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Patrick Barlow and Tiffany Smith presentation on common statistical tools for research.

Patrick Barlow and Tiffany Smith presentation on common statistical tools for research.

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Descriptive Statistics

Parametric Statistics

Non-Parametric Statistics

Null Hypothesis

Alternative Hypothesis

Mean

Standard Deviation

Correlation

Confidence Interval

Fit the statistics to the research question, not the

other way around!

First, ask yourself, “Am I interested in….

Describing a sample or outcome?”

Looking at how groups differ?”

Looking at how outcomes are related?”

Looking at changes over time?”

Creating a new scale orinstrument?

Assessing reliability and/or validity of an instrument?

Second, “How am I measuring my outcomes?”

Descriptive Statistics

Parametric Statistics

Common tests of relationships

Pearson r

Linear/multiple regression

Common tests of group differences

Independent t-test

Between subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA)

Common tests of repeatedmeasures

Dependent t-test

Within subjects ANOVA

Tests of categorical data

Odds Ratio / Chi Square

Logistic Regression

Common Psychometric tests

Cronbach’s Alpha

Principal Components and Factor Analysis

Numbers used to describe the sample

They do not actually test any hypotheses (or yield any

p-values)

Types:

Measures of Center -

Mean

Median

Mode

Measures of Spread -

Quartiles

Standard Deviation

Range

Variance

Frequencies

Most powerful type of statistics we use

Researchers must make sure their data meets a

number of assumptions (or parameters) before

these tests can be used properly.

Some keyassumptions

Normality

Independence of observations

In research, you always want to use parametric

statistics if possible.

Pearson r correlation

Linear/Multiple Regression

What is it?

A statistical analysis that tests the relationship

between two continuous variables.

Commonly Associated Terms:

Bivariate correlation, relationship, r-value, scatterplot,

association, direction, magnitude.

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.50 Rre≈≈lat|i..o01n0s|hip:

r ≈ |.30|

10

Each has a Pearson

Correlation of r=.82, is & is

statistically

significant

11

Anscombe, F.J., Graphs in Statistical Analysis, American Statistican, 27,17-21

What you read:

Study found a relationship between GPA and sense of

belonging, r=.35, p = .03.

What to interpret:

Results show r = .35, p = .03, R2=.12

How to interpret:

There is a weak, significant positive relationship

between college GPA and students’ sense of

belonging to the university. As sense of belonging

increases, GPA also increases.

What is it?

A statistical analysis that tests the relationship

between multiple predictor variables and one

continuous outcome variable.

Predictors: Any number of continuous or

dichotomous variables, e.g. age, anxiety, SES

Outcome: 1 Continuous variable, e.g. ER visits per

Month

Commonly Associated Terms:

Multivariate, beta weight, r2-value, model,

forward/backward regression,

sequential/hierarchical regression,

standard/simultaneous regression,

statistical/stepwise regression.

13

Independent t-test

Between Subjects Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

What is it?

Tests the difference between two groups on a single,

continuous dependent variable.

Commonly associated terms:

Two sample t-test, student’s t-test, means, group

means, standard deviations, mean differences, group

difference, confidence interval, group comparison.

What to interpret?

p-values (<.05)

Mean differences and standarddeviations

Confidence intervals

How to interpret?

There is a significant difference between the two

groups where one group has a significantly

higher/lower score on the dependent variable than the

other.

What you read:

Students who were put on academic probation (M=1.50,

SD=.40) had lower sense of belonging than students who

were not put on academic probation (M=3.50, SD=.75), p =

.02.

What to interpret:

p-value: .02

Mean sense of belonging for both groups: academic

probation = 1.50 & non-academic=3.50.

Standard deviations for both groups: on academic probation

=.40 & not on academic probation=.75.

How to interpret:

Participants on academic probation had significantly lower

sense of belonging than students who were not put on

academic probation.

What is it?

Tests the difference among more than two groups on a

single, continuous variable.

Post-Hoc tests are required to examine where the differences

are.

Commonly associated terms:

F-test, interactions, post-hoc tests (tukey HSD,

bonferroni, scheffe, dunnett).

What to interpret?

p-values (<.05)

Main effect: Shows overall significance

Post-hoc tests: shows specific group differences

Mean differences, standard deviations

How to interpret?

