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BIFASICAL SEPARATION

SYSTEMS

UNIVERSIDAD INDUSTRIAL DE SANTANDER


PRESENTED
FACULTAD BY:
PRESENTED TO: FISICO-QUIMICAS
DE INGENIERIAS
JORGE IVÁN
ESCUELA MEZA ORTEGA 2134780
MSC. NICOLAS SANTOSPETROLEOS
DE INGENIERIA DE SANTOS
MARTIN EMILIO VERGARA RICARDO 2134765
BUCARAMANGA
2018
PROGRAM
Introduction

Separation Principle

Functional Sections of a Gas-Liquid Separator

Equipment Description

Selection Considerations

Operational Problems

Design of Horizontal and Vertical Separators

Conslusions

Bibliography
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
TREATMENT AND STORAGE

Source: Cap 4, Ken Arnold

GAS LIQUID
BUBBLES DROPS
Source: http://www.cpcol.com.co/trabaje-con-nosotros/perfiles/especialistas
INTRODUCTION

Source: https://www.elsevier.com/books/gas-sweetening-and-
processing-field-manual/stewart/978-1-85617-982-9

Source: Ken Arnold book


INTRODUCCIÓN

Classification of
Separators

Geometry Type Location

Vertical Horizontal Biphasic Three-phase Inlet Series/Parallels

Espherical Test
Slug Catcher Scrubber

Source: https://es.slideshare.net/rosadocastellanos/separadoresdehidrocarburos
PRINCIPLES OF
SEPARATION
PRINCIPLES OF SEPARATION
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE

Source: www.jlcpumps.co.uk/shortprinciplewith.gif Source: http://www.teisa.com.mx/paletas.shtml


PRINCIPLES OF SEPARATION
MOMENTUM VARIATION

• Los fluidos con diferentes densidades


tienen diferentes momentum.

• Cambio de dirección brusco de la


corriente de dos fases

Baffle plates. Ken Arnold. Surface production operations. Volume 1.


PRINCIPLES OF SEPARATION
GRAVITATIONAL FORCE

STOKE´S LAW

1488𝑔𝐷𝑝2 (𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑔 ൯
𝑉𝑡 =
18𝜇

0.33
𝜇2
𝐷𝑝 = 𝐾𝐶𝑅
𝑔𝜌𝑔 (𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑔

𝐾𝐶𝑅 = 0.025 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎 𝑅𝑒 = 2


Source. GPSA, Cap 7
PRINCIPLES OF SEPARATION
COALESCENCE

Source: http://www.revistamash.com/detalle.php?id=413
Separación gravitacional bifásica . Jesús Toribio Espinosa Sandoval
FUNCTIONAL
SECTIONS OF
A GAS-LIQUID
SEPARATOR
FUNCTIONAL SECTIONS OF A
GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR
Independently of the size or shape of a separator, each liquid gas
separator contains four main sections.

v
v
v
v

• Sedimentation
Mist extractor
Inlet
Liquiddiversion section
collection section
section by gravity
FUNCTIONAL SECTIONS OF A
GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR
 Inlet Diverter Section

• A high-speed turbulent mixture


• Primary separation section (gross)
FUNCTIONAL SECTIONS OF A
GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR
 Liquid Collection Section

• Holding time
• Increase volume - degree of separation
• Separation liq - liq liq Vs - gas
FUNCTIONAL SECTIONS OF A
GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR
 Sedimentation Section by Gravity
• Gravitational force> Drag force
• Droplet sizes: 100 - 140 microns
FUNCTIONAL SECTIONS OF A
GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR
 Mist Extractor Section
• The gas that enters the extractor contains liquid
• Drops accumulate in the extractor
FUNCTIONAL SECTIONS OF A
GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR
 Mist Extractor Section

