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1.

Dalam ilmu perpindahan kalor fouling adalah


pembentukan lapisan deposit pada permukaan
perpindahan panas dari bahan atau senyawa yang tidak
diinginkan. Bahan atau senyawa itu berupa kristal,
sedimen, senyawa biologi, produk reaksi kimia,
ataupun korosi.
2. Pembentukan lapisan deposit ini akan terus berkembang
selama alat penukar kalor dioperasikan.
Akumulasi deposit pada permukaan alat penukar kalor
menimbulkan kenaikan pressure drop dan menurunkan
efisiensi perpindahan panas.
3. Untuk menghindari penurunan performance alat
penukar kalor yang terus berlanjut dan terjadinya
unpredictable cleaning, maka diperlukan suatu informasi
yang jelas tentang tingkat pengotoran untuk
menentukan jadwal pembersihan (cleaning schedule).
1. Lapisan fouling dapat berasal dari partikel-partikel
atau senyawa lainnya yang terangkut oleh aliran
fluida. Pertumbuhan lapisan tersebut dapat
meningkat apabila permukaan deposit yang
terbentuk mempunyai sifat adhesif yang cukup
kuat.
2. Gradien temperatur yang cukup besar antara
aliran dengan permukaan dapat juga meningkatkan
kecepatan pertumbuhan deposit.
3. Pada umumnya proses pembentukan lapisan fouling
merupakan phenomena yang sangat kompleks
sehingga sukar sekali dianalisa secara analitik.
4. Mekanisme pembentukannya sangat beragam, dan
metode-metode pendekatannya juga berbeda-
beda
 Berdasarkan proses terbentuknya endapan atau
kotoran, faktor pengotoran dibagi 5 jenis, yaitu :
 1. Pengotoran akibat pengendapan zat padat
dalam larutan (precipitation fouling).
 Pengotoran ini biasanya terjadi pada fluida yang
mengandung garam-garam yang terendapkan
pada suhu tinggi, seperti garam kalsium sulfat,
dll.
 2. Pengotoran akibat pengendapan partikel
padat dalam fluida (particulate fouling).
 Pengotoran ini terjadi akibat pengumpulan
partikel-partikel padat yang terbawa oleh fluida
di atas permukaan perpindahan panas, seperti
debu, pasir, dll.
 3. Pengotoran akibat reaksi kimia (chemical
reaction fouling).
 Pengotoran terjadi akibat reaksi kimia di dalam
fluida, di atas permukaan perpindahan panas, dimana
material bahan permukaan perpindahan panas tidak
ikut bereaksi, seperti adanya reaksi polimerisasi, dll.
 4. Pengotoran akibat korosi (corrosion fouling).
 Pengotoran terjadi akibat reaksi kimia antara fluida
kerja dengan material bahan permukaan perpindahan
panas.
 5. Pengotoran akibat aktifitas biologi (biological
fouling).
 Pengotoran ini berhubungan dengan akitifitas
organisme biologi yang terdapat atau terbawa dalam
aliran fluida seperti lumut, jamur, dll.
 Akibatpembentukan fouling tersebut, maka
kemampuan alat penukar kalor akan
mengalami penurunan. Dalam beberapa
kasus, pembersihan lapisan fouling dilakukan
secara kimia dan mekanis. Salah satu cara
mekanis yang umum dilakukan adalah dengan
metode on-line cleaning dengan
menggunakan bola taprogge

 Pada umumnya mekanisme terjadinya
fouling, pembentukan dan pertumbuhan
deposit, terdiri dari :
 a. Initiation, pada periode kristis dimana
temperatur, konsentrasi dan gradien
kecepatan, zona deplesi oksigen dan kristal
terbentuk dalam waktu yang singkat.
 b. Transport partikel ke permukaan
· secara mekanik = imfaction
· secara turbulen = difusion
· Thermophoresis dan Electrophoresis
 c. Adhesi dan Kohesi pada permukaan.
 d. Migration, berupa perpindahan foulant
(bahan atau senyawa penyebab fouling) menuju
ke permukaan, dan berbagai mekanisme
perpindahan difusi.
 e. Attchment, Awal dari terbentuknya lapisan
deposit.
 f. Transformation or Aging, periode kristis
dimana perubahan fisik ataupun struktur
kimia/kristal dapat meningkatkan kekuatan dan
ketahanan lapisan deposit.
 g. Removal or Re-entrainment, perpindahan
lapisan fouling dengan cara pemutusan, erosi
atau spalling.
