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Technology Peshawar

CE-409

drakhtarnaeem@nwfpuet.edu.pk

1

Course Content

• Design philosophies

• Introduction to Steel Structures

• Design of Welded connections

• Design of Bolted connections

• Design of Tension Members

• Design of Compression Members

2

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

3

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

11

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

13

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

14

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

15

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Course Content

• Design of Beams

• Design of Composite Beams

• Design of Plate Girders

16

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and

Technology Peshawar

drakhtarnaeeem@nwfpuet.edu.pk

17

Topics to be covered

• Design philosophies

• Limit States

• Design Considerations

• Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

• Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)

• Design process

18

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Philosophies

• A general statement assuming safety in

engineering design is:

• Resistance ≥ Effect of applied loads ---(1)

• In eq(1) it is essential that both sides are

evaluated for same conditions and units e.g.

Compressive Stress on Column should be

compared with Compressive Strength of Column

Material (Steel, Concrete, Wood etc)

19

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Philosophies

• Resistance of structures is composed of its

members which comes from Materials & X-

section

• Resistance, Capacity, and Strength are

somewhat synonym terms.

• Terms like Demand, Stresses, and Loads are

used to express Effect of applied loads.

22

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Limit States

• When particular loading reaches its limit,

failure is the assumed result, i.e. the

loading condition become failure modes,

such a condition is referred to as limit state

and it can be defined as

• “A limit state is a condition beyond which a

structural system or a structural component

ceases to fulfill the function for which it is

designed.”

23

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Limit States

states:

1. Strength limit states

2. Serviceability limit states

3. Special limit states

24

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Limit States

Strength Limit States:

• Flexure • Fatigue

• Torsion • Settlement

• Shear • Bearing

25

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Limit States

Serviceability Limit States:

• Cracking

• Excessive Deflection

• Buckling

• Stability

26

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Limit States

Special Limit States:

• Damage or collapse in extreme

earthquakes.

• Structural effects of fire, explosions, or

vehicular collisions.

27

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

28

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Limit States

• Design Approach used must ensure that the

probability of a Limit State being reached in

the Design/Service Life of a structure is

within acceptable limits;

• However, complete elimination of

probability of a Limit State being achieved

in the service life of a structure is

impractical as it would result in

uneconomical designs.

29

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Considerations

have adequate strength, stiffness and

toughness to ensure proper functioning

during service life

• Reserve Strength should be available to

cater for:

– Occasional overloads and underestimation of loads

– Variability of strength of materials from those specified

– Variation in strength arising from quality of

workmanship and construction practices

30

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

31

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Considerations

margin of safety irrespective of Design

Method

probability of occurrence of failure in the

design process

32

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Considerations

state from being reached.

that none of its members or components

could ever fail. Thus, it is necessary to

establish an acceptable level of risk or

probability of failure.

33

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Considerations

a sudden loss of load carrying capacity when

elastic limit is exceeded.

• Reinforced concrete can be made ductile by

limiting the steel reinforcement.

34

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Considerations

opinion should be sought from experience and

qualified group of engineers.

• In steel design AISC manuals for ASD & LRFD

guidelines can be accepted as reflection of

such opinions.

35

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

36

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

37

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Considerations

• Any design procedure require the confidence

of Engineer on the analysis of load effects and

strength of the materials.

designers are Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

& Load & Resistance Factor Design (LRFD).

38

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

40

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

that the effect of the loads should produce

stresses that is a fraction of the yield stress fy,

say one half.

41

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

FOS = Resistance, R/ Effect of load, Q

= fy/0.5fy

=2

43

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

stresses, it became allowable stress design

(ASD).

uniformly distributed over X-section (such

on determinate trusses, arches, cables etc.)

