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Wind load

• Most important factor that determines the design


of tall buildings over 10 storeys, where storey
height approximately lies between 2.7 – 3.0 m

• Appropriate design wind loads are estimated


based on:

– Static approach

– Dynamic approach
As per IS-875 (P3)2015
• All individuals and organizations responsible for putting-up
of tall structures ( transmission towers, chimneys, cooling
towers, buildings, etc ) to provide instrumentation in their
existing and new structures at different elevations ( at least at
two levels ) to continuously measure and monitor wind data.
• The instruments are required to collect data on wind
direction, wind speed and structural response of the structure
due to wind (with the help of accelerometer, strain gauges,etc)
Wind Effect on Structures
Wind Effect on Structures

TURBULENT WAKE
(RANDOM)
Wake

Random Vibrations due to Buffetting by Turbulent Wake of other structure

PERIODIC WAKE

Wake in case of
Low Rise Buildings

Wake

Periodic Vibrations due to Buffetting by Periodic Wake of other structure


Dynamic Wind Analysis
# For tall, long span and slender structures a ‘dynamic analysis’
of the structure is essential.
# Wind Gusts cause fluctuating forces on the structure
which induce large dynamic motions / oscillations.
# The severity of the wind-induced dynamic motions /
oscillations depends on - the natural frequency of vibration &
- the damping of the structure.
# Dynamic motions are induced in both directions -
- ‘along-wind’ direction as well as ‘across-wind’ direction.
# The ‘along-wind’ response of the structure is accounted for by
a magnification factor (‘gust factor’) applied to static forces.
# The ‘across-wind’ response requires a separate “dynamic -
analysis”.
Provisions of IS 875: 1987 (SP-64, 2001) can be broadly classified as:

• Computation of design wind speed based on wind zone, terrain


category, topography and wind direction.
• Computation of design wind pressure.
• Computation of wind load using pressure coefficients.
(Pressure coefficients are applicable to design of structural
elements like walls, roofs and cladding.)
• Computation of wind load using force coefficients.
(Force coefficients applicable to the building frame / structural
frameworks as a whole)
• Computation of along-wind forces using gust factor method to
account for dynamic effect of wind. (Magnification factor applied to static forces)
• Evaluation of across-wind forces using wind tunnel - model
analysis.
Force Coefficient Method
Example 1
A multistoried framed building
Length : 50 m
Width : 10 m 15 @ 4 m

Height : 60 m
Height of each storey : 4 m
Spacing of frames :5 m
4m
along the length

5m 5m
A MULTISTORY BUILDING
Wind Data

Wind zone : 5 (Basic wind speed = 50 m/s)


Terrain category :3
Topography : Flat (i.e. upwind slope < 3°)

Life of structure : 50 years.


Structure is present in non cyclonic region.
As per IS 875 (part 3) 2015
Terrain classification :
Category 1 - Open terrain with few or no obstructions. Average height of
object surrounding the structure is less than 1.5 m. (Open sea
coasts, flat plains without trees). Equivalent aerodynamic
roughness height (z0,1) for this terrain is 0.002 m.
Category 2- Open terrain with well scattered obstructions having height
between 1.5 to 10 m. (Airfields, open park lands, undeveloped
sparsely built-up outskirts of towns and suburbs). Equivalent
aerodynamic roughness height (z0,2) for this terrain is 0.02 m.
Category 3- Terrain with numerous closely spaced obstruction having
height upto 10 m with or without a few isolated tall structures.
(Well wooded areas and shrubs, town or industrial areas full or
partially developed). Equivalent aerodynamic roughness height
(z0,3) for this terrain is 0.2 m.
Category 4- Terrain with numerous large high closely spaced obstructions
generally with height above 25 m. (Large city centers, well
developed industrial complexes). Equivalent aerodynamic
roughness height (z0,4) for this terrain is 2 m.
Design Wind Speed (Vz)

Vz = Vb . K1 . K2 . K3 .K4

Where,
VZ = Design wind speed at any height z (m/s)
Vb = Basic wind Speed
k1 = Risk coefficient (probability factor ) ( Cl. No. 6.3.1 )

k2 = Terrain roughness and height factor ( Cl. No. 6.3.2 )

k3 = Topography factor ( Cl. No. 6.3.3 )

k4 = Importance factor for cyclonic region ( Cl. No. 6.3.4 )


Vb = Basic wind Speed ( at 10 m ht. above average G.L.)