 Kecepatan aliran dan temperatur fluida (atau
beda temperatur) dapat menjadi variabel
signifikan terjadinya fouling. Peningkatan
kecepatan menyebabkan transfer massa
spesies fouling dapat meningkat, seiring
dengan terbentuknya deposit pada
permukaan perpindahan kalor. Secara terus
menerus, shear force pada fluida/permukaan
perpindahan kalor meningkat, melalui
mekanisme removal deposit. Temperatur
yang digunakan pada alat penukar kalor
dapat mempengaruhi besarnya luasan fouling
pada permukaan perpindahan kalor.
 Kondisi yang mempengaruhi terjadinya
fouling yaitu :
 1. Parameter operasi alat penukar kalor,
yaitu: velocity, surface tempareture,
dan fluids temperature.
 2. Parameter alat penukar kalor, yaitu:
Konfigurasi alat penukar kalor, permukaan
material, dan struktur permukaan.
 3. Fluids properties, yaitu : Suspended solid,
Dissolved solid, Dissolved gases, dan Trace
element.
 Deposit partikel pada permukaan perpindahan kalor
banyak dijumpai pada aliran gas-partikel dengan
temperatur tinggi.
 Proses terjadinya fouling ini dapat ditemukan di
power plant system seperti di economizer,
superheater, peralatan penukar kalor pipa air
pendingin, dan beberapa proses di industri kimia.
Salah satu contoh adalah fenomena fouling pada
boiler.
 Partikel yang dikenal dengan fly ash (abu terbang)
berasal dari sisa hasil pembakaran batubara di boiler.
 Fly ash ini tersuspensi dalam aliran gas yang
kemudian akan masuk ke peralatan penukar kalor.
Aliran gas-fly ash ini akan membentuk lapisan
deposit/fouling pada dinding luar tube.
 Berikut ini adalah cara mengurangi
terjadinya fouling pada Heat Exchanger , yaitu :
 1. Pemilihan heat exchanger ( HE ) yang
tepat, Penggunaan beberapa tipe HE tertentu
dapat mengurangi pembentukan fouling di
karenakan area dead space yang lebih sedikit
dibandingkan dengan tipe yang lainnya,
seperti plate dan spiral heat exchanger, namun
begitu jenis HE tersebut hanya dapat
menangani design pressure sampai 20 – 25 bar
dan design temperature 250 oC ( plate ) dan
400 oC ( spiral ).
 2. Gunakan diameter tube yang lebih besar.
STHE umumnya didesain dengan ukuran tube dari 20
mm atau 25 mm, untuk penggunaan fluida yang kotor
( fouling resistance > 0.0004 h-m2 C/kal )
gunakan tube dengan diameter ( minimum ) 25 mm
( outsidediameter, OD )
 3. Kecepatan tinggi, seperti yang telah di
jelaskan di atas bahwa pada kecepatan
tinggi, fouling dapat dikurangi, koefisien heat
transfer juga akan semakin tinggi, namun demikian
mengoperasikan HE dengan kecepatan tinggi
mengakibatkan pressure dropyang tinggi pula serta
erosi , kenaikan pressure drop lebih cepat dari pada
kenaikan koefisien perpindahan panas, maka perlu
dicari kecepatan yang optimum.
