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TEKNOLOGI REFRAKTORI

OLEH:
PRIHADI SETYO DARMANTO (FTMD-ITB)
ARIEF SYAHLAN (PT-PEC)
SEKILAS TENTANG REFRAKTORI
• MERUPAKAN MATERIAL ANORGANIK, NON METAL, POROUS DAN
HETEROGEN.
• TERDIRI DARI MINERAL AGREGAT, PEREKAT DAN ADITIVES
• BAHAN BAKUNYA ADALAH OKSIDA-OKSIDA SILIKON,
ALUMINIUM , MAGNESIUM, KALSIUM DAN ZIRCONIUM ATAU
BAHAN-BAHAN YANG BUKAN OKSIDA SEPERTI KARBIDA,
NITRIDA SILIKAT DAN GRAFIT.
• TIPE YANG UMUM DI PASARAN ADALAH BATA TAHAN API,
CASTABLES, FIBER KERAMIK DAN BATA INSULASI YANG DIBUAT
DENGAN BERBAGAI VARIASI BENTUK DAN APLIKASI.
• NILAI TEKNIK REFRAKTORI LEBIH DIDASARKAN PADA FUNGSI
DAN KINERJANYA BUKAN HANYA DARI HARGANYA KHUSUSNYA
PADA KONDISI TERTENTU.
• KONDISI TERTENTU TERSEBUT ANTARA LAIN LINGKUNGAN
ATAU ATMOSFER, TEMPERATUR KERJA DAN ZAT APA YANG
KONTAK LANGSUNG DENGANNYA.
• HAL-HAL TERSEBUTLAH YANG MENENTUKAN KOMPOSISI
MATERIAL REFRAKTORI HARUS DIRANCANG.
APLIKASI REFRAKTORI
• DI INDUSTRI METALURGI SEPERTI TUNGKU, KILN,
REAKTOR, WADAH DAN ALAT TRANSPORT LOGAM CAIR
• DI INDUSTRI LAIN SEPERTI HEATERS, HYDROGEN
REFORMERS, AMMONIA PRIMARY AND SECONDARY
REFORMERS, CRACKING FURNACES, INCINERATORS,
UTILITY BOILERS, CATALYTIC CRACKING UNITS, COKE
CALCINER, SULFUR FURNACES, AIR HEATERS, DUCTING,
STACKS, ETC.
• KONDISI OPERASINYA BISA BERTEKANAN RENDAH SAMPAI
TINGGI DAN TEMPERATUR KERJA ANTARA 450 C HINGGA
1600 C, SEHINGGA REFRAKTORI HARUS MAMPU
MENGATASI KONDISI KERJA TERSEBUT
PERMINTAAN PERSYARATAN
MATERIAL REFRAKTORI
• KEMAMPUANNYA MENAHAN TEMPERATUR DAN
TEKANAN (BEBAN)
• KEMAMPUANNYA MENAHAN BEBAN GAS PANAS DAN
AKIBAT EROSI YANG MENYERTAINYA
• KEMAMPUANNYA MENAHAN KONTAMINASI DARI
MATERIAL YANG KONTAK DENGANNYA.
• KEMAMPUANNYA MEMPERTAHANKAN DIMENSINYA
TERHADAP TEMPERATUR TINGGI DAN KESTABILAN
DIMENSINYA TERHADAP SIKLUS TERMAL
• KEMAMPUANNYA MENAHAN LAJU ALIRAN PANAS,.
GAMBAR-GAMBAR REFRAKTORI
SIFAT REFRAKTORI YANG PERLU
DIPAHAMI
• TEMPERATUR LELEH, TEMPERATUR DIMANA
MATERIAL REFRAKTORI BERUBAH FASA DARI
PADAT MENJADI CAIR
MATEIAL TEMPERATUR LELEH (C)