Main Effect: There was an overall significant

difference among the groups of the independent

variable on the dependent variable.

Post-Hoc: Same interpretation as an independent t-

test

What you

read:A researcher looks at differences in average satisfaction on

three different reading interventions (A, B, and C).

Main effect: Overall F=20.10, p=.01

Post-hoc: Comparison of Intervention “A”to Intervention “B” shows

average satisfaction to be 4.32 (SD=.50) and 3.56 (SD=1.2),

respectively, p=.04.

What to interpret:

Main effect: p-value=.01

Post-hoc: p-value=.04, group means show Intervention “A”has

higher satisfaction ratings than Intervention “B”.

How to interpret:

Main effect: There is a significant overall difference among the

three interventions on satisfaction.

Post-hoc: Students who received Intervention “A”have

significantly higher satisfaction than those who received

Intervention “B”

Dependent t-test

Within Subjects Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

What is it?

Tests the differences for one group between two time-points

or matched pairs

Commonly Associated Terms:

Pre and posttest, matched pairs, paired samples, time.

What to interpret?

p-values (<.05)

Mean change between measurements (i.e. over time or

between pairs)

How to interpret:?

There is a significant difference between the pretest and

posttest where the score on the posttest was significantly

higher/lower on the dependent variable than the pretest.

What you read:

An article shows a difference in average test score

before (M=79.50, SD=8.00) and after (M=85.25,

SD=7.90) an educational intervention, p=.08.

What to interpret:

p-value=.08

Mean change=7.75 more points after the educational

intervention.

How to interpret:

Average test score did not significantly change from

before the intervention to after the intervention;

however, there may be a practically relevant difference.

What is it?

A statistical analysis that tests differences of one group

between two or more time-points or matched pairs (e.g.

pretest, posttest, & follow-up or treatment “A”patient,

treatment “B” matched patient, & placebo matched patient).

Commonly Associated Terms:

Multiple time-points/matched pairs, repeated measures, post-

hoc.

What to interpret?

Main effect: p-values

Post-hoc: p-values, mean change, direction of change.

How to interpret:

Main Effect – There was an overall significant difference

among the time points/matched pairs on the dependent

variable.

Post-Hoc: Same as a dependentt-test.

What you read:

An article shows a difference in average classroom comfort

before (M=1.5, SD=2.0), after (M=3.30, SD=.90), and six

months following a cohort-building intervention (M=4.20,

SD=3.0).

Main effect: Overall F=3.59, p=.02.

What to interpret:

p-value=.02, statistically significant

Mean change=1.8 higher classroom comfort at post-

intervention

How to interpret:

Classroom comfort significantly increased from baseline to

six-months following a cohort-building intervention;

however, post-hoc tests will be needed to show where that

differences lies.

Mixed ANOVA: Used when comparing more than one group over

more than one time-point on a measure

Example – Males vs. female students, before and after a foreign

language course – Average score on an assessment

independent variables on one dependentvariable.

Example – Who taught the course (Ms. Lang, Mr. Beard, or Ms.

Brinkley), AND which teaching method was used (online, face to

face) – Average post-test assessment score

among groups while controlling for an additional variable

Example – Online or face to face course, controlling for baseline

knowledge – Average post-test assessment score

Odds Ratio / Relative Risk (Chi-square test of independence)

Logistic Regression

What is it?

A statistical analysis that tests the odds or risk of an event occurring or not

occurring based on one or more predictor variables (independent).

Commonly Associated Terms:

Unadjusted odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR), 2x2, chi-square, absolute risk

reduction, absolute risk, relative risk reduction, odds, confidence intervals,

protective effect, likelihood, forest plot.

What to interpret?

If a 2x2 table: interpret the OR or RR and confidence intervals rather than

the p-value.

If more than a 2x2 table, then the p-value and frequencies may be more useful.

How to interpret:

Odds Ratio < 1: For every unit increase in the independent variable, theodds

of having the outcome decrease by (OR) times.

Odds Ratio > 1: For every unit increase in the independent variable, the odds

of having the outcome increase by (OR) times.

Odds Ratio = 1 or CI crosses 1.0 or p > .05: You are no more or less likely to

have the outcome as a result of the predictor variable. (this would be non-

significant)

What are the odds of leaving college if a student

has been placed on academic probation?

