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Pertemuan 7

Teknologi Penginderaan Jauh


Sri Yulianto J.P.
2
Daftar Riwayat Hidup
Nama : Dr. Sri Yulianto J.P., MKom

Instansi : Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana Salatiga

Ttl : Klaten, 25 Juli 1971

Alamat ktr : Jl. Diponegoro 52-60 Salatiga 50711

Alamat rm.: Perum Taman Asri, Cebongan Salatiga 50715

HP : 085797337000

E-mail : sri.yulianto@staff.uksw.edu

Keluarga : 1 Istri dan 1 anak

Pendidikan : S3 Ilmu Komputer–Fak.MIPA UGM

Pekerjaan : Dosen FTI UKSW,Peneliti Pusat Studi Sistem Informasi Pemodelan &

Mitigasi Tropis, Pengajar Tidak Tetap BMKG

Hak Cipta/Paten : 5

Publikasi Internasional : 12 jurnal


Agenda Pembelajaran
1. Praktikum Analisis Data Raster
2. Praktikum Teknik Interpolasi Spasial
3. Spatial Statistic
Penilaian

1. Karya Ilmiah telah diterima untuk dipublikasikan pada


jurnal berbahasa Inggris -> A
2. Karya Ilmiah yang diterima pengajar dan dianggap
potensial untuk dipublikasikan pada jurnal nasional
berbahasa Inggris -> AB
3. Tugas mingguan yang lengkap Tugas I, II dan III -> BC
Proyek Akhir untuk Penilaian
 Buatlah satu karya ilmiah dengan menggunakan
bahasa Inggris dengan topik utama adalah analisis
data penginderaan jauh.
 Kajian penelitian ditetapkan 2 (bisa dipilih) yaitu :
Analisis kekeringan dan Analisis potensi kebakaran
lahan
 Karya ilmiah dipublikasikan pada jurnal nasional ICM
(Indonesian Journal of Computing and Modeling)
ejournal.uksw.edu/icm
 Tugas dikerjakan secara individu (bagi yang akan
menggunakan sebagai syarat lulus MSI), atau
kelompok maksimal 3 mahasiswa.

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Apakah Remote Sensing?
Remote  far away
Sensing things from a distance

Remote sensing is the science and art of obtaining information


about a target through the analysis of data acquired by a device
that is not in contact with the target under investigation.

What we see & why


Eyes: Sunlight is reflected onto our nerve cells in the retina.
What we see: Visible spectrum (blue, green, red wavelengths)

Remote sensing equipment allows us to sense electromagnetic


radiation beyond the visible spectrum
Merapi – Merbabu healty
vegetation analysis

Merapi – Merbabu
Agriculture Analysis
Type dari Remote Sensing

Type  Based on source of the energy recorded by the sensor

1. Passive Remote Sensing: Energy collected by sensors is


either reflected or emitted solar radiation.
• Reflected – must be collected during daylight hours
• Emitted – day or night as long as emissions large
enough to record

2. Active Remote Sensing: Energy collected by sensors is


actively generated by a man-made device.
Examples: Radar, LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)
Remote Sensing Active & Passive

AVHRR Thermal Image QuikSCAT radar image


http://www.coml.org/edu/tech/count/srs1.htm http://nsidc.org/seaice/study/active_remote_sensing.html
Satellite Imagery
 Digital data is obtained by sensors on satellite platforms.
Visible and Near Infrared Remote Sensing
KANAL
Red: 610 - 700 nm
Orange: 590 - 610 nm
Yellow: 570 - 590 nm
Green: 500 - 570 nm
Blue: 450 - 500 nm
Indigo: 430 - 450 nm
Violet: 400 - 430 nm
Structure of a Leaf

Cuticle Red and blue light


largely absorbed
for use in
Upper photosynthesis
Epidermis

Palisade Strong Infrared


Layer reflectivity and
Spongy transmittance.
Tissue
Lower Epidermis Stomates and
and Cuticle Guard Cells
50

40

Visible Near Infrared


Reflectance (%)

30 Black Spruce Needle


Moss
20
rn
10
r
r
BLUE GREEN RED

0
400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Wavelength (nm)
Vegetation Indices

• Quantitative measures for vegetation abundance and vigour.

