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# MEE342 – Principles of Mechanical

Design

## Intro to Gears & Gear Trains

Dr. Haolin Zhu
Gears
• Gears are used to transmit torque and angular
velocity in a wide variety of applications.
Spur Gears Helical Gears Bevel Gears Worm Gears
Nomenclature for Spur Gears
Tooth sizes

𝑁
𝑃=
𝑑
Actual tooth sizes for various diametral pitches
  20 0

Full Depth
Standardized Tooth Systems (Spur Gears)

Table 13–1
Conjugate Action
• Forces are transmitted on line of
action which is normal to the
contacting surfaces.

## • Angular velocity ratio is inversely

proportional to the radii to point P,
the pitch point.
Involute Profile
• The most common conjugate profile is the involute profile.
• Can be generated by unwrapping a string from a cylinder,
keeping the string taut and tangent to the cylinder.
• Circle is called base circle.
Circles of a Gear Layout
Relation of Base Circle to Pressure Angle
Interference
• Contact of portions of
tooth profiles that are not
conjugate is called
interference.
• Occurs when contact
occurs below the base
circle.
• Mitigation: use more
teeth on the pinion or use
larger pressure angle.
Number of teeth required
to avoid interference:
Scenario #1:
Given gear ratio mG = NG/NP = m for two mating
gears
Interference of Spur Gears
• For a given gear ratio mG = NG/NP = m
• The smallest number of teeth for the pinion to avoid
interference is

## • k =1 for full depth teeth. k = 0.8 for stub teeth

Interference of Spur Gears ∅ = 200

## • For a given gear ratio mG = NG/NP = m

Gear ratio mG = NG/NP = m Smallest 𝑵𝑷 to avoid 𝑵𝑷 Integer Value
interference (full depth)
1 12.32 13
2 14.16 15
3 14.98 15
4 15.44 16
5 15.74 16
6 15.95 16
7 16.10 17
8 16.22 17
9 16.31 17
10 16.38 17
Interference of Spur Gears ∅ = 250

## • For a given gear ratio mG = NG/NP = m

Gear ratio mG = NG/NP = m Smallest 𝑵𝑷 to avoid 𝑵𝑷 Integer Value
interference (full depth)
1 8.36 9
2 9.43 10
3 9.92 10
4 10.20 11
5 10.38 11
6 10.50 11
7 10.59 11
8 10.66 11
9 10.72 11
10 10.76 11
Number of teeth required
to avoid interference:
Scenario #2:
Given pinion tooth number 𝑁𝑃
Interference of Spur Gears
• Largest gear with a specified pinion that is
interference-free is
Interference of Spur Gears ∅ = 200

## • For a given pinion with 𝑁𝑃

Pinion tooth Largest allowed 𝑵𝐆 Largest allowed 𝑵𝐆 Max gear ratio mG
number 𝑁𝑃 to avoid interference to avoid = NG/NP = m
(full depth) interference (full can be achieved
depth)
Integer value
13 16.45 16 1.23
14 26.12 26 1.86
15 45.49 45 3
16 101.07 101 6.31
17 1309.86 1309 77
Interference of Spur Gears ∅ = 250

## • For a given pinion with 𝑁𝑃

Pinion tooth Largest allowed 𝑵𝐆 Largest allowed 𝑵𝐆 Max gear ratio mG
number 𝑁𝑃 to avoid interference to avoid = NG/NP = m
(full depth) interference (full can be achieved
depth)
Integer value
9 13.33 13 1.44
10 32.39 32 3.2
11 249.23 249 22.64
Gear Trains