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The Human Brain:

Anatomy,
Functions,
Main Menu

• Brain Anatomy
• Brain Functions
• Injury Mechanisms
Skull Anatomy
The skull is a rounded layer
of bone designed to protect
the brain from penetrating
injuries.

Blood Vessels of the Skull


Rough Interior of Skull
Interior Skull Surface
The base of the skull is rough,
with many bony protuberances.
These ridges can result in injury
to the temporal lobe of the brain
during rapid acceleration.

Injury from contact


with skull
Blood Vessels of the Skull
The brain requires a rich blood
supply, and the space between
the skull and cerebrum contains
many blood vessels.
These blood vessels can be
ruptured during trauma,
resulting in bleeding.

Groove for middle


meningeal artery
Arteries of the Brain
The human
brain requires a
constant supply
of oxygen. A lack
of oxygen of just
a few minutes
results in
irreversible
damage to the
brain.
The Neuron
Dendrit : menerima pesan
dari luar

Axon : meneruskan pesan


keluar.

Synapse: hubungan axon


dengan dendrit

Tempat synapse disebut


ganglion.
The meninges are layers of tissue that
The Meninges separate the skull and the brain.

Meninges
• membranes
surrounding CNS
• protect CNS
• three layers
• dura mater –
outer, tough
• arachnoid
mater - weblike
• pia mater –
inner, delicate

11-2
The Brain/Enchepalon

• 4 Parts
– Cerebrum
– Diencephalon
– Brain Stem
• Pons
• Medulla
• Midbrain
– Cerebellum
• Gray matter surrounded by White matter

pg 348
The Cerebrum
Terdiri dari 2 hemisphere yang dipisahkan falx cerebri.
Mengisi hampir seluruh cavum cranii diatas tenrorium cerebelli.
Pada permukaannnya terdapat sulcus dan gyrus.
Permukaan terdiri dari gyrus dan sulcus

The largest portion of the


brain is the cerebrum. It
consists of two hemispheres
that are connected together
at the corpus callosum.
The cerebrum is often divided
into five lobes that are
responsible for different brain
functions.
The Neocortex
Cerebral Cortex – thin layer of gray matter that constitutes the outermost portion
of cerebrum; contains 75% of all neurons in nervous system
• Primary Motor Areas
• frontal lobes
• control voluntary
muscles
• Broca’s Area
• anterior to primary motor
cortex
• usually in one hemisphere
• controls muscles needed
for speech

• Frontal Eye Field


• above Broca’s area
• controls voluntary
movements of eyes and
eyelids

11-22
11-23
Lobes of the Cerebrum Limbic Lobe

Frontal Lobe

Parietal Lobe

Occipital Lobe
Temporal Lobe
Frontal Lobe
The frontal lobe is the
area of the brain
responsible for higher
cognitive functions.
These include:
• Problem solving
• Spontaneity
• Memory
• Language
• Motivation
• Judgment
• Impulse control
• Social and sexual
behavior.
Temporal Lobe Auditory Area

The temporal lobe plays a


role in emotions, and is
also responsible for
smelling, tasting,
perception, memory,
understanding music,
aggressiveness, and
sexual behavior.
The temporal lobe also
contains the language
area of the brain.
•Cutaneous Sensory Area
Parietal Lobe
The parietal lobe plays a
role in our sensations of
touch, smell, and taste. It
also processes sensory
and spatial awareness,
and is a key component
in eye-hand co-ordination
and arm movement.
The parietal lobe also
contains a specialized
area called Wernicke’s
area that is responsible
for matching written
words with the sound of
spoken speech.
Occipital Lobe Visual Area

The occipital lobe is at


the rear of the brain
and controls vision
and recognition.
Limbic Lobe
The limbic lobe is
located deep in the
brain, and makes up
the limbic system.
• Adalah kumpulan sejumlah nucleus
dan tractus diantara cerebrum dan
The Limbic System
diencephalonl
• System ini lebih merupakan
kumpulan fungsional daripada
kumpulan anatomis.
• Fungsi:
• Mengendalikan dorongan emosi dan
perilaku.
• Menghubungkan fungsi kesadaran
dan intelektual cortex dengan bagian
bawah sadar dan pusat otonom
• Mengatur penyimpanan memory.

A. Cingulate gyrus
B. Fornix
C. Anterior thalamic
nuclei
D. Hypothalamus The limbic system is the
E. Amygdaloid nucleus area of the brain that
F. Hippocampus regulates emotion and
memory. It directly
connects the lower and
higher brain functions.
The cerebellum is connected to the
Cerebellum brainstem, and is the center for
body movement and balance.

• inferior to occipital lobes


• posterior to pons and medulla
oblongata
• two hemispheres
• vermis connects hemispheres
• cerebellar cortex – gray matter
• arbor vitae – white matter
• cerebellar peduncles – nerve fiber
tracts
• dentate nucleus – largest nucleus Click image to play or pause video

in cerebellum
• integrates sensory information
concerning position of body parts
• coordinates skeletal muscle
activity
• maintains posture

11-41
Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus sits under the thalamus at
the top of the brainstem. Although the
hypothalamus is small, it controls many critical
bodily functions:
• Controls autonomic nervous system
• Center for emotional response and behavior
• Regulates body temperature
• Regulates food intake
• Regulates water balance and thirst
The hypothalamus is
• Controls sleep-wake cycles shaded blue. The pituitary
• Controls endocrine system gland extends from the
hypothalamus.
The Medulla Oblongata
The medulla oblongata merges
seamlessly with the spinal cord and
creates the base of the brainstem.
The medulla is primarily a control
center for vital involuntary reflexes
such as swallowing, vomiting,
sneezing, coughing, and regulation of
cardiovascular and respiratory activity.
The medulla is also the origin of many
cranial nerves.

