: The diagram shows a simple radial system. ETAP converts the branch
impedance values to the correct base for Load Flow calculations. The LF reports show
the branch impedance values in percent. The transformer turn ratio (N1/N2) is 3.31
and the X/R = 12.14
Transformer Turn Ratio: The transformer turn ratio is
used by ETAP to determine the base voltage for different
parts of the system. Different turn ratios are applied starting
from the utility kV rating.

kV B1 To determine base voltage use:

N1
kV B1 kVB2
2 N2
kV B
Transformer T7: The following equations are used to find
the impedance of transformer T7 in 100 MVA base.

X
Z pu
R x pu
X pu R pu
X X
1 R
R

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 6
0.065(12.14) 0.06478
X pu .06478 R pu .005336
1 12.14) 2
12.14
The transformer impedance must be converted to 100 MVA base and therefore the
following relation must be used, where “n” stands for new and “o” stands for old.

o
n o VB SnB 3.8 00
Z pu pu n 5.33 0 0.06478) 0.1115 1.3538)
VB S oB 3.5 5

%Z 00 pu 1.15 135.38
Impedance Z1: The base voltage is determined by using the transformer turn ratio. The base
impedance for Z1 is determined using the base voltage at Bus5 and the MVA base.

kVutility 13.5 VB2 (4.0695)2


VB .0695 ZB .165608
N1 3.31 MVA 100
N2

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 7
The per-unit value of the impedance may be determined as soon as the base
impedance is known. The per-unit value is multiplied by one hundred to obtain
the percent impedance. This value will be the value displayed on the LF report.

Z actual (0.1 1)
Z pu 0.6038 6.0382)
ZB 0.1656
%Z 00 pu 0.38 603.8
The LF report generated by ETAP displays the following percent impedance values
in 100 MVA base

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 8
Load Flow Analysis

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 9
Load Flow Problem
• Given
- Load Power Consumption at all buses
- Configuration
- Power Production at each generator

• Basic Requirement
- Power Flow in each line and transformer
- Voltage Magnitude and Phase Angle at each bus

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 10
Load Flow Studies
• Determine Steady State Operating Conditions
- Voltage Profile
- Power Flows
- Current Flows
- Power Factors
- Transformer LTC Settings
- Voltage Drops
- Generator’s Mvar Demand (Qmax & Qmin)
- Total Generation & Power Demand
- Steady State Stability Limits
- MW & Mvar Losses
© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 11
Size & Determine System
Equipment & Parameters
• Cable / Feeder Capacity
• Capacitor Size
• Transformer MVA & kV Ratings (Turn Ratios)
• Transformer Impedance & Tap Setting
• Current Limiting Reactor Rating & Imp.
• MCC & Switchgear Current Ratings
• Generator Operating Mode (Isochronous / Droop)
• Generator’s Mvar Demand
• Transmission, Distribution & Utilization kV
© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 12
Optimize Operating
Conditions
• Bus Voltages are Within Acceptable Limits

• Voltages are Within Rated Insulation Limits


of Equipment

• Power & Current Flows Do Not Exceed the


Maximum Ratings

• System MW & Mvar Losses are Determined

• Circulating Mvar Flows are Eliminated


© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 13
Calculation Process
• Non-Linear System
• Calculated Iteratively
- Assume the Load
Voltage (Initial Conditions)
- Calculate the Current I Assume VR
Calc: I = Sload / VR
- Based on the Current, Calc: Vd = I * Z
Calculate Voltage Drop Vd Re-Calc VR = Vs - Vd

- Re-Calculate Load Voltage VR


- Re-use Load Voltage as initial condition until the
results are within the specified precision.
© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 14
Load Flow Calculation
Methods

1. Accelerated Gauss-Seidel Method


• Low Requirements on initial values,
but slow in speed.
3. Fast-Decoupled Method
• Two sets of iteration equations: real
power - voltage angle,
2. Newton-Raphson Method reactive power - voltage magnitude.

• Fast in speed, but high requirement on • Fast in speed, but low in solution
initial values. precision.

• First order derivative is used to speed up • Better for radial systems and
calculation. systems with long lines.

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 15
Load Nameplate Data

kWRated HP 0.7457 kVA (kW)2 kVar) 2


kVA Rated
PF ff PF ff kW
kVA PF
FLA 3 Rated kVA
3 V kVA
I3 000
kVARated ( 3 V)
FLA 1
kV kVA
Where PF and Efficiency are taken at 100 %
I1 000
kV
loading conditions

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 16
Constant Power Loads
• In Load Flow calculations induction,
synchronous and lump loads are treated
as constant power loads.
• The power output remains constant even
if the input voltage changes (constant
kVA).
• The lump load power output behaves like
a constant power load for the specified %
motor load.