Based on 50 years 55 m/s


return period
wind speeds are 47 m/s
50 m/s
measured by 43-
Dines Pressure
Tube ( DPT ) at
various
Anemograph
Stations. *
39 m/s Nagpur
(Meteorological
44 m/s
Observatories)
33 m/s
k1 = Risk coefficient ( probability factor )
k2 = Terrain roughness and height factor
k3 = Topography factor

CL.6.3.3.1 When upwind slope (θ ) greater than 3˚ then

k3 = 1.0 to 1.36
k3 = 1.0 for slopes less than 3˚.

( Refer Appendix C )

It may be noted that the value of k3 is maximum near the ground,


and reducing to 1.0 at higher levels.
k4 = Importance factor for cyclonic region

• This factor is added in the latest to consider the effect of severe cyclone
winds.
• East coast and west coast (Gujarat) are vulnerable for the occurrence of
cyclone storms.
• The effect of cyclonic storms is largely felt in a belt of 60 km width at
the coast.
• The following values of k4 are taken according to the importance of the
structure.
Therefore, Design Wind Speed is given by,

Vz = Vb.k1.k2.k3.k4
k1 = 1.00
k2 = varies with height
k3 = 1.00
k4 = 1.00

Design Wind Speed (velocity)


Vz = (50 x 1 x 1 x 1) k2
= 50 k2 m/s
Design Wind Pressure (pd)
pz = 0.6 Vz2

pd = kd.ka.kc.pz

Where,
pz = Wind pressure at height z in (N/m2)
Vz = Design wind speed at any height z (m/s)
pd = Design wind speed
kd = Wind directionality factor ( Cl. No. 7.2.1 )
ka = Area averaging factor ( Cl. No. 7.2.2 )
kc = Combination factor ( Cl. No. 7.3.3.13 )

However, the value of pd shall not be less than 0.7pz


kd = Wind directionality factor

• It is specified that for buildings, solid signs, open signs, lattice


frameworks and trussed towers (triangular, square, rectangular) a
factor of 0.9 may be used on the design wind speed.

• For circular or near-circular forms this factor may be taken as 1.

• For cyclone affected regions the factor shall be taken as 1.


ka = Area averaging factor

• The decrease in wind pressure because of increase in area is taken


into account from this coefficient.
• Tributary area of whole structure is taken to evaluate loads on
frame. It is the center to center distance between the frames
multiplied by individual panel dimension in other direction.
kc = Combination factor

• It is not necessary that on frames of clad building the internal and


external pressure/suctions are always correlated (i.e. when
direction of internal and external pressure is same).

• Code suggests that, when taking wind loads on frames of clad


buildings combination factor of 0.9 may be taken.
Design Wind Pressure (pd)
Now,
pz = 0.6 Vz2 = 0.6 x (50 k2)2 = 1500 k22 N/m2

For intermediate frames, Design Wind Pressure is


given by,
pd = k d x k a x kc x pz
kd = 0.9
Now, effective area at every node = 5 x 4 = 20 m2.
From table 4,
ka = 0.933
kc = 1.00
pd = 0.9 x 0.933 x 1 x 1500 k22
= 1259.55 k22 > 0.7 pz (1050 k22) ..OK
Design Wind Pressure (pd)

For roof frame, Design Wind Pressure is given by,


pd = k d x k a x k c x p z
kd = 0.9
Now, effective area at every node = 5 x 2 = 10 m2.
From table 4,
ka = 1.00
kc = 1.00
pd = 0.9 x 1 x 1 x 1500 k22
= 1350 k22 > 0.7 pz (1050 k22) ..OK
Wind Load Calculations
F = Cf Ae pd (Force coefficient Method : for structure as whole)
F = (Cpe- Cpi) A pd (Pressure coefficient Method : for individual
members like wall, roof, etc. )

Where,
F = Wind load
Cf = Force Coefficient
Ae = Effective frontal area obstructing wind
pd = Design wind pressure
Cpe = External pressure coefficient
Cpi = Internal pressure coefficient
A = Surface area of structural element or cladding unit
Fig.4 : IS 875
Wind Load Calculations
F= Cf Ae pd

a/b = 10/50= 0.2


h/b = 60/50= 1.2
Cf [refer Fig.4] = 1.2
Frame
Frames @ 5m c/c

b=50 m h=60 m
4m

a =10 m a =10 m
Plan of building Elevation
Frames @ 5m c/c

Sample Calculation
Wind 50 m
Cf = 1.2 5m
pd = 1259.55 k22
10 m
K2 = 1.136 (at ht. 60 m) Plan of Building