 4. Margin pressure drop yang cukup. Pada HE yang
digunakan untuk fluida yang berpotensi
membentuk fouling yang tinggi, disarankan untuk
menggunakan margin 30 – 40 % antara pressure drop yang
diijinkan ( allowable ) dengan pressure drop yang dihitung
( calculated ) hal ini dilakukan untuk antisipasi pressure
drop yang tinggi akibat penggunakan kecepatan yang
tinggi.
 5. Gunakan tube bundle dan heat exchanger
cadangan. Jika penggunaan HE untuk fluidayang
berpotensi membentuk fouling yang sangat ekstrim,
maka tube bundle candangan sebaiknya
digunakan. Jika fouling telah terjadi cukup cepat ( setiap 2
– 3 bulan ) maka sebaiknya digunakan HE cadangan. STHE
cadangan juga diperlukan untuk tipe STHE Fixed tubesheet
( pembentukan fouling yang tinggi pada tube , seperti
pada reboiler thermosiphon vertikal yang
menggunakan fluida polimer seperti pada Butadiene
plant).
 6. Gunakan 2 shell yang disusun secara paralel.
dengan penggunaan STHE dimana Shell disusun secara seri,
maka jika salah satu STHE telah terjadi penumpukan (
akumulasi ) fouling ( dimana STHE tersebut diservice )
maka STHE yang satunya lagi dapat digunakan, walaupun
tentunya terjadi penurunan output, sebaiknya kapasitas
yang digunakan masing- masing antara 60 – 70 % dari
kapasitas total
 7. Gunakan Wire Fin tube. Penggunaan Wire
fin tube,dapat mengurangi terbentuknya fouling, pada
awalnya penambahan wire fin tube ini digunakan untuk
meningkatkan perpindahan panas tube pada aliran
laminar. Wire fin dapat menaikkan pencampuran radial (
radial mixing ) dari dinding tube hingga kebagian centre (
tengah ), efek gerakan pengadukan inilah yang dapat
meminimalisasikan deposit pada dinding tube.
 8. Gunakan Fluidized Bed HE, HE tipe ini dapat
menghandle fouling yang
ekstrim.Apabila Fluida kotor ditempatkan pada shell.
 9. Gunakan U-Tube atau Floating
head. Kelemahanan penggunaan U tube adalah
kesulitan pembersihan pada bagian U.
 10. Gunakan susunan tube secara Square atau
Rotate Square. susunan square menyediakan
akses yang lebih sehingga cleaning HE secara
mechanical dengan menggunakan Rodding atau
hydrojetting baik pada susunan triangle, namun
begitu tube yang disusun secara square memberikan
koefisien heat transfer yang rendah, untuk situasi
seperti ini , maka rotate square dapat digunakan.
 11. Meminimalisasikan dead space dengan desain
baffle secara optimum. STHE lebih mudah
mengalami Fouling dikarenakan adanya dead space,
oleh sebab itu , penentuan jarak antar baffle ( baffle
spacing ) dan baffle cut sangatlah penting,
kedua variable tersebut sangat berpengaruh dalam
pentuan besar kecilnya koefisien perpindan panas
pada shell. Nilai Baffle cut sebaiknya digunakan
antara 20 -30 %, dimana baffle cut sebesar 25 %
adalah nilai yang cukup baik sebagai starter. Untuk
perpindahan panas yang hanya melibatkan panas
sensible ( seperti heater atau cooler ) disarankan
tidak menempatkan posisi baffle secara vertikal,
untuk perpindahan panas yang melibatkan panas
laten atau terjadinya perubahan fase ( seperti
condenser, vaporizer ) disarankan untuk
menempatkan posisi baffle secara vertikal.
 12. Kecepatan tinggi, sama seperti
pada tube, pengunaan kecepatan tinggi pada
shell akan dapat mengurangi
pembentukan fouling, dan dapat menaikkan
koefisien perpindahan panas shell. Kecepatan
pada shell umumnya ( disamping faktor lain
seperti tube pitch dan lain –lain ) dipengaruhi
oleh diameter shell dan baffle spacing.
 13. Gunakan tube pitch yang lebih besar
untuk fouling yang lebih sangat tinggi.
