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Reservoir Heterogeneity

2017
Heterogeneity and Anisotropy
• Homogeneous
– Properties same at every
point
• Heterogeneous
– Properties different at every
point
• Isotropic
– Properties same in every
direction
• Anisotropic
– Properties different in different
directions
• Often results from stratification
during sedimentation
K horizontal  K vertical
Homogeniety means single constant
value independent of space
Reservoir Heterogeneity

Lateral 2 , k2
1 , k1
5 , k5
3 , k3 4 , k4

1 , k1
2 , k2
Vertical (Layer)
3 , k3

4 , k4

5 , k5
Flow Unit Geometry and Heterogeneity
• Thickness, lateral extent and geometry are deduced from
heterogeneity and outcrop studies
• Statistical correlations relate lateral dimensions to thickness
Reservoir Heterogenity Type
SWO Matoa Klalin

Kasim

Satyana (2003, 2007)

Walio
Microfacies of Kais Carbonate Reservoirs
Heterogeneity as a Function of Scale
Vertical Heterogeneity Seismic Scale
Vertical Heterogeneity Log Scale
Vertical Heterogeneity Core Scale

A - Typical upper unit of the B - Representative photomicrograph (plane light) from


Navajo Sandstone, from the the lower unit of the Navajo Sandstone showing bimodal
Federal No. 17-3 well (slabbed distribution of subangular to subrounded quartz sand
core from 6669 feet), Covenant and silt. Note a few fractured and corroded K-feldspar
field, showing cross-bedding in grains are present. Blue space is intergranular porosity.
fine-grained sandstone Federal No. 17-3 well, 6773 feet, porosity = 14.8
deposited in a dune percent, permeability = 149 millidarcies based on core-
environment. plug analysis.
Vertical Heterogeneity Ct Scan Scale

Limestone's μ–CT data: example of one 2D slice (a) and its corresponded profile
(b) and 3D model (c), for limestone 1 (I), limestone 2 (II) and limestone 3 (II).
Lateral Heterogeneity

Compartmentalization within the Mississippian dolomite reservoir was


due to reservoir heterogeneity, karst processes, and actual structure
Capillary pressure and heterogeneity
Impact of Sandstone Heterogeneity on
Permeability & Sw Distribution
Impact of Heterogeneity on Steamflood Response
STATISTICS

• Statistics: A set of tools for collecting, organizing, presenting and analyzing


numerical facts or observations.

1. Descriptive Statistics: Procedures used to organize and present data in a


convenient, useable and communicable form.

2. Inferential Statistics: procedures employed to arrive at broader generalizations or


inferences from sample data to populations.

• Data: Characteristics or numbers that are collected by observation.


• Population: A complete set of potential observations.
• Parameter: A number describing a population characteristic; typically inferred from
sample statistic.
• Sample: A subset of population selected according to some scheme.
• Random Sample: A subset selected in such a way that each member of the
population has equal opportunity to be selected.
• Variable: A phenomenon that may take different values.
STATISTICS
• Measures of Central Tendency
- Mean: The point in a distribution of measurements about which the summed
deviations are zero
N
1 1 n

N
x
i 1
i (Population Mean) x   xi
n i 1
(Sample Mean)

-Weighted Mean: Sum of a set of observations multiplied by their respective weights,


divided by the sum of the weights
G

w x
i 1
i i

w
i 1
i

-Median: Observation in a set that divides the set so that the same number of
observations lie on each side of it.
- Mode: Observation that occurs with the greatest frequency
STATISTICS
• Measures of Dispersion

- Sum of squares: deviations from the mean, squared and summed

SS   (x i   x )2

- Variance: The average of square differences between observations and their mean

1 n
1 N s   ( xi  x) 2
2

2 
N
 (x
i 1
i   ) 2 (Population Variance) n i 1 (Sample Variance)

- Standard Deviation: Square root of the variance


N
1
 
N
 (x
i 1
i   )2

N
1
- Covariance: For a bivariated distribution Co 
N
 (x
i 1
i   x ) * ( yi   y )
STATISTICS
Probability

Probability of occurrence of event A


p(A) = # of outcomes of the event A / #total outcomes

Type of Events:

1. Exhaustive: two or more events are said to be exhaustive if all possible outcomes
are considered. p (A y B) = 1
2. Mutually exclusive: Events that cannot occur simultaneously.
p (A y B) = 0, p (A o B ) = p(A) + p(B)
3. Non mutually exclusive: Events that can occur simultaneously.
p (A o B ) = p(A) + p(B) – p(A y B)
4. Independent: Events whose probability is unaffected by occurrence or
non occurrence of each other
5. Dependent: Events whose probability changes depending upon the occurrence
of each other
STATISTICS
Histogram
Is an easy way to analyze the data. In this example the sample is divided in classes,
where a class is defined as a range of values. The number of measures that fall in
a class is called Class Frequency and the graph is called Histogram. The addition of
frequencies represents the cumulative frequency.