Mist Extractor Section

Wire Mesh Baffles Micro Fiber

(3-10) microns (10-40) microns (<3) microns


FUNCTIONAL SECTIONS OF A
GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR
Baffles (10-40) microns
FUNCTIONAL SECTIONS OF A
GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR
Wire Mesh (3-10) microns
FUNCTIONAL SECTIONS OF A
GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR
Main parameters to consider when selecting a mist extractor
OTHER
FUNCTIONAL
SECTIONS OF A
SEPARATOR
VESSEL INTERNALS
 Wave Breakers
• Perforated deflectors perpendicular to the flow
• Maintain level controls, level switches and landfills functioning
correctly

Source: https://www.valin.com/engineered-solutions/separation-systems
VESSEL INTERNALS
 Defoaming Plates
• The foam is generated when the gas is released from the liquid
• It goes through a series of inclined plates and the foam collapses

Source: http://www.fenix.in/wave-breakers.html
VESSEL INTERNALS
 Vortex Breaker

• The liquid that comes out of a separator can form vortices, which can carry
the gas to the outlet of the liquid
• As the liquid enters the bottom, the flat plates prevent any circular movement

Source: http://webwormcpt.blogspot.com.co/2008/07/display-problem-
click-here-recommended.html
VESSEL INTERNALS
 Sand Jets and Drains

• Sand drains are opened in a controlled manner, and then water is pumped at high
pressure, through the jets to agitate the solids and discharge them down the drains.
(6m / s)

Source: http://www.propiping-equip.com/products.html
EQUIPMENT
DESCRIPTION
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION

HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR

- High gas-liquid ratio


Mist Extractor
Gravity Settling
- Foamy Crude
Inlet
Section
Liquid Collection
Section

Horizontal separator. Ken Arnold. Surface production operations volume 1.


EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION

VERTICAL SEPARATOR

- Gas-liquid ratio: Low to Intermediate


Liquid Collection
- Content of sands and other sediments
Gravity
Inlet
Mist
Section Settling
Extractor
Section

Vertical two phase separator. Ken Arnold. Surface production


operations. volume 1.
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
SCRUBBER

Mist Extractor
Liquid
GasInlet
Outlet
Outlet
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
SLUG CATCHER

Schematic of a two-phase horizontal slug catcher with liquid “fingers.”.Ken Arnold. Surface
production operations. volume 1.
OTHER
SEPARATOR
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
OTHER SEPARATORS
SPHERICAL CENTRIFUGAL

spherical separator. Ken Arnold. Surface production operations. Centrifugal separator. Ken Arnold. Surface production operations.
volume 1. volume 1.
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
OTHER SEPARATORS
DOUBLE BARREL

Double Barrel separator. Ken Arnold. Surface production operations.


volume 1.
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
OTHER SEPARATORS
HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR WITH
TWO BARREL FILTER
"BOOT" O "WATER POT"
SEPARATOR

Typical Horizontal two barrel filter separator. Ken Arnold. Surface


Horizontal separator with Boot or Water Boot. Ken Arnold. Surface
production operations. volume 1.
production operations. volume 1.
SELECTION
CONSIDERATIONS
SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS

HORIZONTAL Vs VERTICAL

The geometry of the physical and


operational characteristics give each type of
separator advantages and disadvantages

• Handling of solids
• Greater areal extension
• Easy to reach valves and controls
• Lateral loads
• Wall thickness
• Under GOR
POTENTIAL
OPERATING
PROBLEMS
POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS

 foamy oil
 Paraffin
 Sand
 Liquid transfer
 Blown gas
 Liquid slugs
POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS
 Foamy Oil
The main cause of foam in crude oil is the presence of impurities (CO2)

In a separator foam is a triple problem

1. Mechanical control of liquid level

2. The foam has a great volume-weight ratio

3. Dragging the foam material at the exits


POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS

 Paraffin

The operation of the separator can be adversely affected by a


paraffin accumulation

How are they controlled?

