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# Chapter 23: Reflection and

Refraction of Light

•Huygens’s Principle
•Reflection
•Refraction
•Total Internal Reflection
•Polarization by Reflection
•Formation of Images
•Plane Mirrors
•Spherical Mirrors
•Thin Lenses
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Ray Model
A set of points with equal phase is called a wavefront.

## A ray points in the direction of wave propagation and is

perpendicular to the wavefronts. Or a ray is a line in the
direction along which light energy is flowing.
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• Light travels in straight lines  RAYS
• Rays do not interact with each other
• Rays continue until they interact
• At the interface between two media:
• REFLECTION
• REFRACTION
• Within a medium rays can be scattered or absorbed
• OBJECTS emit RAYS in all directions

## Geometric optics is an approximation to the behavior of

light that applies when interference and diffraction are
negligible. In order for diffraction to be negligible, the sizes
of objects must be large compared to the wavelength of
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light.
§23.2 Reflection of Light
When light is reflected from a smooth surface the rays
incident at a given angle are reflected at the same angle.
This is specular reflection.

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Reflection from a rough surface is called diffuse reflection.

## “Smooth” and “rough” are determined based on the

wavelength of the incident rays.

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The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. The
incident ray, reflected ray, and normal all lie in the same
plane. The incident ray and reflected ray are on opposite
sides of the normal.
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§23.3 Refraction of Light
When light rays pass from one medium to another they
change direction. This is called refraction.

1 m
vlightvacuum  c   3 108
0 0 s
In a medium :
c
vlight 
 n

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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Incident
ray
Incident Wavefronts
ray
i
i
i i i
Air i h Air
Glass t
t Glass
t t
Transmitted t Transmitted
ray ray

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Snell’s Law

n1 sin 1  n2 sin 2
where the subscripts refer to the two
different media. The angles are
measured from the normal.

• When going from low n to high n, the ray will bend towards the normal.
• When going from high n to low n, the ray will bend away from the normal.
• The incident ray, transmitted ray, and normal all lie in the same plane.
• The incident and transmitted rays are on opposite sides of the normal.
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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

No ray is
transmitted n = 1.00 (air)
c
a b c  >c 100%
 <c 100%
d reflection
reflection
n = 1.50
Source (glass)

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§23.4 Total Internal Reflection
Total internal reflection can only occur when the incident
medium has a larger index of refraction than the second
medium.

## The angle of incidence for when the angle of refraction is

90° is called the critical angle.

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If the angle of incidence is greater than or equal to the
critical angle, then no wave is transmitted into the other
medium. The wave is completely reflected from the
boundary.

n1 sin 1  n2 sin  2
n1 sin  c  n2 sin 90  n2
n2
sin  c 
n1 12
Total Internal Reflection in a Triangular Glass Prism
What is the largest i so that the beam undergoes total
reflection from the back of the prism?

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Applications

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Two plane mirrors form a 700 angle as
shown. For what angle  is the final ray
horizontal?

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Optical Fibers

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Example (text problem 23.11): Sunlight strikes the surface of
a lake. A diver sees the Sun at an angle of 42.0° with
respect to the vertical. What angle do the Sun’s rays in air
make with the vertical?

incident wave
1
n1 = 1.00; air
surface
n2 = 1.33; water
42° n1 sin 1  n2 sin  2
Transmitted
1.00sin 1  1.333sin 42
wave Normal sin 1  0.8920
1  63.1
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Example (text problem 23.22): Calculate the critical angle
for sapphire surrounded by air.

2=90
n2 = 1.0; air Transmitted wave

## n1 = 1.77; sapphire surface

1
n1 sin 1  n2 sin  2
incident wave
Normal 1.77sin  c  1.00sin 90
sin  c  0.565
1  34.4
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§23.5 Polarization by Reflection

## Brewster’s angle is the angle of incidence for which the

reflected light is completely polarized.

## Light is totally polarized when the reflected ray and the

transmitted ray are perpendicular.

ni sin  i  nt sin  t
ni sin  B  nt sin 90   B   nt cos  B
nt
tan  B 
ni 21
Example (text problem 23.32): (a) Sunlight reflected from
the still surface of a lake is totally polarized when the
incident light is at what angle with respect to the
horizontal?

nwater 1.33
tan  B    1.33
nair 1.00
 B  53.1
The angle is measured from the normal, so 90 - 53.1
= 36.9 is the angle from the horizontal.

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Example continued:

## (b) In what direction is the reflected light polarized?

It is polarized
perpendicular
to the plane of
incidence.

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Example continued:

## (c) Is any light incident at this angle transmitted into the

water? If so, at what angle below the horizontal does the
transmitted light travel?

## From Snell’s Law: n1 sin 1  n2 sin  2

1.00sin 53.1  1.333sin  2
sin  2  0.6000
 2  36.9
The angle is measured from the normal, so 90 - 36.9
= 53.1 is the angle from the horizontal.
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The Ray Model of Light
• Light in a medium travels in straight lines, called light rays, at speed v = c/n,
where n in the of the refraction of the medium.
• An object is a source of light rays (either by self-luminescence or by
reflection). Rays originate from every point of the object, and each point send
rays in all directions. A ray diagram shows only a few important rays.
• The eye sees by focusing bundles of diverging rays that originated at each
point on the object.

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Camera Obscura

The geometry of the rays passing through the hole dictates that the image is upside down.
The image size is not the same as the object size.

