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Household Gasifiers

(An initiative to tackle energy issues)

Prepared by:
Prof. Dr. Syed
Hassan Javed
Contents
 Introduction
 Biomass as an energy source
 Gasification
 Biomass Gasifiers
 Applications of Biomass gasifiers
 Global Usage of Biomass Gasifiers
 Advantages
 Disadvantages
 Conclusion
INTRODUCTION
Scenario of Energy Resources
Fossil Fuels

 Source of energy from ages


 But, scarcity & rise in prices are decreasing their charm!!!
We need alternatives of Fossil Fuels!
Biomass has the Potential!
Common Types of Biomass
Biomass that can be used…
Gasification
What is Gasification?

“Conversion of solid fuels in the presence of limited


supply of oxygen.”
Producer gas (CO , H2 , traces of CH4 ) & Ash is formed.
Producer gas composition

Producer gas composition varies depending upon the


type of biomass used.
Properties of Producer Gas
Process Zones of
Gasifier

Ash
Biomass Gasifiers

 Uses the principle of biomass gasification


 Agro based waste can be used as fuel
 Widely used for power generation and thermal
applications.
 On an average, 1 kg of biomass produces about
2.5 m3 of producer gas at S.T.P.
Applications of Biomass Gasification

Power Generation Thermal Applications

 Irrigation Pumping
 Hot Air Generators
 Village Electrification
 Dryers
 Captive Power (Industries)
 Boilers
 Grid-fed Power from Energy
 Ovens
Plantations on Wastelands
 Simultaneous Charcoal &  Furnaces & Kilns

Power Production
Global Usage of Biomass
Gasifiers
Indonesia
Indonesia
Gasifier Stove using Biomass
In 2008, the PTMJ Approtech in Jakarta
designed and developed a gasifier stove
for cooking/ frying applications.
Parts of Indonesian Gasifier stove
Indonesian Wood Charcoal Gasifier stove

The PT. Minang Jordanindo


Approtech- R&D Division
has designed and developed
a gasifier stove that utilizes
wood charcoal as fuel.
India
India
Cooking Stove using Rice Husk

 1 kg of Rice Husk gives over an hr


of a continuous flame which is
hotter than LPG
 Available in different with DC/ AC/
Solar options for powering the fan
 Easy to use and Portable
 Easily available low cost fuel
 Quick ignition time using waste
paper scraps to initiate the
gasification process
Parts of Rice Husk Gas Stove
The Table Type Multiple Remote Burner
Rice Husk Gas Stove
Village Electrification using gas engines
– Kasai village, India
1 MWe Grid Linked – Arashi Hi-tech bio
power system
GASIFIER PRIME MOVER EMISSION ~ Qualifies for
CDM Benefits
Producer gas

Electricity @
Flue gas 440 V

Overall efficiency > 28%


FEED STOCK GRID LINKAGE

440 V to 11 kV
DRIER

EFFLUENT
TREATMENT
PROCESSOR

Recycled water
POWER EXPORT
Gasifier Water Heater for Rural Households
in Western India
Features of Gasifier Water Heater

 Time for boiling 5 liters of water =


22 minutes
 Thermal Efficiency = 31.5%
 The natural draft stove has a tall
chimney between the fuel holder
and the bottom of the cooking pot.
 The CO emission is high only for a
few minutes at the end during the
char burning
 Fuel charge ~ 1 kg of fuel wood
Biomass Gasifiers in Hindustan pencils
manufacturing company

Generates saw dust during the


process
Gasifier designed to operate on
briquetted saw dust
Over 20000 hrs of operation
Electricity for Welding from a Gasifier

Small welding businesses have a reliable source of


electricity from a gasification system.
China
China
Micro Gasifiers as Household Stoves
According to Mr Robert Flanagan
"this stand alone micro gasifier
cuts about 70% of fuel need for
domestic cooking.”.
Chinese Gasifier Stove
Small Biomass Gasifier
Raw Material: Corn Stalk, Sawdust, Branch, Leaves etc
Function: Cooking, warming
Philippines
Rice Husk Quasi-Gasifier Stove
With Side-in Steam Injector
The product demonstration on
the operations of rice hull
gasifier stove to enthusiasts
and potential customers
Thailand
Thailand
AIT Gasifier
This stove was developed at the Asian Institute of Technology,
Bangkok. While rice husk briquette can be used as fuel, this
stove is primarily designed for wood chunks.
Cambodia
Cambodia
Advantages

Biomass is renewable energy source


Substitute of fossil fuels
Fruitful use of waste
Cleaner technology
Less labor
Less costly
Warnings
 The gas stoves emits a flammable & poisonous gas.
Make sure that gas produced during operation is
properly burned in the burner. Do not inhale the gas
emitted from the stove because it is toxic and injurious
to health. The stove should only be operated in a well-
ventilated place to avoid suffocation.
 Production of gas may be uneven and fluctuate with
time
 Ash must be removed properly
Conclusion

Biomass Gasification is a clean technology. It has the


advantages of being one of the energy producing
technologies free of CO2 emissions, if well designed,
and of using a renewable energy source, which makes
it a sustainable energy system. The disadvantages that
can be pointed out from biomass gasification
can successfully be mitigated both by "good
practices" and engineering measures.
References
 “Alternative energy in agriculture”, Vol. II, Ed. D. Yogi
Swami
 “Biomass to energy” report, Ankur scientific, Barooda
 “Analysis of Biomass and Biofuels as source of energy”,
Vignesh Sridharan
 “Natural Draft Gasifier Water Heater for Rural
Households”, by Sanjay. K. Babar, Dr. Priyadarshini
Karve, Issue 57: Household Dynamics
 www.HeatLightPower.com
Thank You…