Umumnya tube pith yang digunakan adalah
sebesar 1.25 kali dari OD untuk triangular
pitch dan 6 mm lebih dari OD untuk square.
 Substances too large to pass build up at the
membrane surface to affect the driving
force. The actual flux data show a leveling
off as a concentration layer builds up at the
membrane surface. This is
called: CONCENTRATION POLARIZATION
 Concentration Polarization
 Concentration polarization along a membrane is experienced when the
solute concentration at the membrane reaches elevated levels in
comparison to the feed bulk fluid concentration. The concentration
gradient of dissolved species rejected at the membrane can be described
by the following equation:

 ,

 where
 δ = distance from the membrane
 cm = concentration at the membrane
 cδ = concentration at a distance δ from the membrane
 J = transmembrane fluid flux
 D = Diffusion coefficient
 When concentration polarization reaches very high
levels, it can cause precipitation of the solute, which
forms a gel layer at the surface of the membrane. At
times, this effect can become great enough that fluid
flow across the membrane is significantly reduces.
{ref name=Harrison2003/} Concentration polarization
can be difficult to control, depending on the specific
filtration, but it can be reduced in several ways.
Running the filtration at a lower operation pressure,
shortening the flow length, or creating turbulence by
using thing flow channels or with additional mixing,
can all reduce concentration polarization. Other
more complicated methods of reducing concentration
polarization include mechanical scouring, shaking, or
skimming to remove the boundary layer. These are
less ideal as they can effect the integrity of the
membrane
 Transmembrane Flux
,

 where
J = transmembrane flux
 ΔPm = transmembrane pressure drop
 RG = gel resistance
 RM = membrane resistance
 To minimize concentration polarization:
 select a membrane well suited to the
process,keep the concentration low if this is
practical,keep the pressure differential low
if this is practical,maintain flow across the
membrane to reduce the film thickness and
to scour deposits
 In MEMBRANE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, concentration
polarization refers to the emergence of concentration
gradients at a membrane/solution interface resulted from
selective transfer of some species through the membrane
under the effect of transmembrane driving
forces.Generally, the cause of concentration polarization is
the ability of a membrane to transport some species more
readily than the other(s) (which is the membrane the
retained species are concentrated at the upstream
membrane surface while the concentration of transported
species decreases. Thus, concentration polarization
phenomenon is inherent to all types of membrane
separation processes. In the cases of gas separation,
pervaporation, membrane distillation,, reverse
nosmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration
and microfiltration separations, the concentration profile
has a higher level of solute nearest to the upstream
membrane surface compared with the more or less well
mixed bulk fluid far from the membrane surface
 Moreover, concentration polarization leads
to:
 Increased salt leakage through the
membrane
 Increased probability
of scale/fouling development
 Generally, to reduce the concentration
polarization,
 1.increased flow rates of the solutions
between the membranes as well as spacers
promoting turbulence are applied .
 (a) FO membrane in the initial filtration; (b) FO membrane with fouling layer
formed. Note: SL, support layer; AL, active layer; FL, fouling layer; ICP, internal
concentration polarization; ECP, external concentration polarization; CECP, cake
enhanced concentration polarization; CRCP, cake reduced concentration
polarization.

 Membrane fouling
 Though fouling is significantly reduced in crossflow
membrane systems, as compared with conventional
filtration systems, it is still a problem. Depending on the
type of filter used and the pore sizes, different problems
can arise.
 Fouling of membrane pores.
 Concentration polarization can become exacerbated by gel
formation in ultrafiltration systems, and microfiltration of
suspended particles can create thick cake layers that
reduce transmembrane flux.Large, soft particles can
adhere to the pores, smaller particles can clog pores, and
precipitates can form on the pores all reducing the pore
size available and reducing transmembrane flux. Various
examples of pore plugging can be seen the figure on the
left. Gel layer formation can sometimes be reduced by
mechanical agitation
 The major obstacle for the application of
membrane processes is the rapid decline of
the permeate flux over time as a result of
membrane fouling.