• Formed from combinations of two to several spectral


bands that are added, divided, or multiplied in a manner to
yield a single value that indicates the amount or vigour of
vegetation within a pixel.
Leaf Area Index (LAI)

LAI is defined as the total one-sided (or one half of the total all-sided)
green leaf area per unit ground surface area.

It is an important biological parameter because: it defines the area that


interacts with solar radiation and provides the remote sensing signal;

It is the surface responsible for carbon absorption and exchange with the
atmosphere.
Visible and Near IR Systems
 Panchromatic imaging system: single channel detector sensitive
to radiation within a broad wavelength range; if visible range, then
the resulting image resembles a "black-and-white" photograph taken
from space. The physical quantity being measured is the apparent
brightness of the targets. The spectral information or "color" of the
targets is lost.
• IKONOS PAN ,SPOT ,HRV-PAN

 Multispectral imaging system: multichannel detector with a few


spectral bands. Each channel is sensitive to radiation within a
narrow wavelength band. The resulting image is a multilayer image
which contains both the brightness and spectral (color) information
of the targets being observed.
• LANDSAT MSS, LANDSAT TM , SPOT HRV-XS , IKONOS MS
Visible and Near IR Systems

 Superspectral Imaging Systems: many more spectral channels


(typically >10) than a multispectral sensor. The bands have narrower
bandwidths, enabling the finer spectral characteristics of the targets
to be captured by the sensor.
• MODIS , MERIS

 Hyperspectral Imaging Systems: "imaging spectrometer". it


acquires images in about a hundred or more contiguous spectral
bands.
• Hyperion on EO1 satellite

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Band Wavelength Application*
Designation (nm)
Visible Blue 450-520 Because water increasingly absorbs at longer
wavelengths, this band the best data for mapping
depth-detail of water-covered areas. It is also used
for soil-vegetation discrimination, forest mapping,
and distinguishing cultural features.
Bands Visible Green 500-600 The blue-green region of the spectrum corresponds
used for to the chlorophyll absorption of healthy vegetation
and is useful for mapping detail such as depth or
Land sediment in water bodies. Cultural features such as
roads and buildings also show up well in this band.
Surface Visible Red 600-700 Chlorophyll absorbs these wavelengths in healthy
Remote vegetation. Hence, this band is useful for
distinguishing plant species, as well as soil and
Sensing geologic boundaries.
Near- IR 700-800 This band is especially sensitive to varying
0.70-0.80 μm vegetation biomass. It also emphasizes soil-crop
and land-water boundaries in images.
Near-IR 800-1100 This band is used for vegetation discrimination,
0.80-1.10 μm penetrating haze, and water-land boundaries.
Mid-IR 1550-1740 This band is sensitive to plant water content, which
1.55-1.74 μm is a useful measure in studies of vegetation health.
It is also used to distinguish clouds, snow, and ice.
Mid-IR 2080-2350 This band is used for mapping geologic formations
2.08-2.35 μm and soil boundaries. It is also responsive to plant
Solar Electromagnetic Radiation

Atmospheric windows
Landsat Orbit

Sun-synchronous orbit: Satellite always crosses the


equator at precisely the same local time
Landsat Temporal Resolution

Temporal Resolution: The shortest time needed to repeat


the ground track
Landsat Swath Width & Field of View
Landsat

Field of View
705km

scene Spatial Resolution

Pixel size=
(30x30m)
Resolusi Citra satelit
• Spatial resolution
• Temporal resolution
• Spectral resolution
• Radiometric Resolution
• View angle resolution
Spatial Resolution

 The area on ground represented by each pixel (i.e., raster


cell size)

 There is a tradeoff between the image footprint (area


captured by a single image) and spatial resolution

 Some sensors have different spatial resolutions for different


bands

 Examples
• Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) ~ 1 km
• Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) – 79 m
• Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) – 30 m
• IKONOS – 1 m panchromatic /4 m multispectral
Temporal Resolution
 How often a satellite can obtain imagery of a particular
area

 For a fixed sensor (can only point straight down) this


depends on:
• 1) The number of days between overhead passes at the same
location
• 2) The swath width of the sensor (i.e. the footprint of the images
produced)

 Temporal resolution is higher for sensors that can move/tilt


(side-to-side), but views from angles introduce distortion

 Examples
• Landsat - 16 days
• AVHRR - daily
• IKONOS - 1 to 3 days (sensor can tilt)
Spectral Resolution