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 17
Constant Impedance Loads
• In Load Flow calculations Static Loads, Lump Loads
(% static), Capacitors and Harmonic Filters and Motor
Operated Valves are treated as Constant Impedance
Loads.
• The Input Power increases proportionally to the
square of the Input Voltage.
• In Load Flow Harmonic Filters may be used as
capacitive loads for Power Factor Correction.
• MOVs are modeled as constant impedance loads
because of their operating characteristics.

© 1996-2008 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 18
Constant Current Loads
• The current remains constant even if the
voltage changes.
• DC Constant current loads are used to test
Battery discharge capacity.
• AC constant current loads may be used to test
UPS systems performance.
• DC Constant Current Loads may be defined in
ETAP by defining Load Duty Cycles used for
Battery Sizing & Discharge purposes.

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 19
Constant Current Loads

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 20
Generic Loads

Exponential Load
Polynomial Load
Comprehensive
Load

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 21
Generator Operation Modes

Feedback Voltage
•AVR: Automatic Voltage
Regulation
•Fixed: Fixed Excitation
(no AVR action)

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 22
Governor Operating Modes
• Isochronous: This governor setting allows the
generator’s power output to be adjusted based on
the system demand.
• Droop: This governor setting allows the generator
to be Base Loaded, meaning that the MW output is
fixed.

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 23
Isochronous Mode

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 24
Droop Mode

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 25
Droop Mode

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 26
Droop Mode

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 27
Adjusting Steam Flow

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 28
Adjusting Excitation

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 29
In ETAP Generators and Power Grids have four operating
modes that are used in Load Flow calculations.

Swing Mode
•Governor is operating in
Isochronous mode
•Automatic Voltage Regulator

Voltage Control
•Governor is operating in
Droop Mode
•Automatic Voltage Regulator

Mvar Control
•Governor is operating in
Droop Mode
•Fixed Field Excitation (no AVR
action)

PF Control
•Governor is operating in
Droop Mode
•AVR Adjusts to Power Factor
Setting
© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 30
• In the Swing Mode, the voltage is kept fixed. P & Q can vary
based on the Power Demand
• In the Voltage Control Mode, P & V are kept fixed while Q &
are varied

• In the Mvar Control Mode, P and Q are kept fixed while V &
are varied

• If in Voltage Control Mode, the limits of P & Q are reached, the


model is changed to a Load Model (P & Q are kept fixed)

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 31
Generator Capability Curve

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 32
Generator Capability Curve

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 33
Generator Capability Curve

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 34
Maximum & Minimum
Reactive Power
Machine Rating (Power Factor Point)

Field Winding Heating Limit

Steady State Stability Curve

Armature Winding Heating Limit

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 35
Generator Capability Curve

Field Winding
Machine Rating
Heating Limit
(Power Factor
Point)

Steady State Stability Curve

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 36
Generation Categories
Generator/Power Grid Rating Page

Load Flow Loading Page

10 Different Generation
Categories for Every
Generator or Power Grid
in the System

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 37
Power Flow

V1 V1
V2 V2

S *I Q
V1*V2 V1*V2 V2 2
*SIN( ) *COS( )
X X X
V1*V 2
P *SIN( )
X
V1*V2 V2 2
Q *COS( )
X X

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 38
Example: Two voltage sources designated as V1 and V2 are
connected as shown. If V1= 100 /0 , V2 = 100 /30 and X = 0 +j5
determine the power flow in the system.

V1 2 100 0 86.6 50)


I
X j5
I 0 2.68
I

V1 I * 00( 0 2.68) 000 268


*
V2 I 86.6 50) ( 0 2.68) 000 268

|I|2 X 0.35 2 36 var

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 39
The following graph shows the power flow from Machine M2. This
machine behaves as a generator supplying real power and
absorbing reactive power from machine M1.