 Fouling of membranes is caused by mass
transport of material to the membrane
surface followed by adsorption and
accumulation onto the surface and/or within
membrane pores [7].
 ypes of foulant. Raw waters contain a wide distribution of
foulants, see right figure. Particulate fouling is caused by
inorganic or organic particles that can deposit on the membrane
surface, block the pores, or hinder transport to the surface by
the development of a cake layer. Aquatic colloids comprise
corrosion products, silt and clay, precipitated crystals, colloidal
silica and sulfur, and precipitated iron and aluminum compounds.
Some high molecular weight organic substances, such as
polysaccharide, proteins, and humic aggregates, are also
characterized as colloidal foulants since many features of their
behavior are common with those of inorganic particles. The
structure and mass of the deposited particulate cake layer are
affected by the particle-particle forces and by hydrodynamic
conditions [8]. For example, under chemical conditions in which
particles repel each other and colloidal stability is maintained,
the cake layer is generally more porous, inducing lower permeate
flux decline. Such a cake layer will also be easily removed from
the membrane surface during cleaning.
 Organic fouling is the result of the adsorption of dissolved
components [9]. Dissolved organic matter is ubiquitous in
surface water, sewage, and secondary effluent of
wastewater treatment. In drinking water treatment by MF
and UF, natural organic matter (NOM) has been identified
as a major foulant of polymeric membranes. NOM
comprises a range of compounds, from small hydrophobic
acids, proteins and amino-acids to larger humic and fulvic
acids. There is evidence that the larger, less charged, and
the more hydrophobic fraction of NOM mostly contributes
to irreversible organic fouling. This mechanism is
consistent with the general phenomenon of adsorption of
polyelectrolytes and polymers on solid substrates, which is
faster and more pronounced in case of non-repulsive
polymer-surface electrostatic interactions and due to
hydrophobic forces. Adlayers of polymers are usually
irreversibly attached, such that chemical cleaning is
necessary to induce desorption.
 Scaling is another type of fouling related to
dissolved ions that tend to precipitate onto
the membrane surface due to pH change or
due to oxidation. Deposition is followed by
crystallization and crystal growth.
Compounds commonly present in feed water
and with a low solubility are calcium
carbonate (CaCO3), barium sulfate (BaSO4),
silica (SiO2), and calcium sulfate (CaSO4).
Antiscalant addition to the feed solution
leads to a decline in the percent of area
covered by scale.
 Finally, biofouling is caused by microbiological foulants,
such as algae and bacteria, which can adhere to the
membranes and produce a biofilm [10]. Biofouling involves
accumulation of these biological organisms, their growth
and metabolism on the membranes. Components in the
biofilm are the cell biomass and the various extracellular
polymeric substances, which behave in the same way as
organic foulants. In all biofilms, the fraction of organic
macromolecules is usually the largest, accounting for 50-
80% of the total organic matter and proteins. Biofouling is
arguably the major challenge when using RO for the
reclamation of municipal effluents or for seawater
desalination. Obviously, the extent and the type of fouling
depend strongly on the quality of the feed water and on
operating conditions. Especially in the case of complex
water sources, different types of foulants will necessarily
contribute simultaneously to the formation of a mixed
fouling layer.
 Efforts to mitigate fouling include pretreatment
processes, the design of new membrane
modules, and the development of antifouling
membranes. The separation process by
membrane is essentially a surface phenomenon.
Therefore, it is a natural consequence to modify
membrane surface for reducing fouling. The
membrane surface can be customized to tailor
the following properties [11,12]:
 Surface hydrophilicity: it is generally accepted
that an increase in hydrophilicity offers better
fouling resistance because many foulants, such
as proteins, are hydrophobic in nature [13].