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Example (text problem 23.35): A defect in a diamond
appears to be 2.00 mm below the surface when viewed from
directly above that surface. How far beneath the surface is
the defect.

Air
n2 =1.00
2 2

Surface
Diamond y’
1 1
n1 = 2.419
y

Actual location
of defect
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Example continued:

## The angles 1 and 2 are related by Snell’s Law:

n1 sin 1  n2 sin 2

## The actual depth of the defect is y and it appears to be at a

depth of y’. These quantities are related by:

y tan 2  y tan 1

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Example continued:

## Dividing the previous two expressions gives:

n1 y cos1  n2 y cos2

As long as you are directly above the defect and its image,
the angles 1 and 2 are nearly 0°. Rays from only a narrow
range of angles will enter your eye. The above expression
simplifies to:
n1 y  n2 y
y  n2 (general result)

y n1 29
Example continued:

## The actual depth of the defect in the diamond is then

 2.419 
2.00 mm   4.84 mm.
n1
y  y  
n2  1.00 

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Formation of Images
• From REFLECTION
MIRRORS:
• Plane
• Spherical Mirrors (Convex or Concave)
• From REFRACTION
THIN LENSES:
• Converging
• Diverging

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Plane Mirrors
The light rays
appear to come
from behind the
mirror.
the diverging rays
reflected by the
mirror.

## An image is virtual if the light rays from a point on the

object are directed as if they diverged from a point on the
image, even though the rays do not actually pass through
the image point.
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Plane Mirrors
A point source and its image are at the same distance from
the mirror, but on opposite sides of the mirror.

Treat an extended
object as a set of
point sources.

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Figure 23.29

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Mirror Length for a Full-Length Image

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Convex Spherical Mirrors

Center of
vertex curvature

Principal
axis
The focal
point

## A convex (or diverging) mirror curves

away from the observer.
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A ray parallel to
the principle axis
is reflected, and it
appears to have
come from point
F, the focal point
of the mirror.

## For a convex mirror, the focal point is on the axis and is

located a distance 0.5R behind the mirror, where R is the
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Drawn in green, red, and blue are the principal rays.

## 1. A ray parallel to the principal axis is reflected as if it came

from the focal point. (green)
2. A ray along a radius is reflected back upon itself. (red)
3. A ray directed toward the focal point is reflected parallel to
the principal axis. (blue)
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For the pencil in the previous figure, the image is upright,
virtual, smaller than the object, and closer to the mirror
than the object.

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Concave Spherical Mirrors
A concave (or converging) mirror
curves toward the observer.

Center of
curvature vertex

Principal
axis

The focal
point

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Drawn in green, red, and blue are the principal rays.

## 1. A ray parallel to the principal axis is reflected through the

focal point. (green)
2. A ray along a radius is reflected back upon itself. (red)
3. A ray along the direction from the focal point to the mirror is
reflected parallel to the principal axis. (blue) 41
Object between F and C

## For the pencil in the above figure, the image is inverted,

real, larger than the object, and farther from the mirror than
the object.
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Object between F and the
Concave Mirror’s Surface

## The image is upright, virtual, and larger than the object.

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Magnification

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image size h
The magnification is defined as m  .
object size h

m>0.

## The expression for magnification can also be written as

q
m where p is the object distance and
p q is the image distance.

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The Mirror Equation

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h h'

pR Rq

h q h

 p  R  p R  q 

 p  Rq  pR  q

2 pq   p  qR

2 1 1 1 1 1
   
R p q f p q
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The mirror equation:

## 1 1 1 where f is the focal length of the mirror.

  f<0 when the focal point is behind the
p q f
mirror.

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Passenger’ Side Mirror
An object is located 30.0 cm from a passenger’s side mirror. The image
formed is upright and 1/3 the size of the object. (a) Is the image real or
virtual? (b) What is the focal length of the mirror? (c) Is the mirror
concave or convex?

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Formation of Images
An image is real if light rays from a point on the object
converge to a corresponding point on the image.

A camera lens
forms a real image.

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§23.9 Thin Lenses
A diverging lens will bend light away from the principle axis.

## A converging lens will bend light toward the principal axis.

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52
h q
Magnification: m 
h p

1 1 1
The thin lens equation:  
p q f

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h q

p
f
h’

q
h'  h
p
h h'

f q  f 
h' q  f  q
 
h f p
1 1 1
 
p f q
1 1 1
 
p q f
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Example (text problem 23.64): A diverging lens has a
focal length -8.00 cm.

## (a) What are the image distances for objects placed at

various distances from the lens? Is the image real or
virtual? Upright or inverted? Enlarged or diminished?

## Object Image Real / Upright / Enlarged/

distance distance virtual? inverted? diminished
5 cm -3.08 cm Virtual upright Diminished
8 cm -4.00 cm Virtual upright Diminished
14 cm -5.09 cm Virtual upright Diminished
16 cm -5.33 cm Virtual upright Diminished
20 cm -5.71 cm Virtual upright Diminished

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Example continued:

image?

## Object Image Magnification Image height

distance distance
5 cm -3.08 cm 0.616 2.46 cm
8 cm -4.00 cm 0.500 2.00 cm
14 cm -5.09 cm 0.364 1.45 cm
16 cm -5.33 cm 0.333 1.33 cm
20 cm -5.71 cm 0.285 1.14 cm

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