ALUMINA 2050
MAGNESIA 2800
SILIKA 1700
ZIRCONIA 2700
SILIKON KARBIDA 1870
FIRECLAY 1870
GRAFITE 3480
SIFAT REFRAKTORI YANG PERLU
DIPAHAMI
• KESTABILAN UKURAN DAN DIMENSI,
– YAITU TERKAIT DENGAN PERUBAHAN UKURAN DAN BENTUK BILA
TERKENA TEMPERATUR ATAU BEBAN TINGGI.
– MAKIN TIDAK BERUBAH MAKIN STABIL SEHINGGA MEMUDAHKAN
PEMASANGAN DAN LEBIH TINGGI KEAMANAN OPERASINYA
• POROSITAS,
– MERUPAKAN UKURAN RONGGA DALAM REFRAKTORI YANG
MEMUNGKINKAN CAIRAN ATAU GAS MASUK KE DALAMNYA.
– MAKIN POROUS MAKIN MAMPU MENAMPUNG GAS/CAIRAN.
– TERKAIT DENSITASNYA.
– MAKIN POROUS MAKIN BERSIFAT ISOLASI KARENA UDARA
MERUPAKAN MATERIAL ISOLASI
– UNTUK YANG BERSENTUHAN DENGAN LOGAM CAIR SEBAIKNYA
PAKAI YANG POROSITASNYA RENDAH
SIFAT REFRAKTORI YANG PERLU
DIPAHAMI
• BULK DENSITAS,
– YAITU TERKAIT DENGAN BERAT/MASSA PERSATUAN VOLUME.
– MAKIN TINGGI DENSITAS BIASANYA MAKIN BAIK KUALITASNYA
– AN INCREASE IN BULK DENSITY INCREASES THE VOLUME
STABILITY, THE HEAT CAPACITY, AS WELL AS THE RESISTANCE TO
ABRASION AND SLAG PENETRATION.

• COLD CRUSHING STRENGTH,


– WHICH IS CONSIDERED BY SOME TO BE DOUBTFUL RELEVANCE AS A
USEFUL PROPERTY, OTHER THAN IT REVEALS LITTLE MORE THAN THE
ABILITY TO WITHSTAND THE RIGOROUS OF TRANSPORT.
– IT CAN BE SEEN AS A USEFUL INDICATOR TO THE ADEQUACY OF
FIRING AND ABRASION RESISTANCE IN CONSONANCE WITH OTHER
PROPERTIES SUCH AS BULK DENSITY AND POROSITY.
SIFAT REFRAKTORI YANG PERLU
DIPAHAMI
PYROMETRIC CONE EQUIVALENT (PCE),
– REFRACTORIES DUE TO THEIR CHEMICAL COMPLEXITY MELT
PROGRESSIVELY OVER A RANGE OF TEMPERATURE.
– HENCE REFRACTORINESS OR FUSION POINT IS IDEALLY ASSESSED BY THE
CONE FUSION METHOD.
– THE EQUIVALENT STANDARD CONE WHICH MELTS TO THE SAME EXTENT
AS THE TEST CONE IS KNOWN AS THE PYROMETRIC CONE EQUIVALENT
(PCE).
– ACCORDING TO ASTM C24 -01, PCE IS MEASURED BY MAKING A CONE OF
THE MATERIAL AND FIRING IT UNTIL IT BENDS TO 3 O’CLOCK.
– REPRESENTATIVE PCE VALUES FOR SELECTED REFRACTORIES INCLUDE
CONES 33-34 FOR SUPER DUTY FIRECLAY, CONES 29-31 FOR MEDIUM
DUTY FIRE CLAY AND CONES 36-37 FOR A 60% ALUMINA PRODUCT.
– THE CONE VALUES REPORTED FOR REFRATORIES ARE BASED ON A
DEFINED STANDARD TIME – TEMPERATURE RELATIONSHIP, SO
DIFFERENT HEATING RATES WILL RESULT IN DIFFERENT PCE VALUES.
– PCE CAN BE USEFUL FOR QUALITY CONTROL PURPOSES TO DETECT
VARIATIONS IN BATCH CHEMISTRY THAT RESULT FROM CHANGES OR
ERRORS IN THE RAW MATERIAL FORMULATION
SIFAT REFRAKTORI YANG PERLU DIPAHAMI
REFRACTORINESS UNDER LOAD:
• REFRACTORINESS POINTS TO THE RESISTANCE OF EXTREME
CONDITIONS OF HEAT (TEMPERATURE > 1800 °F = 980oC) WITHOUT
UNDERGOING APPRECIABLE DEFORMATION AND
• THE RESISTANCE OF CORROSION WHEN HOT AND MOLTEN MATERIALS
ARE CONTAINED WHILE BEING TRANSPORTED AND/OR PROCESSED,

