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# The Generation of

Compressed Air
Objective

## To understand the properties of gases, the

fundamental gas laws and the physical effects
of compression and how to control them.
Some definitions
Air pressure
Air exerts a pressure on its surroundings

## Pure vacuum has a pressure of 0 bar

Some definitions
Gauge Pressure
Pressure of a system above atmospheric pressure

Absolute Pressure

## The system pressure above a vacuum

Some definitions
Temperature
freezing point of water = 0 deg C

## boiling point of water =100 deg C

Absolute or Kelvin
Absolute Zero = minus 273 deg. C
Some definitions
Pressure ratio
the ratio of the absolute outlet pressure to the
absolute inlet pressure of a compressor or a
compression stage
Some definitions
Volume
Usually quoted as litres or cubic metres

## 1 cubic metre contains 1000 litres

Gases and their properties
There are three well-known states of matter
Solid

Liquid

Gas
Gases and their properties

be compressed

compressed

## Gases are easily compressed

Gases and their properties
Boyle’s Law
If a gas is compressed,

## This works if the temperature does not change

Gases and their properties
Charles’s Law

## Pressure (P) = constant x Temperature (T)

Energy and air compression
Energy and air compression

## the air temperature would rise by about 200 deg. C.

Energy and air compression

and volume

temperatures

## Cold air is dense and takes up less volume

Energy and air compression
Required compressor energy is controlled by 3 factors

## The design and efficiency of the compressor

Energy and air compression
Operate compressor under the following conditions

## Clean air filters regularly

Control of compressors
Demand for compressed air will vary continuously

## Small compressors are used to meet variations in

demand
Water in compressed air
Air can contain quite a lot of water vapour

## this rises to about 30 gms in a cubic metre

Water in compressed air
When air is compressed

## but the temperature rises

So it stays as vapour
Water in compressed air
Once the air is cooled down

## it is over-saturated with water vapour

condensation occurs

## This water has to be removed

Otherwise….
Water in compressed air
It will gradually fill up the system

## Malt, flour (mouldy) Machinery (corrosion)

Water in compressed air
Dew point
the temperature at which air becomes saturated

## and moisture starts to condense

at a given pressure
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