( refer Table 2, by interpolation between ht. 50-100 for terrain


category 3)
For top roof,
Ae = 5 x 2 = 10 m2 (Spacing of frames 5 m along the length &
half height of top storey = 2 m)

For intermediate floors,


Ae = 5 x 4 = 20 m2 (Taking height = 4 m)
Therefore, for top roof
pd = 1350 k22
= 1350 x (1.136)2
= 1742.17 N/m2

F = Cf Ae pd
= 1.2 x 10 x 1742.17
= 20906 N
= 20.9 kN

Therefore, for intermediate level


F = Cf Ae pd
= 1.2 x 10 x 1350 k22
= 16200 k22 kN
After selecting proper values of k2 from the Code, the values of the
design wind pressure are computed and given in Table
Lateral Force
Elevation (m) k2 Vz (m/s) pz (N/m2)
(kN)
60 1.136 56.8 1625.44 20.9
56 1.1296 56.48 1607.18 38.57
52 1.1232 56.16 1589.02 38.14
48 1.114 55.7 1563.09 37.51
44 1.102 55.1 1529.60 36.71
40 1.09 54.5 1496.47 35.92
36 1.078 53.9 1463.70 35.13
32 1.066 53.3 1431.29 34.35
28 1.05 52.5 1388.65 33.33
24 1.03 51.5 1336.25 32.07
20 1.01 50.5 1284.86 30.84
16 0.978 48.9 1204.73 28.91
12 0.934 46.7 1098.77 26.37
8 0.91 45.5 1043.03 25.03
4 0.91 45.5 1043.03 25.03
0 0 0 0 0
20.9 kN
38.57 kN Force Coefficient
38.14 kN Method
37.51 kN
36.71 kN
35.92 kN
35.13 kN
34.35 kN 15 @ 4 m
33.33 kN
32.07 kN
30.84 kN
28.91 kN
26.37 kN
25.03 kN 4m
25.03 kN
0
5m 5m
A MULTISTORY BUILDING
Gust Factor Method
Along-wind Dynamic Analysis

* Magnitude of fluctuating component of wind velocity is called Gust.


* Gust causes increase in air pressure.
For structures with high slenderness ratio
Tall-buildings, Chimneys, Latticed-towers, Cooling-towers, Transmission-
towers, Guyed-masts, Communication-towers, Long-span-bridges
Note that : Wind induced oscillations / excitation
may occur at wind speeds lower than
the static design wind speed for the location.
Example 2
A muti-storeyed framed building
Given:
Physical Parameters:
Building : 50 m long,
15 @ 4 m
10 m wide
60 m high
Life of structure : 50 years
Terrain category : 3
4m
Topography : Flat
Location : Bhubneshwar 5m 5m
A MULTISTORY BUILDING
Dynamic effect : Wind induced oscillations / excitation

Ratio of height to least lateral dimension, H/d = 60/10 = 6 > 5


Dynamic analysis is required

Time period for multi-storeyed building is given by


With shear wall or bracings
H
T  0.09 = 1.7 Sec.
d
Natural Frequency ( f ) = 1 / 1.7 = 0.58 Hz < 1.0 Hz
First Mode
Dynamic analysis is required
Turbulence Intensity (Iz,i)
Turbulence intensity is different for different terrain category:
• Terrain category 1  z 
I z ,1  0.3507  0.0535 log 10 
z 

 0 ,1 

• Terrain category 2 I z , 2  I z ,1 
1
I z , 4  I z ,1 
7

 I z ,1  I z , 4  I z ,1 
3
• Terrain category 3 I z ,3
7

 z 
I z,4  0.466  0.1358 log 10  
• Terrain category 4 z 
 0, 4 

where, z0,i = Equivalent aerodynamic roughness height for terrain


category ‘i’
Design Hourly Mean Wind Speed (Vz’)

Vz’= Vb . k1 . k2’. k3 . k4

Equivalent aerodynamic
roughness height for
terrain ‘i’
Therefore, Design Hourly Mean Wind Speed is given by,

Vz’ = Vb . k1 . k2,i’ . k3 . k4
k1 = 1.00
k2,i’ = varies with height
k3 = 1.00
k4 = 1.00
Vz’ = (50 x 1 x 1 x 1) k2’
= 50 k2,i’ m/s