44

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

Mathematical Description of A S D

Rn

Q i

= Factor of Safety FS

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

Mathematical Description of Allowable Stress Design

In ASD we check the adequacy of a design in terms of stresses

therefore design checks are cast in terms of stresses for

F F

example

f if:

F

b

FS

or F

b

y

b

FS

cr

M = Moment resulting from applied unfactored loads

FS = Factor of Safety

Mn Fy I / c M

M

FS FS I / c I /c

Section Modulus

Section Modulus:

S ≥ effect of load/Allowable stress

= M/fb ------(ii)

50

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

ASD Drawbacks

assumption that the stress in the member is

zero before any loads are applied, i.e., no

residual stresses exist from forming the

members.

51

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Variation of Residual Stress with

Geometry

1. Non uniform cooling

2. Cutting a plate into smaller

pieces reveals the stresses

52

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

ASD Drawbacks

strength, which is more fundamental

measure of resistance than is allowable

stress.

• Another drawback in ASD is that safety is

applied only to stress level. Loads are

considered to be deterministic (without

variation).

53

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Load and Resistance Factor

Design (LRFD)

• To overcome the deficiencies of ASD, the

LRFD method is based on:

Strength of Materials

• It consider the variability not only in

resistance but also in the effects of load.

• It provides measure of safety related to

probability of failure.

54

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Load and Resistance Factor

Design (LRFD)

Safety in the design is obtained by specifying that the reduced

Nominal Strength of a designed structure is less than the effect of

factored loads acting on the structure

Rn n Qi

Rn = Resistance or Strength of the component being designed

Qi = Effect of Applied Loads

n = Takes into account ductility, redundancy and operational imp.

Φ = Resistance Factor or Strength Reduction Factor

= Overload or Load Factors

= Factor of Safety

55

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

The role of ‘n’

deformation without rupture

redistribution of load through

inelastic deformation.

56

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

The role of ‘n’

Redundancy:

1. A simply supported beam is a determinate

structure so it has no redundant actions.

2. A fixed beam is indeterminate by 2 degrees

so it has two redundant actions.

57

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Redundancy

Yielding will initiate at mid span due to maximum moment at mid span

with no Redistribution of load

61

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Redundancy

62

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Redundancy

63

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

The role of ‘n’

Operational Importance:

conservative design than an ordinary

residential building.

64

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Operational Importance

→ hospital

→ park

65

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

LRFD Advantages

and load.

• It achieves fairly uniform levels of safety for

different limit states.

66

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

LRFD Disadvantages

philosophy from previous method.

67

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Comparison of ASD and LRFD Design

Approaches

• ASD combines Dead and Live Loads and

treats them in the same way

• In LRFD different load factors are assigned to

Dead Loads and Live Loads which is

appealing

• Changes in load factors and resistance

factors are much easier to make in LRFD

compared to changing the allowable stress

in ASD

68

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Comparison of ASD and LRFD Design

Approaches

• LRFD is intrinsically appealing as it requires

better understanding of behavior of the

structure in its limit states

• Design approach similar to LRFD is being

followed in Design of concrete structures in

form of Ultimate Strength Design -- why not

use similar approach design of steel

structures?

69

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Comparison of ASD and LRFD Design

Approaches

• ASD indirectly incorporates the Factors of

Safety by limiting the stress whereas LRFD

aims to specify Factors of Safety directly by

specifying Resistance Factors and Load

Factors

• LRFD is more rational as different Factors of

Safety can be assigned to different loadings

such as Dead Loads, Live Loads, Earthquake

Loads and Impact Loads

70

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Comparison of ASD and LRFD Design

Approaches

• LRFD considers variability not only in

resistance but also in the effects of load which

provides measure of safety related to

probability of failure

• It achieves fairly uniform levels of safety for

different limit states.

