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Chapter 1

The world through our


senses
1.1 Sensory organs and their
functions
• Sensory organs = detect changes that
happen in its environment.
eg/ eye
• Stimulus (s) / stimuli (p) = change in the
environment that causes the body to
respond.
eg/ light
• Senses = ability of a sensory organ to
detect stimuli.
eg/ sight
Sensory Types of
Sense
organs stimuli
Pressure, pain,
Touch Skin
heat, cold

Chemicals in
Smell Nose
the air

Chemicals in
Taste Tongue
food

Hearing Ears Sound

Sight Eyes Light


The pathway from stimulus to
response

Stimulus Sensory Nerves


organs impulse

Nerves
Response Brain
impulse
1.2 The sense of touch
Pain Touch

Types of receptors
in the skin

Pressure Heat
Cold
Cross section of human skin.
Doctors usually give
injections on the patients
forearms. Why???

Think!!!
Answer

The skin on the area is less


sensitive to touch and pain
compared to the skin on other
parts of the body
Sensitivity of the skin depends
on:

The distance The


between thickness of
receptors. epidermis.
1.3 The sense of smell
Detection of smells
Chemicals Stimulate
Chemicals
dissolve in smell
in the air
mucous lining receptors

Brain
Smell Messages
interprets
identified
the messages
Structural adaptations of the nose to
detect smell

1) Smell receptors located at the


roof of nasal cavity → maximum
exposure to the air that enter
nasal cavity.
2) Smell receptors are covered by
mucus → keep nasal cavity moist.
When a person had a
cold, they cannot
detect smell very well.
Why?

THINK!!!!
Answer

This is because too much mucus


produce in the nasal cavity
and it prevent chemicals in
the air to stimulates the
smell receptors.
1.4 The sense of taste

Bitter

Sour Taste Salty


receptors

Sweet
Salty Salty

Location of various taste receptors.


Detection of tastes

Dissolved Taste Message Brain Type of


substances receptors taste
nerve Interpret
Sour plum Detect sour impulse message sour
Sense of taste and smell

• The nasal cavity and mouth are


connected.
• The sense of taste is influenced by the
sense of smell.
• When nose is blocked, food become
tasteless or different from its original
taste.
Exercise
1. Name 5 senses in our body.
2. State the pathway from stimulus to
response. Give example.
3. Name 5 receptors found in the skin.
4. What are the 2 factors that influence
the sensitivity of skin?
5. Name receptors found in:
a) epidermis layer
b) dermis layer
c) adipose/fatty layer
6. The smell receptor is always
dampened by mucus liquid. What
is the mucus function?
7. The smell receptors in the nose
are sensitive to the ……
8. What tastes can be detected by
the taste buds in the tongue?
9. Why is it dry tongue cannot taste
food well?
10. Why is it a person who has cold
seems to find his food less tasty?
Conclusion

Sensory
organs 1
Eye Nose Ear Tongue 2
Skin

Chemical Chemical Heat, cold,


Stimuli Light
substance 3
Sound
substance pain, touch

Heat, cold,
Sight 4
Smell Hearing 5
Taste touch
pain, touch
Senses