CREEP AT HIGH TEMPERATURE:


• CREEP IS A TIME DEPENDENT PROPERTY WHICH DETERMINES THE
DEFORMATION IN A GIVEN TIME AND AT A GIVEN TEMPERATURE BY A
MATERIAL UNDER STRESS.
• REFRACTORY MATERIALS MUST MAINTAIN DIMENSIONAL STABILITY
UNDER EXTREME TEMPERATURES (INCLUDING REPEATED THERMAL
CYCLING) AND CONSTANT CORROSION FROM VERY HOT LIQUIDS AND
GASES.
• THE CRITERION OF ACCEPTANCE USUALLY ADOPTED IS; THAT
COMPRESSIVE CREEP (DEFORMATION AT A GIVEN TIME AND
TEMPERATURE UNDER STRESS) FOR NORMAL WORKING CONDITIONS
OF LOAD AND TEMPERATURE SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.3% IN THE FIRST
50 HOURS OF THE TEST.
SIFAT REFRAKTORI YANG PERLU DIPAHAMI
VOLUME STABILITY, EXPANSION AND SHRINKAGE AT HIGH
TEMPERATURE:
THE CONTRACTION OR EXPANSION OF THE REFRACTORIES CAN
TAKE PLACE DURING SERVICE. SUCH PERMANENT CHANGES IN
DIMENSIONS MAY BE DUE TO:
• THE CHANGES IN THE ALLOTROPIC FORMS WHICH CAUSE A CHANGE
IN SPECIFIC GRAVITY
• A CHEMICAL REACTION WHICH PRODUCES A NEW MATERIAL OF
ALTERED SPECIFIC GRAVITY.
• THE FORMATION OF LIQUID PHASE
• SINTERING REACTIONS
• IT MAY ALSO HAPPEN ON ACCOUNT OF FLUXING WITH DUST AND SLAG
OR BY THE ACTION OF ALKALIES ON FIRECLAY REFRACTORIES, TO
FORM ALKALI-ALUMINA SILICATES, CAUSING EXPANSION AND
DISRUPTION.
SIFAT REFRAKTORI YANG PERLU DIPAHAMI
REVERSIBLE THERMAL EXPANSION:
• ANY MATERIAL WHEN HEATED EXPANDS, AND CONTRACTS
ON COOLING. THE REVERSIBLE THERMAL EXPANSION IS A
REFLECTION ON THE PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS THAT
OCCUR DURING HEATING AND COOLING.
• THE PLC AND THE REVERSIBLE THERMAL EXPANSION ARE
FOLLOWED IN THE DESIGN OF REFRACTORY LININGS FOR
PROVISION OF EXPANSION JOINTS.
• AS A GENERAL RULE, THOSE WITH A LOWER THERMAL
EXPANSION CO-EFFICIENT ARE LESS SUSCEPTIBLE TO
THERMAL SPALLING.
SIFAT REFRAKTORI YANG PERLU DIPAHAMI
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY:
• THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY IS DEFINED AS THE QUANTITY OF HEAT THAT WILL
FLOW THROUGH A UNIT AREA IN DIRECTION NORMAL TO THE SURFACE AREA
IN A DEFINED TIME WITH A KNOWN TEMPERATURE GRADIENT UNDER STEADY
STATE CONDITIONS.
• IT INDICATES GENERAL HEAT FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REFRACTORY
AND DEPENDS UPON THE CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITIONS AS
WELL AS THE APPLICATION TEMPERATURE.
• HIGH THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY REFRACTORIES ARE REQUIRED FOR SOME
APPLICATIONS WHERE GOOD HEAT TRANSFER IS ESSENTIAL SUCH AS COKE
OVEN WALLS, REGENERATORS, MUFFLES AND WATER COOLED FURNACE
WALLS.
• HOWEVER, REFRACTORIES WITH LOWER THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ARE
PREFERRED IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS, AS THEY HELP IN CONSERVING
HEAT ENERGY SUCH AS IN BOILER.
• POROSITY IS A SIGNIFICANT FACTOR IN HEAT FLOW THROUGH
REFRACTORIES. THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF A REFRACTORY DECREASES
ON INCREASING ITS POROSITY.
• ALTHOUGH IT IS ONE OF THE LEAST IMPORTANT PROPERTIES AS FAR AS
SERVICE PERFORMANCE IS CONCERNED, IT EVIDENTLY DETERMINES THE
THICKNESS OF BRICK WORK.
KLASIFIKASI REFRAKTORI
BERDASARKAN KOMPOSISI KIMIA:
• ASAM (Acid refractories are those which are attacked by alkalis
(basic slags). These are used in areas where slag and
atmosphere are acidic. )
1) Silica (SiO2),