Centrifugal or plate-type extractors, with steam,


solvent or other types of cleaning

Soruce: http://www.stratabiogreen.com/limpiador-de-parafinas-y-
derivados
POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS

 Sand
• Cut the edge of the valve or line How is it eliminated?
• Plug the interior of the separator • Periodic injection of water
• It accumulates in the lower part of the separator • Injecting steam into the bottom

Washing and drainage


system
POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS

 Sand
The sand produced may tend to adhere to the steel at 45 ° C.
If a large sand production was anticipated, then:
POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS
 Liquid Transfer
Occurs when the free liquid escapes with the gas
phase
Indicates:

• High level
• Damage inside the separator
• Foam
• Liquid outlet plugged
• Flow that exceeds the design

It is avoided with:
Soruce: https://es.123rf.com/photo_41017011_pumpjack-de-bombeo-
High level sensor (10 - 15)% de-petr%C3%B3leo-crudo-de-los-pozos-de-petr%C3%B3leo.html
POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS
 Blown Gas
Occurs when the free gas escapes with the liquid phase
Indicates:
• Low level of liquid
• Failure in the level control (open discharge valve)
It is avoided with:
• Low level sensor (10-15)%
Soruce: https://www.dieselbombers.com/1st-generation-dodge-cummins-89-
Further: 93/78274-foamy-bubbly-oil.html

• the downstream process components must be equipped with


a high pressure sensor and a pressure safety valve
POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS
 Liquid slug
Flow lines and two-phase pipes tend to
accumulate liquids at low points in the lines

Depending on:
• The flows
• The flow properties Source: http://www.pmecsa.com/sitio/2014/06/05/dimensionamiento-de-tuberias-de-proceso-en-flujo-bifasico/

• The length and diameter of the


flow line
• The elevation change involved
DESIGN FACTOR
OF A SEPARATOR
DESIGN FACTOR OF A
SEPARATOR
FACTORS TO BE AWARE OF
-Rate of Gas and Liquid.
Operational pressure and temperature.
Physic fluids properties like density, z and viscosity.
Degree of separator design in terms of 100% elimination of particles.
Impurity presences like paraffin, sand, scales, etc.
Petroleum tendency to form foam
Corrosion tendency of liquid or gas.
DESIGN FACTOR OF A
SEPARATOR
ASPECTS TO EVALUATE
-The energy that holds the fluid entering the separator.
The flow (l/g) rates
The turbulence.
Foam build-up and pollutants.
The outputs of the separator of liquid and gaseous phase.
Control of the pressure - relief valve installation.
Parameters that affect the behavior of the system to separate.
DESIGN FACTOR OF A
SEPARATOR
PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN SEPARATORS DESIGN

-Fluid composition

Flow rate to be separated.

Operational pressure and temperature.

Know Z to determinate the gas volume at the work.

Fluid density.

Retention time assigned to fluid.


DESIGN
CRITERIA
DESIGN CRITERIA
Regulations
VESSELS DESIGN PRESSURE

Max. Operat. Pressure, Psi Design Pressure, Psi


API – 12J
Vacuum Out: 15 / In: 50
0 - 25 50
25 - 250 Max. Oper. Pressure + 25 Psi

>250 ASME – VIII – D1


Max. Oper. Pressure + 10%

VESSELS DESIGN TEMPERATURE

ASME – VIII – D2
Opera. Temperature, F
1. – Standard
Design Temperature, F
-20 y +150
Environmental - 600 Max. Oper. Temperature + 50 F
>600 Max. Oper. Temperature + 60 F
DESIGN
SEPARATOR
DESIGN OF SEPARATORS
HORIZONTAL HALF FULL
GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
Field Units

SI Units

Model of a horizontal separator. Ken Arnold. Surface production operations. volume 1.


DESIGN OF SEPARATORS

LIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINT

Field Units

SI Units

Model of a horizontal separator. Ken Arnold. Surface production operations. volume 1.