Class Frequency % Cumulative

0.015 1 0.01

0.030 6 0.05

0.045 13 0.14

0.060 20 0.28

0.075 11 0.35

0.090 4 0.38

0.105 6 0.42

0.120 16 0.53

0.135 12 0.62

0.150 22 0.77

0.165 19 0.90

0.180 9 0.97

And
greater
... 5 1.00
STATISTICS

Cumulative Frequency Distribution (cdf): Is analogous to cumulative relative


frequency distribution. Is the probability that a value of a random variable is less or
equal than a certain value.

F(x) = prob (X<x)

According with the graph there is about


50% probability that a variable X random
chosen will be less than zero.
STATISTICS

One of the most famous cdf in geology is this figure that shows the distribution of shale
Lengths in various geological environments.
STATISTICS
• Probability Density function (pdf):
We consider next the probability distribution (or density) function or pdf, probably the
most familiar way of presenting the distribution of a random variable. This forms the basis
for interpreting f(x) as a probability of a value of x in the neighbourhood of x.
A typical continuous pdf is shown below

Specific Distributions - There are more than 100 probability distribution functions observed
in nature. We deal with only a few of these. When we speak of a frequency or probability
distribution function (a pdf or histogram) the first thing that naturally comes to mind is the
normal distribution in which a variable x is distributed with probability f according to the
normal distribution .
STATISTICS
• Probability Density function (pdf) for normal distribution:

The quantities  and  are the mean and standard deviation of the distribution; this is a
two parameter distribution since it can be completely specified with only  and  . The
normal distribution is also known as a Gaussian distribution.
STATISTICS
Valores Z para Distribucion Normal
Desv Std Probabilidad Desv Std Probabilidad
desde el promedio Acumulada desde el promedio Acumulada
z


1  2
F (z ) 
-3.0 0.0014 0.0 0.5000
-2.9 0.0019 0.1 0.5398 z
e 2 dz
 2p
-2.8 0.0026 0.2 0.5793
-2.7
-2.6
0.0035
0.0047
0.3
0.4
0.6179
0.6554

-2.5 0.0062 0.5 0.6915
-2.4 0.0082 0.6 0.7257
-2.3 0.0107 0.7 0.7580
-2.2 0.0139 0.8 0.7881
-2.1 0.0179 0.9 0.8159 Z is called a unit normal
-2.0 0.0228 1.0 0.8413
-1.9 0.0287 1.1 0.8643
variable with mean of zero and
-1.8 0.0359 1.2 0.8849 a variance of one.
-1.7 0.0446 1.3 0.9032
-1.6 0.0548 1.4 0.9192
-1.5 0.0668 1.5 0.0332
-1.4 0.0808 1.6 0.9452
(x  )
-1.3 0.0968 1.7 0.9554
z

-1.2 0.1151 1.8 0.9641
-1.1 0.1357 1.9 0.9713
-1.0 0.1587 2.0 0.9773
-0.9 0.1841 2.1 0.9821
-0.8 0.2119 2.2 0.9861
-0.7 0.2420 2.3 0.9893
-0.6 0.2743 2.4 0.9918
-0.5 0.3085 2.5 0.9938
-0.4 0.3346 2.6 0.9953
-0.3 0.3821 2.7 0.9965
-0.2 0.4207 2.8 0.9974
-0.1 0.5602 2.9 0.9981
0.0 0.5000 3.0 0.9987
STATISTICS
The normal distribution is rather uncommon in nature. For example, while porosity
seems to be reasonably normally distributed, permeability distributes in a manner far
removed from the symmetry demanded by the normal distribution. Permeability
seems to be distributed commonly as log-normal. The following figure shows both
the cdf and pdf for a log-normal distribution

The variable X being characterized cannot be less than zero. There are a few very large
values of X; most of the values are small. Because of this the mode (the most likely
value) is less than the median which is less than the mean.
STATISTICS AND GEOSTATISTICS

Heterogeneity

Dispersion or Variability - Heterogeneity is the spatial variation of properties.


All reservoir properties are heterogeneous, but we focus on flow properties here,
especially permeability.
Heterogeneity measures fall into two categories:

1. Static
Coefficient of variation
Dykstra-Parsons coefficient
Lorenz coefficient

2. Dynamic
Channeling factors
Dispersivities
STATISTICS AND GEOSTATISTICS

Heterogeneity: Coefficient of Variation (CF)

The most direct measure of heterogeneity is the variance and standard deviation

Statistical Measures of Heterogeneity . . .

