Anda di halaman 1dari 48

ANATOMI SISTEM PERNAFASAN

BAWAH
Yulia Dewi Pratiwi
1610211122
Sistem Respirasi
• Lima fungsi dari sistem pernafasan, yaitu:
1. Pertukaran gas dan sistem sirkulasi darah
2. Perpindahan udara dari dan ke permukaan
pertukaran paru
3. Melindungi permukaan pernafasan dari
lingkungan luar
4. Menghasilkan suara
5. Berhubungan dengan sistem penghidu
(penciuman)
Pembagian Sistem Pernafasan
• Upper respiratory system – above the larynx
• Lower respiratory system – below the larynx
• Traktus Respiratorius
– Zona konduksi atau “dead space”
• From nasal cavity to terminal bronchioles
• Berfungsi sebagai proteksi dan pengaturan kelembapan
udara
– Zona Respirasi
• The respiratory bronchioles and alveoli
• Pertukaran udara (difusi)
Figure 23-1 The Structures of the Respiratory System.

Upper Respiratory System

Nose
Nasal cavity
Sinuses
Tongue
Pharynx
Esophagus

Lower Respiratory System


Clavicle
Larynx

Trachea

Bronchus

Bronchioles
Smallest bronchioles

Ribs

Right Left
lung lung

Alveoli

Diaphragm
LARING
• Fungsi utama laring sbg alat suara, akan tetapi
di dalam sistem pernafasan berfungsi sbg
jalan udara.
– Three large, unpaired cartilages form the larynx
1. Thyroid cartilage
2. Cricoid cartilage
3. Epiglottis
KARTILAGO LARING
• The Thyroid Cartilage
– Is hyaline cartilage
– Forms anterior and lateral walls of larynx
– Anterior surface called laryngeal prominence, or
Adam’s apple
– Ligaments attach to hyoid bone, epiglottis, and
laryngeal cartilages
KARTILAGO LARING
• The Cricoid Cartilage
– Is hyaline cartilage
– Forms posterior portion of larynx
– Ligaments attach to first tracheal cartilage
– Articulates with arytenoid cartilages
KARTILAGO LARING
• The Epiglottis
– Composed of elastic cartilage
– Ligaments attach to thyroid cartilage and hyoid
bone
• Moves when swallowing and speaking.
– Closes off trachea when swallowing food
KARTILAGO LARING
• Three Pairs of Smaller Hyaline Cartilages
1. Arytenoid cartilages
2. Corniculate cartilages
3. Cuneiform cartilages
Figure 23-4a The Anatomy of the Larynx.

Epiglottis

Lesser cornu

Hyoid bone

Thyrohyoid
ligament

Laryngeal
prominence
Thyroid
Larynx
cartilage

Cricothyroid
ligament
Cricoid cartilage
Cricotracheal
ligament

Trachea
Tracheal
cartilages

a Anterior view
Figure 23-4b The Anatomy of the Larynx.

Epiglottis

Vestibular
ligament
Corniculate
cartilage
Vocal ligament
Thyroid Arytenoid
cartilage cartilage

Cricoid cartilage

Tracheal
cartilages

b Posterior view
Figure 23-4c The Anatomy of the Larynx.

Hyoid bone

Epiglottis

Thyroid
Vestibular
cartilage
ligament

Corniculate
cartilage
Vocal ligament
Arytenoid
cartilage
Cricoid
Cricothyroid ligament
cartilage

Cricotracheal ligament Tracheal


cartilages

ANTERIOR POSTERIOR

c Sagittal section
Voice Box
• The Vestibular Ligaments
– Lie within vestibular folds
• Which protect delicate vocal folds
• Sound Production
– Air passing through glottis
• Vibrates vocal folds
• Produces sound waves
PRODUKSI SUARA
– Suara dihasilkan oleh bantuan dari:
• Tegangan pada pita suara
• Voluntary muscles (position arytenoid cartilage relative
to thyroid cartilage)
– Speech is produced by:
– Phonation
» Sound production at the larynx
– Articulation
» Modification of sound by other structures
Figure 23-5a The Glottis and Surrounding Structures.

Corniculate POSTERIOR
cartilage
Cuneiform
cartilage
Aryepiglottic
Vestibular fold
fold

Vocal fold
of glottis
Epiglottis

Root of tongue
ANTERIOR

a Glottis in the closed position.


Figure 23-5b The Glottis and Surrounding Structures.

POSTERIOR
Corniculate cartilage
Cuneiform cartilage

Glottis (open)

Rima glottidis
Vocal fold

Vestibular fold

Epiglottis
ANTERIOR

b Glottis in the open position.


Figure 23-5c The Glottis and Surrounding Structures.

