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Harish Baba.V.V
˜ rocess is a set of logically related tasks erformed to achieve a
defined outcome.

˜ urning data into information is a rocess.

˜ nowledge is an awareness and understanding of a set of

information and the ways that information can be used to suort a
secific task or reach a decision.

˜ he rocess of defining relationshis among data to create useful

information requires knowledge.
˜ amle-Part of the knowledge needed for building a railroad
layout, for instance, is ±understanding how large an area is
available for the layout±how many trains will run on the track±how
fast they will travel

˜ he act of selecting/rejecting facts according to their relevance to

articular tasks is also based on a tye of knowledge used for
converting data into information.

˜ ata is organized or rocessed manually, or with the hel of a

˜ system is a set of elements or comonents that interact to
accomlish goal(s).

˜ he elements themselves and the relationshis among them

determine how the system works

˜ ystems have inuts, rocessing mechanisms, oututs, and

(otional) feedback
˜ dirty car, water, and the various cleaning ingredients.

˜ ime, energy, skill, and knowledge required to successfully oerate

the liquid srayer, foaming brush, and air dryer devices.

˜ nowledge used to define the stes in the car wash oeration and
their order of ˜eecution
˜ odel= an abstraction / aroimation used to reresent reality.
odels enable us to elore and gain an imroved understanding of
real-world situations

˜ anagers and decision makers use models to hel them

Ł Understand what is haening in their organizations

Ł ake better decisions.

˜ u    -based on words; thus, it is a logical and not a
hysical model. Both verbal and written descritions of reality are
considered in narrative models. In an organization, reorts,
documents, and conversations concerning a system are all imortant

  ±tangible reresentation of reality. any hysical
models are comuter designed or constructed. n engineer may
develo a hysical model of a chemical reactor to gain imortant
information about how a large-scale reactor might erform, or a
builder may develo a model of a new shoing center to give a
otential investor information about the overall aearance and
aroach of the develoment.
˜ |    -grahic reresentation of reality -grahs,
charts, figures, diagrams, illustrations, and ictures. Used
etensively in develoing comuter rograms and systems. Business
eamles - bluerint for a new building, a grah that shows budget
and financial rojections, electrical wiring diagrams, and grahs
showing when certain tasks to be comleted to stay on schedule.

˜      -arithmetic reresentation of reality.

Comuters are used at solving such models. Business eamle -
Retail chains use such models to identify all the activities, effort, and
time for lanning, building, and oening a new store so that they
can forecast how long it will take to comlete a store.
  Y á
˜ anual versus comuterized information systems

˜ Comuter-based information system (CBI)

Ł Hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, eole, and


Ł Collect, maniulate, store, and rocess data into information

˜ elecommunications-electronic transmission of signals for
communications, enabling organizations to carry out their rocesses
and tasks through effective comuter networks. amle -Large
restaurant chains linking hundreds of restaurants to cororate head
quarters to seed credit card authorization and reort sales and
ayroll data

˜ etworks-used to connect comuters and comuter equiment in a

building, around the country, or around the world to enable
telecommunication. Investment firms use wireless networks to
connect thousands of eole with their cororate offices
˜ he Internet-world¶s largest comuter network, consisting of
thousands of interconnected networks, all freely echanging
information. Research firms, colleges, universities, high schools,
and businesses are just a few eamles of organizations using the
á    ë  

˜ Intranet-an internal network based on Web technologies that allows

eole within an organization to echange information and work on

˜ tranet-a network based on Web technologies that allows selected

outsiders, such as business artners and customers, to access
authorized resources of the intranet of a comany

˜ Ignoring the customer and the fact that the customer should
evaluate the roduct

˜ reating managers as customers even though they don't use the

work system's roduct directly

orgetting that the urose of a work system is to roduce a roduct
for an internal or eternal customer

orgetting that the roduct of a work system is often not the roduct
of the organization

˜ efining the business rocess so narrowly that an imrovement has
little consequence

˜ efining the business rocess so broadly that it involves a wide range of

roducts and customers and is difficult to analyze coherently

˜ Confusing business rocess measures (such as consistency and

roductivity) with roduct measures (such as cost to the customer and
quality erceived by the customer)

˜ hinking about the business rocess as a theoretical set of stes and

ignoring whether it is adequately suorted by articiants,
information, and technology

˜ Ignoring the incentives felt by articiants and ignoring other
ressures on them

ocusing on "users" rather than articiants, thereby over-
emhasizing I and under-emhasizing how the work system
oerates and what it roduces

˜ ssuming that better information will generate better results

˜ ownlaying the imortance of soft information not catured by

formal systems

˜ ssuming that better technology will generate better results

ocusing on technology without thinking about whether it makes a
difference in the work system
˜ ummarizes the elements any business rofessional should look at
when analyzing an eisting or otential system in an organization

˜ he framework says that the system is much more than just

˜ Instead, the system is actually a work system consisting of a

business rocess erformed by human articiants using
information and technology

Ł Instead, the system is actually a work system consisting of a business

rocess erformed by human articiants using information and

˜ he   is whoever
receives and uses the roduct
of the work system

˜ his may be an eternal

customer, a customer for the
organization's roduct, or it
may be an internal customer
inside the organization.

˜ he !  is the
combination of hysical
things, information, and
service that the work system
roduces for the customer

˜ he work system eists to

roduce the roduct for the

˜ he 2  
! is the set
of work stes that are
erformed within the work

˜ hese stes may be recisely

defined in some situations or
relatively unstructured in

˜ he ! !  are eole
who erform the work stes
in the business rocess

˜ he same business rocess

might be erformed with
different degrees of success
deending on the skills,
training, and interests of the

˜ he    is the
information used by the
articiants to erform their

˜ ome of the information may

be comuterized, but other
imortant information may
never be catured on a

˜ he    is the
hardware, software, and other
tools and resources used by
the articiants in doing their

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˜   is how a current
or roosed system oerates
and how its comonents work

  is how well a
system and each of its major
comonents oerates.

˜   is the eternal

human and technical resources
a system deends uon and
shares with other systems.

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  the organizational,
cometitive, and technical
realm within which the system
oerates, including eternal
stakeholders, the organization's
olicies, ractices, and culture,
and cometitive and regulatory
issues that affect the system.

˜ º  are foreseeable events

whose occurrence could cause
system degradation or failure.
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