• ASD still remains as a valid Design Method

71

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Comparison of ASD and LRFD Design

Approaches

In LRFD For Tension Members:

1.2D + 1.6 L = 0.90 Rn 1.33D + 1.78 L = Rn (LRFD)

1.0D + 1.0 L = Rn / 1.67 1.67D + 1.67D L = Rn (ASD)

LRFD 1.33D 1.78 L 0.8 1.07 ( L / D)

…. (A)

ASD 1.67 D 1.67 L 1 ( L / D)

1.4D = 0.90 Rn 1.56D = Rn (LRFD)

…. (B)

ASD 1.67 D 1.67 L 1 ( L / D)

72

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Comparison of ASD and LRFD Design

Approaches

3%

1.0

0.93

1.2D + 1.6L

0.9

LRFD

0.83

ASD

0.8

1.4D

0.7

0.12 1 2 3 4 5 6

Live Load

Dead Load

73

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

AREA Code for Design of Railway

Structures

• AREA Stands for American Railway Engineers

Association (AREA)

• Railway Bridges and Structures are usually

designed using provisions of the AREA Code

• AREA Code uses only the Allowable Stress

Design Method. However, the allowable

stresses and design requirements may differ

from AISC/ASD method

74

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

AASHTO Code for Design of Highway

Bridges

• AASHTO Stands for Association of American

State and Highway Transportation Officials

(AASHTO)

provisions of the AASHTO Code

Methods

75

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

The role of various Codes

• It is very difficult to devise a design code that is

applicable to all uses and all types of structures

such as buildings, highway bridges, railway bridges

and transmission towers

• The responsibility of infrastructure on roads,

bridges and electrical transmission towers rests

with the organization responsible for approving,

operating and maintaining these facilities

76

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

The role of various Codes

different types of structures and no one code

can cater to all the different important

considerations

• For above reasons different codes prevail and

will continue to do so

• AISC ASD Code and LRFD Code primarily is

pertinent to Building Structures.

77

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Overview of LRFD Manual

• Part 1: Dimensions and properties

• Part 2: General Design considerations

• Part 3: Design of flexural members

• Part 4: Design of compression members

• Part 5: Design of Tension members

• Part 6: Design of members subject to

combined loading

78

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Overview of LRFD Manual

• Part 7: Design considerations for bolts

• Part 8: Design considerations for welds

• Part 9: Design of connecting elements

• Part 10: Design of simple shear connections

• Part 11: Design of flexible moment

connections

79

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Overview of LRFD Manual

• Part 12: Design of fully restrained (FR)

moment connections

• Part 13: Design of Bracing connections and

truss connections

• Part 14: Design of Beam bearing plates,

Column base plates, anchor rods,

and column splices.

80

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Overview of LRFD Manual

• Part 15: Design of Hanger connections,

Bracket plates, and Crane-rail

connections

Buildings.

81

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

82

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

83

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Process

1. Functional planning

• Development of a plan that will enable the structure to

fulfill effectively the purpose for which it is to be built

84

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

85

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

86

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Process

because an Architect can suggest a plane which is practically not possible.

87

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Process

2. Structural scheme

88

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Process

2. Structural scheme (Contd.)

89

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Process

3. Preliminary Member Sizing of Beams

• Deflection Considerations

• ASD Commentary L3.1 suggests following Limits:

L 800

For fully stressed Beams & Girders

D Fy ( Ksi)

L

20 For Beams & Girders subject to

D vibrations

L 800

For Roof Purlins

D Fy ( Ksi)

CE-411:Lecture No. 1 90

Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Process

3. Preliminary Member Sizing of Beams

• Strength/Capacity Considerations

Design Moment

Beam

Unbraced Length

CE-411:Lecture No. 1 91

Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Process

3. Preliminary Member Sizing of Columns

• Strength/Capacity Considerations

Tributary Area

Column Tables

CE-411:Lecture No. 1 92

Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Tributary Area

93

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Process

4. Structural Analysis - Modeling

94

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Process

4. Structural Analysis - Analysis

95

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

96

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

97

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

98

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

99

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Process

5. Design Review/ Member Modification

• Must be chosen so that they will be able to resist,

within appropriate margin of safety, the forces

which the structural analysis has disclosed.

100

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Process

6. Cost Estimation

• Make a tentative cost estimates for several

preliminary structural layouts.

• Selection of constructional material based on:

• Availability of specific material

• Corresponding skilled labor

• Relative costs

• Wage scales

101

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Process

7. Preparation of Structural Drawings & Specifications

102

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Thanks

103

CE-411: Lecture 01 Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

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