DESIGN OF SEPARATORS

SEAM TO SEAM LENGTH


Field Units

SI Units

LIQUID CAPACITY BASIS

Approximate seam-to-seam length of a horizontal separator one-half full.. Ken Arnold. Surface production
operations. volume 1.
DESIGN OF SEPARATORS
SLENDERNESS RATIO

12𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑓
>4𝑜5 RE-ENTRAINMENT PROBLEMS
𝑑

12𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑓
>1 <4 IDEAL
𝑑

12𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑓
>3 <4 IDEAL DESIGN OF THE SEPARATOR
𝑑
EXAMPLE
DESIGN OF SEPARATORS
1. Determine the drag coefficient CD by an iterative
process 𝜌(Assume
Calculate Z: a CD = 0.34).
𝑜: 1ൗ
2
𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑔 𝑑𝑚
𝑉1 = 0,0119
𝜌𝑔 𝐶𝐷
141,5
2.70 ∗ 𝐺𝐸 ∗ 𝑃 8829.6
𝐴𝑃𝐼
𝜌𝑔== 𝜌 − 131,5
𝑜 𝑇∗𝑍 𝜌𝑜 =
62,4
𝐴𝑃𝐼+131.5
𝜌𝑔𝜌𝑑𝑔𝑚
𝑑𝑚𝑣𝑣
𝑅𝑒𝑅𝑒==0,0049
0,0049
𝜇𝑔𝜌𝑔

24 3
𝐶𝑑 = + 0.5 + 0,34
𝑅𝑒 𝑅𝑒

Figure 3-9. Compressibility factor for specific gravity = 0.6


gasses. (courtesy of GPSA Engineering Data Book).

Figure 3-17. Hydrocarbon gas viscosity. (Courtesy of GPSA


Engineering Data Book)
DESIGN OF SEPARATORS

2. Calculate the gas capacity: 3. Calculate the capacity of the liquid:


1ൗ
𝑇𝑍𝑄𝑔 𝜌𝑔 𝐶𝐷 2 𝑡𝑟 𝑄𝑙
𝑑𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 420 𝑑 2 𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑓 =
𝑃 𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑔 𝑑𝑚 0.7

T: Temperature, R 𝑡𝑟 : Retention time


Z: Compressibility factor 𝑄𝑙 : Liquid flow
𝑄𝑔 : Gas flow, MMSCFd
P: Pressure, psia
𝜌𝑔 : Gas density, lb/cf
𝜌𝑙 : Liquid density, lb/cf
𝐶𝐷 : Drag coefficient
𝑑𝑚 : Particle size, microns
DESIGN OF SEPARATORS

4. Establish relationships between the diameter of the spacer (d) and the
effective length (Leff) capabilities for gas and liquid:

d (in) Gas Leff (ft) Liquido Leff (ft)


16
20
24
30
36
DESIGN OF SEPARATORS

5. Calculate the length between weld beads (LSS) for each diameter:

𝑑
for Leff Gas > 7.5 ft 𝐿𝑠𝑠 = 𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑓 +
12

for Leff Gas < 7.5 ft 𝐿𝑠𝑠 = 𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑓 + 2.5

4
for liquid: 𝐿𝑠𝑠 = 𝐿
3 𝑒𝑓𝑓
DESIGN OF SEPARATORS

6. Determine the slenderness ratio for each diameter:

12𝐿𝑠𝑠
𝑆𝑅 =
𝑑

7. Select the option that contains a slenderness ratio between 3 and 4.


CONCLUSIONS
CONCLUSIONS

 Separation systems are a complex relation of many variables, especially,


due to the complexity of the oil properties that are being produced.
Separating liquid or gas streams produced at the oil field is a series of
processes that take place during the treatment step.

 A separator is as unique as the oil since every reservoir has certain


properties that make it different, thereby, before designing step of the
separator, it is required to know the properties of the crude.

 Many options are actually at the oil industry to provide a proper crude to
transport or further treatment processes. There is no doubt that the
separation is the first and main stage of the oil production.
REFERENCES
REFERENCES

ARNOLD, K., STEWART, M., Design of Oil Handling


Systems and Facilities, Surface Productions Operations,
Volume 1, 3eraEdición.Gulf Publishing, Houston, Texas,
2008.

GPSA Engineering Data Book, 12 Edition, Gas


Processors Suppliers Association, Tulsa, Oklahoma,
2004.
UNIVERSIDAD INDUSTRIAL DE SANTANDER