2) Zirconia (ZrO2)
• NETRAL (Neutral Refractories are chemically stable to both acids and
bases and are used in areas where slag and atmosphere are either
acidic or basic), CONTOHNYA:
1)Carbon graphite (most inert)
2) Chromites (Cr2O3)
3) Alumina
• BASA (are those which are attacked by acid slags but stable to
alkaline slags, dusts and fumes at elevated temperatures. )
1) Magnesia (MgO) - caustic, sintered and fused magnesia
2) Dolomite (CaO*MgO) - sintered and fused dolomite
3) Chromite -main part of chrome ore
KLASIFIKASI REFRAKTORI
BERDASARKAN METODE MANUFACTURINGNYA:
THE REFRACTORIES CAN BE MANUFACTURED IN
EITHER OF THE FOLLOWING METHODS:
A) DRY PRESS PROCESS
B) FUSED CAST
C) HAND MOLDED
D) FORMED (NORMAL, FIRED OR CHEMICAL BONDED)
E) UNFORMED (MONOLITHIC – PLASTICS, RAMMING
MASS, GUNNING, CAST ABLE, SPRAYING )
KLASIFIKASI REFRAKTORI
BERDASARKAN BENTUK FISKNYA:
A. Shaped Refractories:
• Shaped refractories are those which have fixed
shaped when delivered to the user.
• These are what we call bricks. Brick shapes maybe
divided into two: standard shapes and special
shapes.
• Standards shapes have dimension that are
conformed to by most refractory manufacturers and
are generally applicable to kilns and furnaces of the
same type.
• Special shapes are specifically made for particular
kilns and furnaces. This may not be applicable to
another furnaces or kiln of the same type.
KLASIFIKASI REFRAKTORI
B. UN-SHAPED REFRACTORIES:
• Unshaped refractories are without definite
form and are only given shape upon
application.
• It forms joint less lining and are better
known as monolithic refractories.
• These are categorized as Plastic refractories,
ramming mixes, castables, gunning mixes,
fettling mixes and mortars.
TIPE REFRAKTORI
A. DENSE (MEMILIKI DENSITAS > 120 LB/FT3=2000
KG/M3)
• They offer excellent resistance in challenging
operating environments, such as slags with
different chemical compositions, fumes, dust,
and gases.
B. ISOLATOR (MEMILIKI DENSITAS = 4 – 70
LB/FT3=65-1120 KG/M3)
• Provide insulating properties, while offering
resistance to corrosion and chemical reactions
with the operating environment.
FIRE-CLAY BRICK REFRACTORIES
• MENDOMINASI 75% ATAU LEBIH DARI
VOLUME YANG ADA DI PASAR
• INTINYA TERDIRI DARI ALUMINA SILIKA
TERHIDRASI (SiO2 <78% and Al2O3 < 44% )
• Extremely versatile and are extensively used in
the iron and steel industry, non ferrous
metallurgy, glass industry, pottery kilns,
cement industry and by many others.
FIRE-CLAY BRICK REFRACTORIES
• The four standard classes of fireclay brick are:
• super duty, high-duty, medium-duty, low-duty, and also
semi-silica.
• These classes cover the range from approximately 18%
to 44% alumina, and from about 50% to 80% silica.
• From the standpoint of fusion temperature, super duty
fire-clay brick have a PCE of approximately Cone 33,
which corresponds to 3175°F. This does not mean that a
brick with a PCE of Cone 33 can be used in furnaces
operating at 3175°F.
• On the contrary, it means that at this temperature in a
clean, slag free, neutral to slightly oxidizing atmosphere,
this brick would be unable to support its own weight.
• Table below shows that as the quantity of impurities
increases and the amount of Al2O3 decreases, the
melting point of fireclay brick decreases.
FIRE-CLAY BRICK REFRACTORIES

