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Hak Asasi

Manusia
Hello!

Abidah S
Hafsah Nur Shodrina
Intan Fajar Akbari

DIV/5A
Hak Asasi Manusia

“Hak”
“Asasi”
“Manusia”
“HAK” “ASASI” “MANUSIA

Unsur Bersifat
normatif dasar, Makhluk
pokok berakal
budi

Hak yang melekat pada diri
manusia yang bersifat kodrati dan
fundamental sebagai suatu
anugrah yang harus dijaga dan
dilindungi oleh setiap individu,
masyarahkat, dan negara
UU No. 39 Tahun 1999

Seperangkat hak yang melekat pada hakekatnya


dan keberadaan manusia sebagai makhluk Tuhan
Yang Maha Esa dan merupakan anugerahnyaa, yang
wajib dijunjung tinggi, dihormati, dan dilindungi
oleh negara, huum, pemerintahan, dan setiap orang
demi kehormatan serta perlindungan harkat dan
martabat manusia.
Landasan pengakuan terhadap HAM

2. Landasan yang
1. Landasan lebih dalam
langsung Tuhan
Kodrat manusia menciptakan
manusia
HAM tidak perlu diperjualbelikan,
dibeli ataupun diwarisi
3 ciri
HAM berlaku untuk semua
pokok orang
HAM
HAM tidak boleh dilanggar
Prinsip HAM

 Prinsip dengan  Prinsip kesatupaduan


keseimbangan
1. Hak dengan kewajiban
2. Hak perorangan dengan
kolektif
3. Hak kebebasan dan
tanggung jawab
Ruang Hak Sosial Politik (hak
Lingkup
alamiah)

Hak Sosial Ekonomi


• Personal rights
Macam- • Property rights
macam • Legal Equality of Rights
HAM • Political Rights
dalam • Judicature and Custody
Universal Rights
of • Education Rights
Human • Wages and Occupation
Rights Rights
• Social and Cultural Rights
Universal Declaration
4 kebebasan Roosevelt (1941) of Human Rights
(1948)

Decralation des droits de


Declaration of Independence Amerika I’home me at du citoyen
Serikat (1776) Prancis (1789)

Hobbeas Corpus Act Bill of Rights Inggris


Inggris (1660) (1689)

Piagam
Madina Magna Charta Inggris
(1215)

Piagam
Hammurabi
Perkembangan pemikiran
dalam 4 generasi
• Generasi pertama
• Generasi kedua
• Generasi ketiga
• Generasi keempat
Sejarah Perkembangan HAM di Indonesia

◉ Pemikiran HAM Budi ◉ HAM 1970 - 1980


Utomo
Pemerintah pada
Bentuk pemikiran HAM periode ini bersifat
Budi Utomo dalam defensif yag
bidang hak kebebasan mencerminkan produk
berserikat dan hukum yang umumnya
berpendapat restriktif terhadap HAM
Sejarah Perkembangan HAM

◉ HAM 1990 – now ◉ HAM dalam UUD


1945
Strategi penegakan HAM
pada periode ini melalui ◉ terdapat pada pasal
dua tahap, tahap status 28
penentuan dan tahap
penataan aturan
Sejarah Perkembangan HAM

◉ Zaman orde baru ◉ Era reformasi

Keluarnya keppres No. - Perubahan UUD 1945


50 tahun 1993 tentang pasal 28A-J
pembentukan komisi - Disahkannya UU no
nasional HAM 39 th 1999
- UU No. 26 th 2000
Konsep HAM diratifikasi PBB, terdapat konsep utama
HAM

HAM menurut konsep negara barat


• Ingin meninggalkan konsep negara mutlak
• Ingin mendirikan federasi rakyat yang bebas

HAM menurut konsep sosialis


• Hak asasi hilang dari individu dan terintegrasi dalam
masyarakat
• Negara berhak membatasi hak asasi manusia

HAM menurut konsep bangsa Asia dan Afrika


• Tidak boleh bertentangan dengan ajaran agama
• Individu tunduk kepada kepala adat

HAM menurut konsep PBB


Menjelaskan mengenai hak sipil, politik, ekonomi,
sosial, dan budaya
Pelanggaran HAM menurut UU. No 26 tahun 2000 tentang
peradilan HAM
Macam Pelanggaran HAM

Pelanggaran HAM
biasa
Kelalaian
Genoicida
Pelanggaran HAM
berat
Kejahatan terhadap
kemanusiaan

Berwenang menerima dan memutuskan
perkara pelanggaran HAM berat yang
terjadi di Indonesia dan diluar wilayah
Republik Indonesia.
Pandangan dan sikap bangsa Indonesia tentang HAM

HAM bersumber dari ajaran agama, nilai moral, universal, dan


luhur bangsa Indonesia
Bangsa Indonesia : menghormati deklarasi universal HAM dan
berbagai instrumen lainnya
HAM : hak dasar yang melekat secara kodrat sebagai anugrah
dari Tuhan Yang Maha Esa
Manusia mempunyai hak dan tanggung jawab yang timbul
sebagai akibat perkembangan kehidupan
Perumusan HAM : dilandasi oleh pemahaman terhadap citra,
harkat, dan martabat diri manusia sendiri
Manusia Hidup tidak terlepas dari Tuhan, sesama manusia dan
lingkungannya
Hak asasi dan kewajiban manusia terpadu dan melekat pada diri
manusia
Lembaga Penegakan HAM

Komisi Nasional Hak Asasi Manusia


(KOMNAS HAM)

Pengadilan Hak Asasi Manusia

Lembaga Bantuan Hukum



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YELLOW BLUE RED


Is the color of gold, butter and Is the colour of the clear sky Is the color of blood, and
ripe lemons. In the spectrum of and the deep sea. It is located because of this it has
visible light, yellow is found between violet and green on historically been associated
between green and orange. the optical spectrum. with sacrifice, danger and
courage.

YELLOW BLUE RED


Is the color of gold, butter and Is the colour of the clear sky Is the color of blood, and
ripe lemons. In the spectrum of and the deep sea. It is located because of this it has
visible light, yellow is found between violet and green on historically been associated
between green and orange. the optical spectrum. with sacrifice, danger and
courage.
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