 The specific wavelength intervals in the electromagnetic


spectrum captured by each sensor

 Determined by the number, spacing and width of


sampled wavelength bands

 Higher resolution results in more precision in


representation of spectral signatures

 Hyperspectral imagery has very high spectral resolution


(e.g., Aviris data has 220 bands)
• This makes a very detailed spectral signature, but the data are somewhat rare,
expensive, and cumbersome to use
Radiometric Resolution

 The number of possible data values reported by the


sensor (i.e., how sensitive the sensor is to changes in
brightness of objects that it views)

 Range is expressed as a power (2n )


• 8-bit resolution has 28 values, or 256 values
Range is 0-255
• 11-bit resolution has 211 values, or 2048 values
Range is 0-2048

 The value in each pixel is called the


• Digital Number (DN)
• Brightness Value (BV)
View Angle Resolution

 The number of angles at which the ground objects


are recorded by the sensor

 It can be useful to view objects from multiple angles


for stereoscopic analyses

 Some features reflect light differently in different


directions
• Isotropic vs. anisotropic reflectance

 Example
• The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) sensor
has 9 view angles
Image Display

 Graphics display devices use three color guns


• Red, Green, Blue
• All colors can be formed from various combinations of these
3 colors (which is why they’re used in CRT computer/TV
screens)

 The brightness values (BV) to be displayed will often


have an 8-bit range
• 0 to 255

 In remote sensing, we assign one band to each color


gun to give color to the image
Spectral Regions – Landsat TM

BAND 1 (Visible Blue)


PANCHROMATIC

BLUE GREEN RED NEAR IR SHORT MID- LONGWAVE IR


WAVE IR WAVE IR

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.1 3.0 5.0 14.0

0.45 - 0.52 mm

• Illuminates Materials in Shadows


• Water Penetration for Bathymetry
• Soil / Vegetation Differentiation
• Deciduous / Coniferous Differentiation
Spectral Regions – Landsat TM
BAND 2 (Visible Green)
PANCHROMATIC

BLUE GREEN RED NEAR IR SHORT MID- LONGWAVE IR


WAVE IR WAVE IR

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.1 3.0 5.0 14.0

0.52 - 0.60 mm

• Water Penetration for Bathymetry


• Clear and Turbid Water Contrast
• Discrimination of Oil on Water
• Green Reflectance Peak of
Healthy Vegetation
Spectral Regions – Landsat TM
BAND 3 (Visible Red)
PANCHROMATIC

BLUE GREEN RED NEAR IR SHORT MID- LONGWAVE IR


WAVE IR WAVE IR

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.1 3.0 5.0 14.0

0.63 - 0.69 mm

• Vegetation Differentiation
• Chlorophyll Absorption
• Limited Water Penetration for
Bathymetry
Spectral Regions – Landsat TM
BAND 4 (Near Infrared)
PANCHROMATIC

BLUE GREEN RED NEAR IR SHORT MID- LONGWAVE IR


WAVE IR WAVE IR

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.1 3.0 5.0 14.0

0.76 - 0.90mm

• Vegetation Analysis
• Shoreline Mapping
• Landcover Discrimination
Spectral Regions – Landsat TM
BAND 5 (Short-wave Infrared)
PANCHROMATIC

BLUE GREEN RED NEAR IR SHORT MID- LONGWAVE IR


WAVE IR WAVE IR

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.1 3.0 5.0 14.0

1.55 – 1.75mm

• Fire Mapping
• Discrimination of Oil on Water
• Moisture Content of Soil and
Vegetation
• Snow / Cloud Differentiation
• Vegetation Analysis
Spectral Regions – Landsat TM
BAND 6 (Long-wave Infrared)
PANCHROMATIC

BLUE GREEN RED NEAR IR SHORT MID- LONGWAVE IR


WAVE IR WAVE IR

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.1 3.0 5.0 14.0

10.4 – 12.5 mm

• Thermal Analysis
• Vegetation Density
• Urban Heat Islands
Spectral Regions – Landsat TM
BAND 7 (Mid-wave Infrared)
PANCHROMATIC