1 1
Power Flow S

(VE) 0
in
X

(VE) V2
cos
X X

2
0
Real Power Flow
Reactive Power Flow

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 40
Bus Voltage
ETAP displays bus voltage values in two ways
•kV value
•Percent of Nominal Bus kV

For Bus4:
kVCalculated 3.5 kVNo min al 3.8
kV Calculated
V% 00 7.83%
kV No min al
For Bus5:
kVCalculated .03 kVNo min al .16
kV Calculated
V% 00 6.85%
kV No min al

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 41
© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 42
Lump Load Negative
Loading

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 43
Load Flow Adjustments
• Transformer Impedance
- Adjust transformer impedance based on possible length variation
tolerance
• Reactor Impedance
- Adjust reactor impedance based on specified tolerance

• Overload Heater
- Adjust Overload Heater resistance based on specified tolerance
• Transmission Line Length
- Adjust Transmission Line Impedance based on possible length
variation tolerance
• Cable Length
- Adjust Cable Impedance based on possible length variation tolerance

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 44
Load Flow Study Case
Adjustment Page
Adjustments applied
•Individual
•Global

Temperature Correction
• Cable Resistance
• Transmission Line
Resistance

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 45
Allowable Voltage Drop
NEC and ANSI C84.1

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 46
Load Flow Example 1
Part 1

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis


Slide 47
Load Flow Example 1
Part 2

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 48
Load Flow Alerts

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 49
Equipment Overload Alerts

Bus Alerts Monitor Continuous Amps


Cable Monitor Continuous Amps
Reactor Monitor Continuous Amps
Line Monitor Line Ampacity
Transformer Monitor Maximum MVA Output
UPS/Panel Monitor Panel Continuous Amps
Generator Monitor Generator Rated MW

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 50
Protective Device Alerts

Protective Devices Monitored parameters % Condition reported

Low Voltage Circuit Breaker Continuous rated Current OverLoad


High Voltage Circuit Breaker Continuous rated Current OverLoad
Fuses Rated Current OverLoad
Contactors Continuous rated Current OverLoad
SPDT / SPST switches Continuous rated Current OverLoad

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 51
If the Auto Display
feature is active, the
Alert View Window will
appear as soon as the
Load Flow calculation
has finished.

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 52
Advanced LF Topics
Load Flow Convergence

Voltage Control

Mvar Control

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 53
Load Flow Convergence
• Negative Impedance

• Zero or Very Small Impedance

• Widely Different Branch Impedance Values

• Long Radial System Configurations

• Bad Bus Voltage Initial Values

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 54
Voltage Control
• Under/Over Voltage Conditions must be
fixed for proper equipment operation and
insulation ratings be met.

• Methods of Improving Voltage Conditions:


- Transformer Replacement
- Capacitor Addition
- Transformer Tap Adjustment

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 55
Under-Voltage Example
• Create Under Voltage • Method 2 - Shunt
Condition Capacitor
- Change Syn2 Quantity to 6. - Add Shunt Capacitor to Bus8
(Info Page, Quantity Field) - 300 kvar 3 Banks
- Run LF - Voltage is improved
- Bus8 Turns Magenta (Under • Method 3 - Change Tap
Voltage Condition) - Place LTC on Primary of T6
• Method 1 - Change Xfmr - Select Bus8 for Control Bus
- Change T4 from 3 MVA to 8 - Select Update LTC in the
MVA, will notice slight Study Case
improvement on the Bus8 kV - Run LF
- Too Expensive and time - Bus Voltage Comes within
consuming specified limits

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 56
Mvar Control
• Vars from Utility • Method 2 - Add Capacitor
- Add Switch to CAP1 - Close Switch
- Open Switch - Run Load Flow
- Run LF - Var Contribution from the
Utility reduces
• Method 1 - Generator
- Change Generator from • Method 3 - Xfmr MVA
Voltage Control to Mvar
Control - Change T1 Mva to 40 MVA
- Set Mvar Design Setting to 5 - Will notice decrease in the
Mvars contribution from the Utility

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 57
Panel Systems

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 58
Panel Boards
•They are a collection of branch circuits
feeding system loads
•Panel System is used for representing power
and lighting panels in electrical systems

Click to drop once on OLV


Double-Click to drop multiple panels

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 59
Representation
A panel branch circuit load can be modeled as
an internal or external load

Advantages:
1. Easier Data Entry
2. Concise System
Representation

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 60
Pin Assignment
Pin 0 is the top pin of the panel
ETAP allows up to 24 external load connections

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 61
Assumptions
• Vrated (internal load) = Vrated (Panel Voltage)
• Note that if a 1-Phase load is connected to a 3-
Phase panel circuit, the rated voltage of the panel
circuit is (1/√3) times the rated panel voltage
• The voltage of L1 or L2 phase in a 1-Phase 3-Wire
panel is (1/2) times the rated voltage of the panel
• There are no losses in the feeders connecting a
load to the panel
•Static loads are calculated based on their rated
voltage
© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 62
Line-Line Connections
Load Connected Between Two Phases of a
3-Phase System
A A
B B
C C