• Characteristically, fire-clay brick begin to soften far below their fusion


temperature and under load actual deformation takes place.
• The amount of deformation depends upon the load, and, once
started, this deformation is a slow but continuous process unless
either the load or the temperature is reduced.
• It is for this reason that fire-clay brick are not well adapted for use in
wide sprung arches in furnaces operating continuously at high
temperatures.
HIGH ALUMINA REFRACTORIES
• Consists of aluminum oxide and traces of other materials is
the most mature of the engineering ceramics.
• Alumina is one of the most chemically stable oxides known,
which offers excellent hardness, strength and spalling
resistance.
• It is insoluble in water and super heated steam, and in most
inorganic acids and alkalis.
• Alumina refractories carry the all purpose characteristics of
fire-clay brick into higher temperature ranges that makes it
suitable for lining furnace operating up to 3350°F.
• It has a high resistance in oxidizing and reducing
atmosphere and is extensively used in heat processing
industries.
HIGH ALUMINA REFRACTORIES
• DIKLASIFIKASIKAN MENJADI 2 KELAS YAITU:

a)Mullite refractory: Mullite brick is about 72% alumina


with 28% silica. These have excellent volume stability
and strength at high temperatures. They are highly
suitable for electric furnace roofs, blast furnaces and
blast furnaces stoves, and the superstructure of glass
tank furnaces.
b) Corundum refractories : The 99% alumina class of
refractories is called corundum. These refractories
comprise single phase, polycrystalline, and alpha-
alumina.
INSULATING REFRACTORIES
• These are high porosity refractories with low thermal conductivity used in
order to reduce the rate of heat flow (heat losses) and thus to maximize
heat conservation within the furnace.
• These have lower densities in range of 4 to 70 lb/ft3.
• The three basic types of insulating materials for industrial use are:
– 1) thin (less than 20 micrometers), low-density (less than 12 lb/ft3)
fibers made from organic or inorganic materials;
– 2) cellular material in closed or open cell form made of organic or
inorganic material; and
– 3) flaked or granular inorganic materials bonded in the desired form. In
most cases, glass (silica), mineral wool, high alumina, mulite, or zirconia
are the base materials and can be used to temperatures as high as
2900°F.
• This class of materials has a lower density that varies from 4 lb/ft3 to 12
lb/ft3 and offers higher thermal resistance compared to firebricks.
• In all cases, thermal conductivity of the insulation increases significantly as
temperature increases.
Refractory Castable
(UNSHAPE)
KEUNGGULAN CASTABLE
 Installed to any shapes of
application

 No need for stocking of many


irregular shapes of refractory
bricks

 Has less (or none) of joint


when installed as compared to
bricks which always have joints
between each one.

 Short Production Time


KEUNGGULAN : 1) Skilled measures in large
number are not required
2) Properties can be better than
pressed bricks
4) Transportation and handling are
simple
5) Offers considerable scope to
reduce inventory and eliminate
special shapes
6) Has better spalling resistance
and volume stability
7) Ability to install in “Hot Standby”
mode
REFRACTORY CASTABLES

Normal Concrete

Gravel (stone) + sand + OPC TYPE 1

Refractory Castable

Refractory Aggregate + Refractory Cement


Classifications of Refractory Castables

CONVENTIONAL LOW CEMENT


CASTABLES CASTABLES
 Refractory 70-90 % 85-95 %
Aggregate

 Cement 10-30 % 0.5-4.0 %

 % Water
required for 8-15 % 3.0-6.0 %
Mixing

 % Porosity 20-30 % 10-15 %


LOW CEMENT TECHNOLOGY

CONVENTIONAL CASTABLES

 Refractory Cement
Refractory
Cement  Lubricant Aggregate
(Very fine materials) :
SILICA FUME
LOW CEMENT CASTABLES
 Aggregate Distributor
(Reduce water required) :
DEFLOCCULANT
SODIUM PHOSPHATE
1500