 Surface charge: the repulsive forces working between the
charged surface and the molecules of the same charge in
the feed solution prevent solute or particle deposition on
the membrane surface, thus reducing fouling. In reality,
when the ionic strength of the feed water is high,
electrostatic interactions are minimized, rendering the
surface charge ineffective in terms of electrostatic
repulsion. On the contrary, a detrimental phenomenon
called bridging can occur if both the membrane surface
and the foulant molecule contain negatively-charged
carboxyl groups [14]. Bridging is caused by divalent
calcium ions in solution cross-linking the carboxyls of the
membrane surface with the carboxyl groups of the fouling
molecules, thus enhancing the attachment of these
molecules to the membrane surface. Polyamide
membranes contain inherent carboxyls at their surface,
making this mechanism common during RO and NF
operation.
 Surface roughness: a smoother surface is commonly expected to
experience less fouling, presumably because foulant particles are
more likely to be entrained by rougher topologies than by
smoother membrane surfaces.
 The effect of membrane surface modification on fouling is
actually a debated topic. Some researchers have experienced
that membrane fouling can be reduced by modifying the
membrane surface only when the solution is dilute or only in the
initial stage of the separation experiment. Once the deposition of
foulants has taken place, the surface properties can no longer
play a role in further deposition of foulants, which is then
governed by foulant-foulant interactions. One route for fouling
prevention is to develop fouling release membranes that do not
resist the adhesion of foulants, but have an active layer with a
low surface energy so that adhered foulants can readily be
washed away by hydrodynamic mixing in the membrane module.
However, a major challenge is to implement these chemistries
such that the water flux and salt rejection of the resulting
membranes are not compromised [11].
 . Once a fouling layer has developed, cleaning is
necessary. Membrane fouling can be classified as
reversible fouling and irreversible fouling, of
which the distinction is entirely dependent on
the context in which membranes are operated
and cleaned. An easily removable outer fouling
layer is usually categorized as reversible. The
performance of a membrane with reversible
fouling can be restored through appropriate
physical washing protocol such as backwashing or
surface washing, while irreversible fouling can
only be removed by chemical cleaning, and
sometimes cannot be removed at all. This means
that the membranes must go through extensive
cleaning or be replaced.
 Physical cleaning can be performed relatively often and
involves a simple change in the physical conditions of the
system, for example increasing the hydrodynamics at the
membrane-solution interface by changing the flow
conditions or by inserting air bubbles. Sometimes, even
simple changes in chemical conditions, such as temporary
substitution of the feed solution with a foulant-free
solution — often the permeate itself — is regarded as
physical cleaning. However, irreversible fouling is
inevitable. The long-term solution is to remove the foulant
deposited on membrane surfaces via chemical cleaning.
There are five categories of cleaning agents — alkaline
solutions, acids, metal chelating agents, surfactants, and
enzymes [15]. Commercial cleaning products are often
mixtures of these compounds. Alkaline solutions clean
organic-fouled membranes by hydrolysis and solubilization.
Alkaline solutions increase the solution pH, and therefore
increase the negative charge and solubility of the organic
foulant.
 For example, when carboxylic functional groups of the organic foulant
are completely deprotonated under alkaline conditions, solubility
increases by few orders of magnitude. In the presence of divalent
cations, such as Ca2+, carboxyl-rich foulants forms complexes with
calcium ions, resulting in a highly compacted gel network of fouling layer.
Metal chelating agents, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA),
remove divalent cations from the complexed organic molecules and
improve the cleaning of the fouled membrane. Finally, surfactants can
form micelles around macromolecules, solubilize them and help to
remove the foulant from the membrane surface. It has been shown that
cleaning efficiencies with different cleaning agents are consistent with
related measurements of foulant-foulant intermolecular forces in the
presence of the agents, using the atomic force microscopy [16]. Virtually,
the optimal cleaning agent mixture and concentration could be derived
from measurements of foulant-foulant adhesion force, even before
membranes are put in operation. For favorably reactive cleaning agents,
cleaning efficiency can be further improved by enhancing the mass
transfer of the reaction products from the fouling layer to the bulk
solution. Nevertheless, repeated chemical cleaning will eventually result
in wear and tear and eventual loss of membrane properties.