Corniculate cartilage
Cuneiform cartilage

Glottis (open)

Rima glottidis
Vocal fold

Vestibular fold
Vocal nodule
Epiglottis

c Photograph taken with a laryngoscope


positioned within the oropharynx,
superior to the larynx. Note the
abnormal vocal nodule.
TRAKEA
• The Trachea
– Also called the windpipe
– Consists of smooth cartilage and C shaped rings of
cartilage.
– Extends from the cricoid cartilage into
mediastinum
• Where it branches into right and left pulmonary
bronchi
Figure 23-6b The Anatomy of the Trachea.

Esophagus

Trachealis
muscle

Lumen of Thyroid
trachea gland

Respiratory
epithelium

Tracheal
cartilage
The trachea LM × 3

b A cross-sectional view
• The Tracheal Cartilages
– 15–20 tracheal cartilages
• Strengthen and protect airway
• Discontinuous where trachea contacts esophagus
– Ends of each tracheal cartilage are connected by:
• An elastic ligament and trachealis muscle
• The Primary Bronchi
– Right and Left Primary Bronchi
• Separated by an internal ridge (the carina)
– The Right Primary Bronchus
• Is larger in diameter than the left
Figure 23-6a The Anatomy of the Trachea.
Hyoid
bone

Larynx

Trachea

Tracheal
cartilages

Location of carina
Root of (internal ridge)
right lung
Root of
left lung

Lung
tissue Primary
bronchi
Secondary
bronchi
RIGHT LUNG LEFT LUNG

a A diagrammatic anterior view showing the plane of section


for part (b)
PULMO
• Pulmo
– Left and right lungs
• Are in left and right pleural cavities
– The base
• Inferior portion of each lung rests on superior surface
of diaphragm
– Lobes of the lungs
• Lungs have lobes separated by deep fissures
LOBUS PULMO
• Lobes and Surfaces of the Lungs
– The right lung has three lobes
• Superior, middle, and inferior
• Separated by horizontal and oblique fissures
– The left lung has two lobes
• Superior and inferior
• Separated by an oblique fissure
• Lung Shape
– Right lung
• Is wider
• Is displaced upward by liver
– Left lung
• Is longer
• Is displaced leftward by the heart forming the cardiac
notch
Figure 23-7a The Gross Anatomy of the Lungs (Part 2 of 2).

Boundary between
right and left
Superior lobe pleural cavities
Left lung
Right lung
Superior lobe

Horizontal fissure Oblique fissure

Middle lobe
Fibrous layer
Oblique fissure of pericardium
Inferior lobe
Inferior lobe Falciform ligament
Cut edge of
diaphragm
Liver, Liver,
right lobe left lobe
a Thoracic cavity, anterior view
Figure 23-7b The Gross Anatomy of the Lungs.

b Lateral Surfaces

The curving anterior and lateral


surfaces of each lung follow the Apex Apex
inner contours of the rib cage.
Superior
lobe

ANTERIOR Superior lobe

Horizontal fissure
Middle The cardiac notch
Oblique fissure lobe accommodates the Oblique
pericardial cavity, fissure
Inferior which sits to the left
lobe of the midline. Inferior
lobe

Base Base
Right lung Left lung
Figure 23-7c The Gross Anatomy of the Lungs.

c Medial Surfaces

The medial surfaces, which contain the


hilum, have more irregular shapes. The Apex Apex
medial surfaces of both lungs have grooves Superior Bronchus Superior
that mark the positions of the great lobe Groove
lobe
vessels of the heart. POSTERIOR for aorta

Pulmonary
Pulmonary artery The hilum of the lung is artery
a groove that allows
Pulmonary veins Pulmonary
passage of the primary
bronchi, pulmonary veins
Horizontal fissure Inferior
vessels, nerves, and
Middle lobe
lymphatics. Oblique
lobe
Inferior fissure
Oblique fissure
lobe
Bronchus
Diaphragmatic
Base Base surface

Right lung Left lung


Figure 23-8 The Relationship between the Lungs and Heart (Part 2 of 2).