LOW CEMENT
COLD CRUSHING STRENGTH KG/CM

1000

500
CONVENTIONAL

0
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
TEMPERATURE oC
CONVENTIONAL

20
LOW CEMENT
% APP. POROSITY

10

0
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
TEMPERATURE oC
Mixing Instructions :

1. Prepare clean PAN MIXER with


a speed of 35-40 rpm.
(select Pan Mixer capacity to
match with quantity of castable
to be mixed in each batch)

2. Pour Castable and follow by


Binder from small Bag trying to
spread it all over Pan Mixer
(in case castable is packed with
Binder separated)
PAN MIXER
3. Dry mix for ~ 1 minute
Mixing Instructions :

ติดรูป 7-23
Mixing Instructions :

4. Add clean water ~ 4-6% by weight of castable into Pan Mixer and mix for
another 3-5 minutes. Then adjust minor water amount to obtain favorable
mixed castable appearance

 Insufficient water amount : Castable grain is


Disintegrated

 Suitable water amount : When put castable in


hand and lightly move
hand up and down, castable grain
is integrated in ball shape

 Too much water amount : Castable grain


becomes liquidized

5. Mixed castable must be IMMEDIATELY brought to cast to avoid


unfavorable setting.
LOW CEMENT CASTABLES

1300
COLD CRUSHING STRENGTH 1200
1100
1000
900
800
70
600
0
500
400
300
200
100
4 5 6 %
AMOUNT OF WATER REQUIRED
Casting Instructions :

1. Prepare Framework (either wood or steel framework) and before casting


paraffin wax should be applied to framework for easy removal.
Casting Instructions :

2. Apply Vibrator when casting to increase flow ability of castable and reduce air
holes inside castable .

3. Vibrating should be done from bottom up to surface of castable. Removal of


vibrator from castable when completed casting
should be done slowly.
Casting Instructions :

4. Vibrator should NOT be applied too long as it may cause segregation of


castable’s fine and coarse grains, and essentially cause drop in strength. Notice
if the vibrating is enough when surface of castable becomes watering and
shiny.
Casting Instructions :

Uniform Distribution of
Castable Aggregate

Appropriate Use of Vibrator

Segregation of Castable Aggregate

Apply Vibrator for Too Long


Casting Instructions :

5. DO NOT smoothen surface of castable (to have good-looking finished surface)


since it may increase difficulty for evaporation of water during heat-up.

6. In case large area needs to be cast, the area should be divided into smaller
panels to allow expansion joints to prevent cracking at high temperature.

Expansion Joints
Acidity and Alkalinity Condition (pH) of Water used to Mix with Castables

- pH < 6.5 Slow Setting of Castable

- pH 6.5-9.5 OK

- pH 9.5-10.5 Fast Setting of Castable

- pH > 10.5 Slow Setting of Castable


Heat up Instructions :

70
Castable Storage

 Castables MUST be stored in covered, shaded,


dried warehouse away from direct contact of
water (rain) as well as moisture

 Castable with Damaged / Torn bag should be


kept separated.
Castable Storage
Check : Before Mixing Castables

 If castable forms hard balls  DO NOT USE

 DO NOT use Pan Mixer and/or Castable which are left in


“Direct Sun” for long time

 Check Vibrator every time before use

 Always clean Pan Mixer BEFORE and AFTER use

 Water Amount MUST BE measured by standard equipment

 Check Quality of Stainless Steel Anchors welding


Anchoring selection.
Stainless
steel Scaling
grade Composition temperature
« 1150 o C
AISI 253
MA
%C <0.05-1,%Cr 20-22,%Ni 10-12 Sulphide
resistance
%C <0.1,%Cr 21,%Ni 11
AISI 310 < 1150 o C