Now, Design Wind Pressure at height z


pd’ = pz’ = 0.6 (Vz’)2 = 0.6 x (50 k2,i’)2 = 1500 (k2,i’)2 N/m2

  z 
k 2, 3  0.1423  ln    z0,3 0.0706  0.1423  ln  60   0.20.0706  0.7245
   0.2 
  z0,3 
For z = 60,
  z 
k2,3  0.1423  ln    z0,3 0.0706  0.1423  ln  60   0.20.0706  0.724
   0.2 
  z0,3 
V60’ = 50 k2,3’ = 50 x 0.724 = 36.2 m/s
Similarly solve for z = 0, 4, 8, 12, . . . .(to) 56 at each level

pd’ = pz’ =1500 x 0.72452 = 787.3 N/m2

Similarly solve for z = 4, 8, 12, . . . .(to) 56 at each level


Along Wind Load

Along wind load on a strip area (Az) at any height (z)

Fz’ = Cf,z . Az . pz’ . G


Where,
Fz’ = Along wind load at any height z corresponding to
strip-area Ae
Cf,z = Drag force coefficient for the building,
Az = Effective frontal area at height z,
pz’ = Design pressure at height z due to hourly mean wind
G = Gust Factor
Gust factor is dependent on overall height (h) and
the height of level (s) under consideration.
Fig.4 : IS 875-P3
Force coefficient for building

a/b = 10/50= 0.2


h/b = 60/50= 1.2
Cf ,z [refer Fig.4] = 1.2
Effective frontal area at intermediate
level (Az) = 5 x 4 = 20 m2
At roof level = 5 x 2 =10 m2
Frame
Frames @ 5m c/c

b=50 m h=60 m
4m

a =10 m a =10 m
Plan of building Elevation
Computation of Gust Factor (G):

H s g R2 SE
G  1  r [ g Bs (1   ) 
2 2
]
v

Where,
gv = Peak factor for upwind velocity fluctuation
= 3.0 for category 1 and 2 terrains and,
= 4.0 for category 3 and 4 terrains

r = Roughness factor
= 2 times longitudinal turbulence intensity, Ih,i (Cl.No. 6.5)
Computation of Gust Factor (G):
1
Bs 
 0.26(h  s ) 2  0.46bsh 2 
1  


Lh 

bsh = Average breadth of the building between height s and h.
Lh = Measure of effective turbulence length
…for terrain category 1 to 3
0.25
 h 
Lh  85 
 10 
0.25
 h  …for terrain category 4
Lh  70 
 10 
h = Overall height of the building
s = Level at which action effects are calculated
z = Height of the frame considered from G.L.
Computation of Gust Factor (G):
Lh = Measure of effective turbulence length
 h 
L  85 
…for terrain category 1 to 3
0.25

h
 10 
0.25
 h 
Lh =  70 
 10 
…for terrain category 4

= Factor to account for the second order turbulence intensity
g v I h ,i Bs

2
Ih,i = Turbulence intensity at roof level and terrain category ‘i’
Hs = Height factor for resonance response
2
s
Hs  1  
h
gR = Peak factor for resonant response
gR  2 ln 3600 f a 
fa = First mode natural frequency of the building in Hz.
Computation of Gust Factor (G):
S = Size reduction factor
1
S 
 3.5 f a h   4 f a b0 h 
1  1 
 V h,d  
 V h ,d  
b0h = average breadth of the building between 0 and h
E = Spectrum of turbulence in the approaching wind stream
N
E 
1  70.8 N  2 5 6

N = Effective reduced frequency


f a Lh
N 
V h,d

V h ,d = Design hourly mean wind speed at height h


β = Damping coefficient of the building ...Refer table below
Computation of Gust Factor (G):
Solution:
By assuming s = z,
gv =4 …for terrain category 3 …1
For z = 60 i.e at roof level,
 60 
I 60,1  0.3507  0.0535 log 10    0.111
 0.002 
 60 
I 60, 4  0.466  0.1358 log 10    0.265
 2 
I 60,3  0.111  0.265  0.111  0.177
3
7
r = 2 x I60,3 = 0.354 …2
Similarly solve for z = 0, 4, 8, 12, . . . .(to) 56 at each level
Computation of Gust Factor (G):
bsh = 10 m
0.25
 60 
Lh  85   133.032
 10 
For s = 60,
1
Bs   0.951
 0.26(60  60)  0.46  10 
2 2
…3
1  