IBC IB = IBC IC = -IBC

Load
LoadB
Angle by which load current IBC lags the load voltage = θ

Therefore, for load connected between phases B and C: For load connected to phase B

SBC = VBC.IBC SB = VB.IB


PBC = VBC.IBC.cos θ PB = VB.IB.cos (θ - 30)
QBC = VBC.IBC.sin θ QB = VB.IB.sin (θ - 30)

And, for load connected to phase C

SC = VC.IC
PC = VC.IC.cos (θ + 30)
QC = VC.IC.sin (θ + 30)

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 63
Info Page

NEC Selection
A, B, C from top to bottom or
left to right from the front of
the panel

Phase B shall be the highest


voltage (LG) on a 3-phase, 4-
wire delta connected system
(midpoint grounded)

3-Phase 4-Wire Panel


3-Phase 3-Wire Panel
1-Phase 3-Wire Panel
1-Phase 2-Wire Panel

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 64
Rating Page

Intelligent kV Calculation
If a 1-Phase panel is connected to a 3-Phase bus
having a nominal voltage equal to 0.48 kV, the
default rated kV of the panel is set to (0.48/1.732
=) 0.277 kV

For IEC, Enclosure Type


is Ingress Protection
(IPxy), where IP00 means
no protection or shielding
on the panel

Select ANSI or IEC


Breakers or Fuses from
Main Device Library

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 65
Schedule Page

Circuit Numbers with


Standard Layout

Circuit Numbers with


Column Layout

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 66
Description Tab
First 14 load items in the list are based on NEC 1999
Last 10 load types in the Panel Code Factor Table are user-defined
Load Type is used to determine the Code Factors used in calculating the total
panel load
External loads are classified as motor load or static load according to the
element type
For External links the load status is determined from the connected load’s
demand factor status

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 67
Rating Tab

Enter per phase VA, W, or


Amperes for this load.

For example, if total Watts


for a 3-phase load are
1200, enter W as 400
(=1200/3)

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 68
Loading Tab

For internal loads, enter the % loading for the selected loading category

For both internal and external loads, Amp values are


calculated based on terminal bus nominal kV

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 69
Protective Device Tab

Library Quick Pick -


LV Circuit Breaker
(Molded Case, with
Thermal Magnetic Trip
Device) or

Library Quick Pick -


Fuse will appear
depending on the
Type of protective
device selected.

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 70
Feeder Tab

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 71
Action Buttons
Copy the content of the selected
row to clipboard. Circuit number,
Phase, Pole, Load Name, Link
and State are not copied.

Paste the entire content (of the


copied row) in the selected row.
This will work when the Link
Type is other than space or
unusable, and only for fields
which are not blocked.

Blank out the contents of the entire


selected row.

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 72
Summary Page

Continuous Load - Per Phase and Total

Non-Continuous Load - Per Phase and Total

Connected Load - Per Phase and Total (Continuous + Non-Continuous Load)

Code Demand - Per Phase and Total

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 73
Output Report

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 74
Panel Code Factors

The first fourteen have fixed formats per NEC 1999

Code demand load depends on Panel Code Factors

Code demand load calculation for internal loads are done


for each types of load separately and then summed up

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 75
3. SHORT CIRCUIT
ANALYSIS
Electric Transient Analysis Program
Purpose of Short-Circuit
Studies
• A Short-Circuit Study can be used to determine
any or all of the following:
- Verify protective device close and latch capability

- Verify protective device interrupting capability

- Protect equipment from large mechanical forces


(maximum fault kA)

- I2t protection for equipment (thermal stress)

- Selecting ratings or settings for relay coordination

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 2


Types of Short-Circuit Faults

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 3


Types of Short-Circuit Faults
Types of SC Faults
•Three-Phase Ungrounded Fault
•Three-Phase Grounded Fault
•Phase to Phase Ungrounded Fault
•Phase to Phase Grounded Fault
•Phase to Ground Fault

Fault Current
•IL-G can range in utility systems from a few percent to
possibly 115 % ( if Xo < X1 ) of I3-phase (85% of all
faults).
•In industrial systems the situation IL-G > I3-phase is rare.
Typically IL-G .87 * I3-phase
•In an industrial system, the three-phase fault condition
is frequently the only one considered, since this type of
fault generally results in Maximum current.
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 4
Short-Circuit Phenomenon

v(t) i(t)
v(t) m in( )