Bagian paling caudal dari brain stem.


Menghubungkan brainstem dengan medulla spinalis.
Tempat nucleus yang mengatur fungsi autonom ( heart
rate, tekanan darah aktivitas saluran cerna.)
The Pons
The pons is the rounded
brainstem region between the
midbrain and the medulla
oblongata. In fact, pons means
“bridge” in Latin.
The main function of the pons is
to connect the cerebellum to the
rest of the brain and to modify the
respiratory output of the medulla.
The pons is the origin of several
cranial nerves.
The Ventricles
The ventricles are a complex
series of spaces and tunnels
through the center of the brain.
The ventricles secrete
cerebrospinal fluid, which
suspends the brain in the skull.
The ventricles also provide a
route for chemical messengers
that are widely distributed through
the central nervous system.
Click image to play or pause video
Cerebrospinal Fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid is a
colorless liquid that bathes the
brain and spine.
It is formed within the
ventricles of the brain, and it
circulates throughout the
central nervous system.
Cerebrospinal fluid fills the
ventricles and meninges,
allowing the brain to “float”
within the skull.
The Brainstem
The brainstem is the most
primitive part of the brain and
controls the basic functions of
life: breathing, heart rate,
swallowing, reflexes to sight or
sound, sweating, blood
pressure, sleep, and balance.
The brainstem can be divided Click image to play or pause video

into three major sections.


Detailed brainstem anatomy.
Brainstem Components

Front

More Information: Rear


Medulla
Thalamus
Pons
The Cranial Nerves
I. Olfactory nerve
II. Optic nerve
III. Oculomotor nerve
IV. Trochlear nerve
V. Trigeminal nerve
VI. Abducens nerve
VII. Facial nerve
VIII. Vestibulocochlear nerve
IX. Glossopharyngeal nerve
X. Vagus nerve
XI. Accessory nerve
XII. Hypoglossal nerve
NERVUS CRANIALIS
The Cranial Nerves & PNS Terminology

• Ganglia – neuron
cell bodies
• Peripheral nerves
– neuronal axons
• PNS neuroglia
– Satellite cells
• Enclose neuron
cell bodies in
ganglia
– Schwann cells
• Cover peripheral
axons
Neural Communication

 Biological Psychology
 branch of psychology concerned with the links
between biology and behavior
 some biological psychologists call themselves
behavioral neuroscientists,
neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists,
physiological psychologists, or
biopsychologists
 Neuron
 a nerve cell
 the basic building block of the nervous system
Neural Communication
 Dendrite
 the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that
receive messages and conduct impulses toward the
cell body
 Axon
 the extension of a neuron, ending in branching
terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to
other neurons or to muscles or glands
 Myelin Sheath
 a layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the fibers of
many neurons
 enables vastly greater transmission speed of neutral
impulses
Neural Communication
Neural Communication
 Synapse [SIN-aps]
 junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and
the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
 tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft
 Neurotransmitters
 chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps
between neurons
 when released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters
travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on
the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether it will
generate a neural impulse
Neural Communication
Neural Communication
Components of
the Nervous
System

Central Nervous System


brain, spinal cord

Peripheral NS
Sensory - input
afferent (approach)

Motor - output
efferent (exit)

Figure 11.1
Differences between Somatic and Autonomic NS
Sympathetic – “fight-or- Autonomic Nervous System
flight”
“E” division =
exercise, excitement,
emergency, and
embarrassment 
Parasympathetic –
housekeeping activites
Conserves energy
necessary body functions
“D” division - digestion,
defecation, and diuresis

Figure 7.25
Nervous System Organization
• By development
– Innate, acquired
Classification of
• Where information is processed
– Spinal, cranial Reflexes
• Motor response
– Somatic, visceral
• Complexity of neural circuit
– Monosynaptic
Reflex arc
•Neural “wiring” of reflex
•Requires 5 functional components: 1. sensory receptor, 2. sensory neuron, 3. integrating
center (SC or BS), 4. motor neuron, & 5. effector
Design of the Nervous System
Organ Sympathis Parasympathis
Pupil Dilatasi/Midriasis Konstriksi/Miosis

Cor Tachycardia Bradycardia


Bronchus Bronchodilatasi Bronchokonstriksi

Pemb. darah Vasokonstriksi Vasodilatasi

Kelenjar Hipersekresi Hiposekresi

M. Erector pili Kontr  bulu roma Relaksasi

Dinding usus • Relaks  peristaltik < • Konst  peristaltik >


• Kontr.sphincter  defekasi - • Rel.sphincter  defekasi +

Vesica urinaria Relaks.detrusor / kontraksi Kontr. Detrusor / relaksasi


sphincter  Mictie - sphincter  mictie +
Genital Vasokonst  c.cavernosus --  Vasodil  c.cavern ++ 
vena terbuka  Ereksi - vena tertutup  Ereksi +
Benarkah Neil Amstrong adalah
manusia pertama yang menginjakkan
kakinya di bulan dengan selamet ?
Baru Baru ini telah terungkap fakta
yang mengejutkan tentang keaslian foto
di NASA Inilah bukti barunya ....

Inilah yang dunia lihat tentang


foto tersebut
Tetapi sadarkah anda ada bayangan yang tertutup
dalam foto tersebut ?????????... ....

Sekarang mari kita lihat foto


sebenarnya..... ......... .....!!!! !