IV: Academic probation (Y/N)

DV: Completion (Y/N)

What you read:

The odds ratio (95% CI) for college completion and

academic probation showed OR=2.00 (95% CI=1.44 - 2.88),

p <.05.

What you interpret:

OR > 1 (2.00)

95% CI is small, and does not cross 1.0 (1.44 to 2.88)

p-value is below .05

How you interpret:

Students are two times more likely to leave college if they

were placed on academic probation.

What is it?

A statistical analysis that tests the odds or risk of an event occurring or

not occurring based on one or more predictor variables (independent)

after controlling for a number of other confounding variables.

Commonly Associated Terms:

Adjusted odds ratio (AOR), multivariate adjusted odds ratio,

likelihood, protective effect, risk, odds, 95% confidence interval,

classification table, dichotomous DV.

What to interpret?

OR (these are your measures for risk of the outcome occurring given the

predictor variable), p-value for OR, confidence intervals for OR (should

not cross over 1.0, should not be overly large e.g. 1.2 – 45.5),

classification table (if it is provided).

How to interpret:

Odds Ratio < 1: For every unit increase in the independent variable, the

odds of having the outcome decrease by (OR) times after controlling for the

other predictor variables.

Odds Ratio > 1: For every unit increase in the independent variable, the

odds of having the outcome increase by (OR) times after controlling for the

other predictor variables.

Odds Ratio = 1 or CI crosses 1.0 or p > .05: You are no more or less likely to

have the outcome as a result of the predictor variable after controlling for the

other predictor variables. (this would be non-significant)

Does age, male sex, and time spent playing video games,

increase the odds of being on academic probation?

Predictor Variables: age (scale), sex (M/F), Gaming (ordinal, 0hrs, 1-

3hrs, 4-6hrs,etc.)

DV: Probation (Y/N)

What you read:

The ORs (95% CI) for each predictor variable are:

Age: OR=1.40 (95% CI=0.88 to 6.90),ns

Sexmale: OR=3.00 (95% CI=2.22 to 5.20), p <.001

Gaming: OR=6.75 (95% CI=4.69 to 8.80), p <.001

What you interpret:

The OR, CI, and p-value for eachpredictor.

How you interpret:

Both sex and time spent gaming increase the odds of being on

academic probation. Specifically, men are 3.00 times more likely to be

on academic probation than females, and for every unit increase in

gaming time, the odds of being on probation increasesby 6.75 times.

Questions?

Work together (in groups of 3-4) to create survey

research scenarios / questions that could be

addressed using the analyses you have learned about

in class.

resource!

Be prepared to share your answers

Cronbach’s Alpha

Principal Component Analysis / Factor Analysis

Other psychometric tests

Psychometric tests are used to examine the

characteristics and performance of a survey or

assessment instrument.

Reasons to use these tests

Reliability

Validity

Dimension reduction (constructing new instruments)

Item analysis (objective tests)

Cronbach’s alpha is one of the most common psychometric tests

used by survey researchers.

Looks at the internal consistency of the items in a certain scale or

instrument.

In other words, how responses to items in the scale relate to one

another.

What to interpret

The overall alpha value for the scale

The “alpha if item removed” table

How to interpret

For the Alpha values: > .90 is excellent, .80-.90 is good, .70-.80 is

acceptable, .60-.70 is questionable, between .50-.60 is poor,and

<.50 is unacceptable. If you see a negative value, thenrecheck

your data for coding errors.

For the “alpha if removed” table: Look at the values that the scale

would have if the item was removed. If dropping an item makes a

meaningful improvement (e.g. from .75 to .80), then consider

dropping the item and rerunning the analysis.

More items

More participants

Increase the “good” type of redundancy

Drop poor items (those that affect alpha)

Clarify item stems

Double check coding

PCA and FA are both dimension reduction

techniques that are used when either

pretesting a new instrument (exploratory) or

gathering validity evidence for an existing

instrument (confirmatory).

Both methods look at how items cluster

together as latent (not directly measured)

“factors” or “components”.

Examples: “depression”, “anxiety”, or “sense

of belonging”

Number of items

Number of subjects

Technique used

PCA

FA

Extraction methods

Orthogonal

Oblique

SO many others!

Remember:

Just because a finding is not significant does not mean that it is not

meaningful. You should always consider the effect size and

context of the research when making a decision about whether or

not any finding is relevant in practice.

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