BLUE GREEN RED NEAR IR SHORT MID- LONGWAVE IR


WAVE IR WAVE IR

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.1 3.0 5.0 14.0

2.08 – 2.35 mm

• Solar Reflectance From Metal Roofs


• Smoke Penetration
• Daytime Reflectance Mixed With
Emitted EM Radiation
• Nighttime Emitted EM Radiation
 Planet Earth is distinguished from other Solar
System planets by two major categories:
• Oceans and Land Vegetation.
 The amount of vegetation within the seas is
huge and important in the food chain.
 But for people the land provides most of the
vegetation within the human diet.
• The primary categories of land vegetation
(biomes) and their proportions is shown in this pie
chart:
 Global maps of vegetation biomes show this general
distribution
 Remote sensing has proven a powerful "tool" for
assessing the identity, characteristics, and growth
potential of most kinds of vegetative matter at several
levels (from biomes to individual plants).
 Vegetation behavior depends on the nature of the
vegetation itself, its interactions with solar radiation
and other climate factors, and the availability of
chemical nutrients and water within the host medium
(usually soil, or water in marine environments).
 Because many remote sensing devices operate in
the green, red, and near infrared regions of the
electromagnetic spectrum, they can discriminate
radiation absorption and reflectance properties of
vegetation.
Vegetation Indices from Susan Ustin
Index Formula Details Citation
Simple Ratio Green vegetation cover. Pearson, 1972
R NIR Various wavelengths,
depending on sensor. (e.g.
RR NIR = 845nm, R=665nm)

Normalized RNIR  RR Green vegetation cover.


Various wavelengths,
Tucker 1979
Difference
Vegetation Index RNIR  RR depending on sensor. (e.g.
NIR = 845nm, R=665nm)

Enhanced C1 =6; C2=7; L=1; G=2,5


Vegetation Index Hu ete 1997

Rs Rv  (NIRs NIRv)


Perpendicular Perpendicular distance from Richardson
2 2
Vegetation Index the pixels to the soil line. and Wiegand
1977

Soil Adjusted NIR R L = soil adjusted factor Hu ete 1988


Vegetation Index 1 L
Modified Soil NIR R  L L = (1-2a x(NIR-aR) x NDVI) Qi et al 1994
Adjusted Self ad justing L:f on to
optimize for soil effects.
Vegetation Index Higher dy namic range.

Transformed Soil a NIR  aR  b  a=slope of soil line


b=intercept of soil line
Baret and
Gu yot 1991
R  a ( NIR  b)  0.08(1  a 2 )
Adjusted
Vegetation Index

 NIR R 
Soil and More independent of surface Hu ete et al

2.5  
Atmospherically brightness 1997
Resistant
Vegetation Index 1 NIR 6R  7.B
NDVI
Normalized difference vegetation index
First: A few Simple Reminders about Spectral Signatures

Thanks to Robin Weeks


Laboratory Spectral Signatures II
Common Urban Materials

Healthy grass

Concrete

Astroturf

wavelength
Thanks to Robin Weeks
The Effect of the Atmosphere on Spectral Data

Path Radiance (Lp)

Atmospheric
Transmissivity (T)

Thanks to Robin Weeks


Vegetation:

Pigment in Plant Leaves


(Chlorophyll) strongly absorbs
visible light (0.4 to 0.7 μm)

Cell Structure however strongly


reflects Near-IR (0.7 – 1.1 μm)

Thanks to Robin Weeks


NDVI

NDVI = (NIR —
VIS)/(NIR + VIS)

Calculations of NDVI
for a given pixel always
result in a number that
ranges from minus one
(-1) to plus one (+1)

--no green leaves gives


a value close to zero.

--zero means no
vegetation
NASA Earth Observatory (Illustration by Robert Simmon)
NDVI
 NDVI is calculated from the visible and near-infrared
light reflected by vegetation.
 Healthy vegetation (left) absorbs most of the visible
light that hits it, and reflects a large portion of the
near-infrared light.
 Unhealthy or sparse vegetation (right) reflects more
visible light and less near-infrared light.
 Real vegetation is highly variable.
Reference
 Erlien C., Remote Sensing background Theory
 Kidwell, K.B., 1990, Global Vegetation Index User's
Guide, U.S. Department of Commerce/National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration/National Environmental
Satellite Data and Information Service/National Climatic
Data Center/Satellite Data Services Division.

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