Pericardial Body of sternum


cavity

Right lung, Ventricles


middle lobe
Oblique fissure Rib
Left lung,
Right pleural superior lobe
cavity
Visceral pleura
Atria
Left pleural cavity
Parietal pleura
Esophagus
Aorta Bronchi
Right lung,
inferior lobe Mediastinum
Spinal cord
Left lung,
inferior lobe
BRONCHUS
• A Primary Bronchus
– Branches to form secondary bronchi (lobar
bronchi)
– One secondary bronchus goes to each lobe
• Secondary Bronchi
– Branch to form tertiary bronchi (segmental
bronchi)
– Each segmental bronchus
• Supplies air to a single bronchopulmonary segment
• Bronchopulmonary Segments
– The right lung has 10
– The left lung has 8 or 9
• Bronchial Structure
– The walls of primary, secondary, and tertiary
bronchi
• Contain progressively less cartilage and more smooth
muscle
• Increased smooth muscle tension affects airway
constriction and resistance
BRONCHIOLES
• The Bronchioles
– Each tertiary bronchus branches into multiple
bronchioles
– Bronchioles branch into terminal bronchioles
• One tertiary bronchus forms about 6500 terminal
bronchioles
• Bronchiole Structure
– Bronchioles
• Have no cartilage
• Are dominated by smooth muscle
23-5 The Lungs
• Pulmonary Lobules
– Trabeculae
• Fibrous connective tissue partitions from root of lung
• Contain supportive tissues and lymphatic vessels
• Branch repeatedly
• Divide lobes into increasingly smaller compartments
• Pulmonary lobules are divided by the smallest
trabecular partitions (interlobular septa)
Figure 23-9a The Bronchi, Lobules, and Alveoli of the Lung.

RIGHT LEFT

Bronchopulmonary
segments of
superior lobe Bronchopulmonary
(3 segments) segments of
superior lobe
(4 segments)

Broncho- Broncho-
pulmonary pulmonary
segments of segments of
middle lobe inferior lobe
(2 segments) (5 segments)

Broncho-
pulmonary
segments of
inferior lobe
(5 segments) a Anterior view of the lungs, showing
the bronchial tree and its divisions
Figure 23-9b The Bronchi, Lobules, and Alveoli of the Lung.

Trachea
Cartilage
plates

Left primary
bronchus

Visceral pleura
Secondary
bronchus

Tertiary bronchi

Smaller
bronchi

Bronchioles

Terminal
bronchiole
Alveoli in a Respiratory
pulmonary bronchiole
lobule

Bronchopulmonary segment

b The branching pattern of bronchi


in the left lung, simplified
Figure 23-9c The Bronchi, Lobules, and Alveoli of the Lung.

Respiratory epithelium
Branch of pulmonary
artery
Bronchiole
Bronchial artery (red),
vein (blue), and
nerve (yellow) Smooth muscle
around terminal
bronchiole
Terminal bronchiole

Respiratory
bronchiole
Branch of
pulmonary Elastic fibers
vein around alveoli
Arteriole
Lymphatic
Capillary vessel
beds
Alveolar
duct Alveoli

Alveolar sac
Interlobular
septum

c The structure of a single pulmonary lobule,


part of a bronchopulmonary segment
Figure 23-9d The Bronchi, Lobules, and Alveoli of the Lung.

Alveoli

Alveolar sac

Alveolar duct

Lung tissue SEM × 125


d SEM of lung tissue showing the
appearance and organization of
the alveoli
• Pulmonary Lobules
– Each terminal bronchiole delivers air to a single
pulmonary lobule
– Each pulmonary lobule is supplied by pulmonary
arteries and veins
– Each terminal bronchiole branches to form several
respiratory bronchioles, where gas exchange
takes place
• Alveolar Ducts and Alveoli
– Respiratory bronchioles are connected to alveoli
along alveolar ducts
– Alveolar ducts end at alveolar sacs
• Common chambers connected to many individual
alveoli
– Each alveolus has an extensive network of
capillaries
• Surrounded by elastic fibers
Figure 23-10a Alveolar Organization.

Respiratory bronchiole
Alveolar duct
Smooth
muscle Alveolus

Alveolar
Elastic sac
fibers

Capillaries

a The basic structure of the distal end of a single


lobule. A network of capillaries, supported by
elastic fibers, surrounds each alveolus. Respiratory
bronchioles are also wrapped by smooth muscle
cells that can change the diameter of these airways.
Figure 23-10b Alveolar Organization.

Alveoli

Respiratory
bronchiole

Alveolar
sac

Arteriole

Histology of the lung LM × 14

b Low-power micrograph of lung tissue.


• Alveolar Epithelium
– Consists of simple squamous epithelium
– Consists of thin, delicate type I pneumocytes
patrolled by alveolar macrophages (dust cells)
– Contains type II pneumocytes (septal cells) that
produce surfactant
• Surfactant
– Is an oily secretion
– Contains phospholipids and proteins
– Coats alveolar surfaces and reduces surface
tension
• The Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes
– Two pleural cavities
• Are separated by the mediastinum
– Each pleural cavity:
• Holds a lung
• Is lined with a serous membrane (the pleura)
PLEURA
• Pleura
– Terbagi menjadi dua lapisan, yaitu:
1. Parietal pleura
2. Visceral pleura
– Cairan Pleural
• Pelumas diantara dua lapisan pleura
Referensi
• Ilmu Penyakit Paru, Prof. Dr. H. Tabrani Rab
• Anatomi Tortora
TERIMAKASIH