133.032 

I60,3 = 0.177
4  0.177  0.951 …4
   0.345
2
For s = 60,
2
 60 
Hs  1   2 …5
 60 
Similarly solve for s = 0, 4, 8, 12, . . . .(to) 56 at each level for
equation 3, 4 , and 5.
Computation of Gust Factor (G):
fa = 0.58 Hz
g R  2 ln 3600  0.58  3.909 …6
V60’ = Hourly mean wind speed at top level = 36.2 m/s
b0,h = 10 m
1
S  0.139
 3.5  0.58  60   4  0.58  10 
1   1  
36.2 36.2 …7
0.58  133.032
N   2.131
36.2
  2.131
E  0.054
1  70.8  2.131 
2 5 6
…8
Damping coefficient of building (β) = 0.02 …9
Computation of Gust Factor (G):

Gust factor for s = 60,


2  3.909 2  0.139  0.054
G  1  0.3545  [4  0.9515(1  0.3458) 
2 2
]
0.02
 3.21
Similarly solve for s = 0, 4, 8, 12, . . . .(to) 56 at each level to find gust
factor for different floor levels.

Computation of Along Wind Load (Fz’):


Along wind load (drag load) at roof top level
Fz’ = [ Cf,z . Az . pz’ . G ] = 1.2 x 10 x 787.3 x 3.215 / 1000 = 30.37 kN
Similarly solve for s = 0, 4, 8, 12, . . . .(to) 56 at each level to find
lateral wind force for different floor levels.
Computation of Gust Factor at each level of building (G):
z Iz,3 r Bs phi Hs G
0 0 0 0.809 0.319 1 2.885
4 0.282 0.563 0.819 0.321 1.00 2.897
8 0.255 0.510 0.829 0.323 1.02 2.911
12 0.239 0.479 0.840 0.325 1.04 2.927
16 0.228 0.456 0.850 0.327 1.07 2.945
20 0.220 0.439 0.861 0.329 1.11 2.964
24 0.213 0.425 0.872 0.331 1.16 2.986
28 0.207 0.413 0.883 0.333 1.22 3.008
32 0.202 0.403 0.894 0.335 1.28 3.032
36 0.197 0.394 0.905 0.337 1.36 3.058
40 0.193 0.386 0.916 0.339 1.44 3.084
44 0.189 0.378 0.926 0.341 1.54 3.112
48 0.186 0.372 0.936 0.343 1.64 3.139
52 0.183 0.366 0.944 0.344 1.75 3.166
56 0.180 0.360 0.949 0.345 1.87 3.192
60 0.177 0.355 0.951 0.346 2 3.215
Computation of wind load at each level of building (Fz’)
z Az k2,i Vz' pz' G Fz‘(kN)
0 10 0 0 0 2.88 0
4 20 0.38 19.03 217.18 2.90 15.1
8 20 0.47 23.43 329.30 2.91 23.01
12 20 0.52 26.00 405.67 2.93 28.50
16 20 0.56 27.83 464.68 2.94 32.84
20 20 0.58 29.25 513.21 2.96 36.51
24 20 0.61 30.40 554.65 2.99 39.74
28 20 0.63 31.38 590.95 3.01 42.67
32 20 0.64 32.23 623.32 3.03 45.36
36 20 0.66 32.98 652.58 3.06 47.89
40 20 0.67 33.65 679.33 3.08 50.29
44 20 0.69 34.25 703.99 3.11 52.57
48 20 0.70 34.81 726.89 3.14 54.77
52 20 0.71 35.31 748.28 3.17 56.87
56 20 0.72 35.79 768.35 3.19 58.87
60 10 0.72 36.22 787.29 3.22 30.38
20.9 kN 30.38 kN
38.57 kN 58.87 kN
38.14 kN 56.87 kN
37.51 kN 54.77 kN
36.71 kN 52.57 kN
35.92 kN 50.29 kN
35.13 kN 47.89 kN
34.35 kN 45.36 kN 15 @ 4 m
33.33 kN 42.67 kN
32.07 kN 39.74 kN
30.84 kN 36.51 kN
28.91 kN 32.84 kN
26.37 kN 28.50 kN
25.03 kN 23.01 kN
4m
25.03 kN 15.10 kN
0.00 0.00
Force Coefficient Gust Factor 5m 5m
Method Method
A MULTISTORY BUILDING
Peak Acceleration at Top of Structure

The peak acceleration along wind direction at the top of


structure is given by the following formula :

a = ( 2 Π fa ) 2 δ gR . r (S E) / β
Where,
δ = Mean deflection at the point where the acceleration is
required.