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 5


v(t)
i(t)

di
v(t) Ri Vm in( (1)
dt
Solving equation 1 yields the following expression
R
Vm Vm -
L
t
i(t) in( - in( -
Z Z
 
Steady State Transient
(DC Off set)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 6


AC Current (Symmetrical) with
No AC Decay

DC Current

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 7


AC Fault Current Including the
DC Offset (No AC Decay)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 8


Machine Reactance ( λ = L I )

AC Decay Current

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 9


Fault Current Including AC & DC Decay

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 10


IEC Short-Circuit
Calculation (IEC 909)
• Initial Symmetrical Short-Circuit Current (I"k)

• Peak Short-Circuit Current (ip)

• Symmetrical Short-Circuit Breaking Current


(Ib)

• Steady-State Short-Circuit Current (Ik)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 11


IEC Short-Circuit
Calculation Method
• Ik” = Equivalent V @ fault location divided by
equivalent Z

•Equivalent V is based bus nominal kV and c


factor

•XFMR and machine Z adjusted based on


cmax, component Z & operating conditions

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 12


Transformer Z Adjustment
• KT -- Network XFMR

•KS,KSO - Unit XFMR for faults on system


side

•KT,S,KT,SO - Unit XFMR for faults in auxiliary


system, not between Gen & XFMR

•K=1 - Unit XFMR for faults between Gen &


XFMR
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 13
Syn Machine Z Adjustment
• KG - Synchronous machine w/o unit XFMR

•KS,KSO - With unit XFMR for faults on


system side

• KG,S,KG,SO - With unit XFMR for faults in


auxiliary system, including points between
Gen & XFMR

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 14


Types of Short-Circuits

• Near-To-Generator Short-Circuit
- This is a short-circuit condition to which at least
one synchronous machine contributes a
prospective initial short-circuit current which is
more than twice the generator’s rated current, or
a short-circuit condition to which synchronous
and asynchronous motors contribute more than
5% of the initial symmetrical short-circuit current
( I"k) without motors.
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 15
Near-To-Generator Short-Circu

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 16


Types of Short-Circuits

• Far-From-Generator Short-Circuit
- This is a short-circuit condition during which the
magnitude of the symmetrical ac component of
available short-circuit current remains essentially
constant.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 17


Far-From-Generator Short-Cir

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 18


Factors Used in If Calc
• κ-calc ip based on Ik”

• μ-calc ib for near-to-gen & not meshed network

•q-calc induction machine ib for near-to-gen & not


meshed network

• Equation (75) of Std 60909-0, adjusting Ik for


near-to-gen & meshed network

• λmin & λmax - calc ik

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 19


IEC Short-Circuit Study Case

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 20


Types of Short-Circuits

When these options


are selected
• Maximum voltage factor is used
•Minimum impedance is used (all negative
tolerances are applied and minimum
resistance temperature is considered)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 21


Types of Short-Circuits

When this option is


selected
• Minimum voltage factor is used
•Maximum impedance is used (all positive
tolerances are applied and maximum
resistance temperature is considered)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 22


Voltage Factor (c)
• Ratio between equivalent voltage &
nominal voltage

• Required to account for:

• Variations due to time & place

• Transformer taps

• Static loads & capacitances

• Generator & motor subtransient behavior


©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 23
Calculation Method

• Breaking kA is more
conservative if the option
No Motor Decay is
selected

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 24


IEC SC 909 Calculation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 25


Device Duty Comparison

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 26


Mesh & Non-Mesh If
• ETAP automatically determines mesh & non-
meshed contributions according to individual
contributions

•IEC Short Circuit Mesh Determination


Method - 0, 1, or 2 (default)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 27


L-G Faults

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 28


L-G Faults
Symmetrical Components

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 29


Sequence Networks

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 30


L-G Fault Sequence
Network Connections

If a0

If 3 Prefault
Z1 2 0

if Zg

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 31


L-L Fault Sequence Network
Connections

Ia 2
1

If 3 Prefault
Z1 2

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 32


L-L-G Fault Sequence
Network Connections

Ia 2 a a0 a
1

If V Prefault
Z0Z 2
Z1
Z0 2
if Z g

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 33


Transformer Zero Sequence Connections

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 34


Solid Grounded Devices
and L-G Faults
Generally a 3 - phase fault is the
most severe case. L - G faults can be
greater if :
Z1 Z2 & Z0 Z1
If this conditions are true then :
I f3 If1
This may be the case if Generators or
Y/ onnected transform er are solidly
grounded.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 35