%C <0.045,%Cr 16-18,%Ni 10-14,%


AISI 316 Mo 2-3 < 800

%C <0.2,%Cr 22-24,%Ni 12-15


AISI 309 < 917
%C <0.04,%Cr 18-20,%Ni 8-10.5
AISI 304 < 800
Form and Type of Anchor
 Round Bar Anchor
 Lower stress generated from their expansion
 Their surface area to be welded is relatively small
Form and Type of Anchor

Flat Bar Anchor


 Made of stainless steel sheets
 Suitable for load bearing task

Ordinary Y-shape anchor Ordinary Y-shape anchor


with base
Form and Type of Anchor

Flat Bar Anchor

VY-shape anchor

V-shape anchor
Form and Type of Anchor
Form and Type of Anchor
Form and Type of Anchor
Form and Type of Anchor
Form and Type of Anchor
The number and interval distance of anchors

Table of number and interval distance of anchors

Castables lining Roofs Walls and Floors


thickness (A)
X (mm.) Number/m X (mm.) Number/
2
m2

50 - < 100 mm. 167 36 200 25

100 - < 150 mm. 200 25 250 16

150 - < 350 mm. 250 16 333 9

> 350 mm. 333 9 500 4


The number and interval distance of anchors
The number and interval distance of anchors

ติดรูป 7-11
Expansion Joints

 Normally the refractory linings expand at


high temperature

 For casting area larger than 1 sq.m.  provide


3-5 mm. expansion joint by plywood or ceramic
fiber blanket

 Zigzag pattern is suggested

 The standard span of expansion joint varies and


be changed accordingly
Expansion Joints
Expansion Joints

Zigzag joint (or Stagger Joint)


Expansion Joints
KRITERIA PEMILIHAN REFRAKTORI
The five most important factors governing refractory
service are:
1. Area of application (1. Thermal performance; 2. Physical properties
3. Chemical characteristics and 4. Costs ).
2. Type of refractory ( )
3. Operating conditions (Transportation, handling, timely arrival of
refractory bricks, mortars, skill of masonry work, proper equipment
for application e.g. mixer machine for castable, vibrator for
installation, forma etc. are very important. )
4. Quality of refractory
5. Workmanship
PERMASALAHAN REFRAKTORI
The most common refractory problems are:
• Hot spots (higher casing temperature);
• Excessive cracking;
• Spalling of lining (thermal, mechanical, structural);
• Erosion and thinning of lining;
• Chemical attack/corrosion from process gases (such as hydrogen, carbon
monoxide, sulfur dioxide, alkalies), flue gases (sulfur, sodium, vanadium),
steam, etc;
• Acid-gas dew-point corrosion of refractory and metallic parts;
• Partial melting and degradation of lining;
• Excessive shrinkage and development of gaps;
• Anchor failure and detachment of lining from wall;
• Failure of metal liner over refractory;
• Explosive spalling during dry out;
• Mechanical damages.
FAKTA-FAKTA KUNCI PILIHAN
a) Reaction/wear increases exponentially with
increasing temperature
b) Temperature cycling will cause cracks, loss of
strength, and spalling of material
c) Stronger is not always better
d) Lining life is controlled by the “weakest link”
e) Shorter service life can be more cost effective
f) Refractory manufacture should use high purity,
ultra fine materials
g) Microstructure engineering – control of aggregate
shape is important.
HEAT LOSS DARI RUANG BAKAR
BERGANTUNG PADA:
• 1) Emissivity of walls
• 2) Conductivity of refractories
• 3) Wall thickness
• 4) Whether furnace is operated continuously
or intermittently
KOEFISIEN PERPINDAHAN PANAS
KONDUKTIFITAS MATERIAL
REFRAKTORI
HUBUNGAN TEMPERATUR ANTARA
BAGIAN DALAM DAN LUAR RUANG BAKAR
HUBUNGAN HEAT-LOSS DG TEMPERATUR
DINDING DALAM RUANG BAKAR
PERSENTASE REDUKSI HEAT LOSS
DENGAN DIPASANGNYA BAHAN ISOLASI
RESUME PARAMETER YANG
MEMPENGARUHI NILAI HEAT LOSS