Anda di halaman 1dari 14

GUIDE QUESTIONS

1. Why must the nerve be kept moist?


The nerves used are kept moist in Ringer’s solution. This solution
resembles the ionic composition of the extracellular fluids (Naᐩ, Kᐩ and Cl⁻)
of the frog. Therefore, the sciatic nerve bathed in Ringer’s solution can
remain electrically responsive for the duration of the experiment. Also,
during the dissection the nerve must not be touched with the fingers, cut
muscle, frog skin, or with any metal instruments so as to not cause the
depolarization of the membrane.
2. Nerves transmit signals due to electrical potentials. How can stimuli,
other than electrical produce impulses in the nerve?
Nerve impulses can also be processed via chemical stimulation.
The chemical process between neurons occur at the synapse, where
chemical substances called neurotransmitters are released. These substances
will then attached to the chemical receptors in the membrane of the
following neuron, resulting to the excitatory or inhibitory changes in its
membrane.
GUIDE QUESTIONS
1. Why must the nerve be kept moist?
The nerves used are kept moist in Ringer’s solution. This solution
resembles the ionic composition of the extracellular fluids (Naᐩ, Kᐩ and Cl⁻)
of the frog. Therefore, the sciatic nerve bathed in Ringer’s solution can
remain electrically responsive for the duration of the experiment. Also,
during the dissection the nerve must not be touched with the fingers, cut
muscle, frog skin, or with any metal instruments so as to not cause the
depolarization of the membrane.
2. Nerves transmit signals due to electrical potentials. How can stimuli,
other than electrical produce impulses in the nerve?
Nerve impulses can also be processed via chemical stimulation.
The chemical process between neurons occur at the synapse, where
chemical substances called neurotransmitters are released. These substances
will then attached to the chemical receptors in the membrane of the
following neuron, resulting to the excitatory or inhibitory changes in its
membrane.
3. Does the impulse decrease with time? If so, why?
Conduction with decrement term used to refer to an impaired conduction that occurs in nerve fibers. The
impaired conduction is characterized by a gradual decrease in the stimuli and response along the pathway of
conduction. This also means that the amplitude of the electric impulse decreases with distance as the impulse is
transmitted in nerve fiber.
3. Does the impulse decrease with time? If so, why?
Conduction with decrement term used to refer to an impaired conduction that occurs in nerve fibers. The
impaired conduction is characterized by a gradual decrease in the stimuli and response along the pathway of
conduction. This also means that the amplitude of the electric impulse decreases with distance as the impulse is
transmitted in nerve fiber.
4. Is the effect of anesthesia physical or chemical?
Local anesthesia reversibly blocks the action potential of the nerve,
which suppresses the activity of the CNS at a targeted part of the body (in
this experiment, the sciatic nerve). This induces a loss of sensation or
awareness. In this manner, the anesthesia blocks the influx of Naᐩ ions. Thus,
it is chemical.
5. Why can pressure stop an electrical pressure along the nerve?
Entrapment of peripheral nerve tissue is defined as mechanical
compression of the nerve, which includes the reduction of radial dimensions
in the neural cells. This can lead to displacement, deformity and
morphological changes in the compressed tissue. Pressure can stop an
electrical pressure along the nerve due to the decrease in diameter of the
neuron, blocking its conduction.
6. In the experiment, on the functions of the CNS, explain the differences
between the procedures.
The procedures in the experiment differed based on the type of
stimuli that was introduced to the frogs under three conditions (normal,
single-pithed and double-pithed). It was conducted to determine the
differences in the responses as to whether a reaction will occur or not to a
particular stimuli. It will also reveal if the stimuli only affects both brain and
spinal cord or spinal cord only.
Eye response (blinking), firmness of legs and pulsation of the throat are
the conditions that showed a response action for single-pithed frog due to
intact spinal cord. It means that the occurrence of these body responses is
due to reflex action, which is controlled by spinal cord.
7. What conclusions can you make about the functions of the brain? Of the
spinal cord?
The brain is responsible for interpretation of sensory stimuli. It also
controls movement and carries out higher functions compared to the spinal
cord. Therefore, it plays a central role in most bodily functions. On the other
hand, spinal cord is responsible for transmission of impulses to and from the
brain. It also controls reflexive responses to a certain stimuli.
8. In the reflex action of the frog, what is the relation between the
concentration of the acids and the time of response to the acids.
9. What is near point accommodation?
The near point accommodation is the point by which the eye is able to
accurately focus on the object, at a varying distance.

10. Is auditory acuity the same for both ears?


In this experiment the subject had a different auditory acuity for both
ears, and the difference of acuity may be caused by earwax, ear infection,
cochlear nerve damage, or anything that may affect sound conduction or
nervous system structures associated with hearing.