Zero Sequence Model
• Branch susceptances and static
loads including capacitors will be
considered when this option is
checked
• Recommended by IEC for
systems with isolated neutral,
resonant earthed neutrals &
earthed neutrals with earth fault
factor > 1.4

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 36


Unbalanced Faults Display
& Reports
Complete reports that include individual
branch contributions for:
•L-G Faults
•L-L-G Faults
•L-L Faults

One-line diagram displayed results that


include:
•L-G/L-L-G/L-L fault current
contributions
•Sequence voltage and currents
•Phase Voltages
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 37
Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
Total Fault Current Waveform

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 38


Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
Percent DC Current Waveform

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 39


Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
AC Component of Fault Current Waveform

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 40


Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
Top Envelope of Fault Current Waveform

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 41


Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
Top Envelope of Fault Current Waveform

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 42


IEC Transient Fault Current
Calculation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 43


Unbalanced Faults Display
& Reports
Complete reports that include individual
branch contributions for:
•L-G Faults
•L-L-G Faults
•L-L Faults

One-line diagram displayed results that


include:
•L-G/L-L-G/L-L fault current
contributions
•Sequence voltage and currents
•Phase Voltages

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 44


©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 45
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 46
4. OPTIMAL CAPACITOR
PLACEMENT
Electric Transient Analysis Program
Problem of Var Flow in
Power Systems
• Loads and delivery apparatus (e.g., lines
and transformers) are inductive in nature
• Most power systems operate at a lagging
power factor
• Resulting system capacity reduced, system
loss increased and system voltage
decreased

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement Slide 2
Purposes of Shunt
Capacitor Applications
• Var support - Primary benefit for
transmission systems and secondary benefit
for distribution systems
• Voltage control - Primary benefit for both
transmission and distribution systems
• System capacity increase - Secondary
benefit for transmission systems and primary
benefit for distribution systems

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement Slide 3
Purposes of Shunt
Capacitor Applications
• System power loss reduction - Secondary
benefit for transmission systems and primary
benefit for distribution systems
• Billing charge reduction - Not applied to
transmission systems but a primary benefit
for distribution systems

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement Slide 4
General Process for Placing
Shunt Capacitors
• Determine bank size in kvar
• Determine connection location
• Determine a control method
• Determine a connection type (wye or delta)

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement Slide 5
General Methods for
Capacitor Placement
• Rules of Thumb

• Power Flow
Based

• Optimal

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement Slide 6
Optimal Capacitor
Placement in ETAP
• Genetic Algorithm - Use Genetic method to
find optimal (sub optimal) solution
•Expert System Initialization- Use power
system knowledge to find a good initial
solution

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement Slide 7
Genetic Algorithm

•An optimization technique based on the


theory of nature selection
• An iterative procedure that maintains a
constant-size population of candidate
solutions
• Coding, initialization, fitness evaluation,
selection, crossover, mutation

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement Slide 8
ETAP OCP Capabilities

• Find capacitor’s best location and bank size


• Minimize the total cost of installation and operation
• Handle radial or meshed balanced networks (PS
5.0)
• User selectable capacitor placement purpose
• Global or individual constraints

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement Slide 9
ETAP OCP Capabilities

• Analysis capacitor control method and


review capacitor impact on the system with
load duration setting
• Speed and precision ratio control by users
• Determine available capacitor installation
locations by users

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement Slide 10
ETAP OCP Capabilities

• Determine maximum capacitor size using


maximum load and determine switchblade
capacitor size using minimum load
• Use average or source energy cost
•Focus on saving during the whole planning
period

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement Slide 11
Display Results

• LF results for maximum loads


• New capacitor locations and sizes

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement Slide 12
Plot Results

• Loss reduction savings during the planning


period
• Capacitor operation cost during the planning
period
• Profit during the planning period

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement Slide 13
Report Results

• Load Flow related reports


• Capacitor locations and sizes
• Load flow results for maximum, average and
minimum loads
• Branch capacity release

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement Slide 14
Example

• Run NR Load Flow and look at bus voltages


(critical under voltage is set to 95% and
marginal under voltage is set to 98%)
• Switch to OCP mode and look at the study
case settings
•Run OCP and look at the voltage
improvements

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement Slide 15
SIMPLE
INSPIRING
PERFORMING
PHENOMENAL

TERIMA KASIH
18/11/2014 149