Coefficient of Variation (CF) = Standard deviation/ Mean

The standard deviation is, of course, the positive square root of the variance.
Both quantities have units but the coefficient of variation, CF, does not.
Layer-Heterogeneity Coefficients

• Dykstra-Parsons coefficient VDP:


-- Referred to as permeability variation
-- Determined from a plot of log k versus % Greater than on probability paper
-- Its value is between 0 and 1.0 with high values indicating heterogeneity

• Lorenz coefficient Lc:


-- Determined from a plot of flow capacity (kh) versus storage capacity (h)
-- Its value = 2 x Area between curve and 45 line
-- Its value is between 0 and 1.0 with high values indicating heterogeneity

• Koval’s factor HK:


-- Utilized as a heterogeneity parameter in calculating viscous fingering effect
-- Can be approximated as: log(HK) = VDP / (1 – VDp)0.2
STATISTICS AND GEOSTATISTICS
Heterogeneity: Dykstra-Parsons Coefficient (VDP)
A common measure of permeability
variation used in the petroleum
industry is the Dykstra-Parsons
coefficient VDP.

The Dykstra–Parsons coefficient is


computed from a set of k data
arranged in increasing or decreasing
value. The values to be used in the
definition are taken from a "best fit"
line through the data when they are
plotted on a log–probability plot.
VDP takes values between 0 and 1.
STATISTICS AND GEOSTATISTICS

Dykstra-Parsons Coefficient

10000

1000
V DP = 0.84

100
k/Phie

10

0.1
1 2 5 10 20 30 50 70 80 90 95 98 99

Probability, % less than


Dykstra-Parsons Coefficient
for Layer Heterogeneity

Procedure
• Arrange permeability (k) values in descending
order

• Calculate % Greater than as follows:


% Greater than = 100(2n – 1) / 2N

• Plot log k versus % Greater than on probability


paper

• Draw best-fit line and Read k at 50 and 84.1%

• Calculate VDP: VDP = (k50 – k84.1) / k50


Example of Determining
Dykstra-Parsons Coefficient
Example of Determining
Dykstra-Parsons Coefficient

1000

100
Percent Greater
Permeability Than
md
10

50% 84.1%

1
2 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 98
% Greater Than

VDP = (k50 – k84.1) / k50 = (93 - 38) / 93 = 0.59


The equation for permeability variation V is included below.

Both of the above equations have been implemented into this routine.
The significance of the Log(k) at a probability value of 84.1% is that it is
the equivalent of one standard deviation away from the 50% probability value
assuming a log normal distribution (which permeability distributions often
displays this characteristic).

In 1950, Schmalz and Rahme proposed a single term for characterizing the
permeability distribution within a pay section. Referring to the chart below,
they defined the Lorenz coefficient of heterogeneity as the (area between the
green curve and the red curve) / (area between the red curve and the X axis).

The value of the Lorenz coefficient ranges from 0 to 1, a uniform permeability


reservoir having a Lorenz coefficient of zero. This calculation and display has
also been included within this routine.
Example of Determining
Dykstra-Parsons Coefficient
STATISTICS AND GEOSTATISTICS
Heterogeneity: Lorenz Coefficient (LC)

A less well–known, but more general


measure of variability is the Lorenz
Coefficient LC. If A is the area under
the F–C curve, the Lorenz coefficient
is defined as

LC = 2( Area between F–C curve


and 45o line)

Just as does VDP, LC is 0 for


homogeneous reservoirs and 1 for
infinitely heterogeneous reservoirs.
Dykstra-Parsons Coefficient VDP:

Dykstra and Parsons introduced the


concept of the permeability
variation V, which is designed to
describe the degree of
heterogeneity within the reservoir.
Values for this coefficient range
between zero for a completely
homogeneous system and one for a
completely heterogeneous system.

To obtain the value of permeability


variation V, the permeability dataset
is sorted from minimum to
maximum and displayed on a chart
of log probability scale, as shown
below.
Flow-Storage Capacity Curve

• Arrange data in descending order of (k/)


• Calculate: Fc =  khup to n / khall
Cc =  hup to n / hall
• Plot Fc vs Cc
• Lorenz coefficient:
Lc = 2AFC
• Dykstra-Parsons coefficient:
VDP = (Slope0.5 – Slope0.841)/Slope0.5
Example of
Flow-Storage Capacity Curve
Example of
Flow-Storage Capacity Curve

• Area under curve = 0.17


Lorenz coefficient
Lc = 0.38
• Slope0.5 = 1.15
Fc
Slope0.841 = 0.21

Dykstra-Parsons
coefficient
VDP = (1.15 – 0.21)/1.15 0.50. 0.841
= 0.82 Cc
Heterogeneity of Various Rocks

Coefficient of variation:
Cv = Standard deviation / Mean value