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Hak Asasi

Manusia
Hello!

Abidah S
Hafsah Nur Shodrina
Intan Fajar Akbari

DIV/5A
Hak Asasi Manusia

“Hak”
“Asasi”
“Manusia”
“HAK” “ASASI” “MANUSIA”

Unsur Bersifat Makhluk


normatif dasar, pokok berakal budi

Hak yang melekat pada diri manusia
yang bersifat kodrati dan
fundamental sebagai suatu anugrah
yang harus dijaga dan dilindungi oleh
setiap individu, masyarahkat, dan
negara
UU No. 39 Tahun 1999

Seperangkat hak yang melekat pada hakekatnya dan


keberadaan manusia sebagai makhluk Tuhan Yang
Maha Esa dan merupakan anugerahnyaa, yang wajib
dijunjung tinggi, dihormati, dan dilindungi oleh negara,
huum, pemerintahan, dan setiap orang demi kehormatan
serta perlindungan harkat dan martabat manusia.
Landasan pengakuan terhadap HAM

2. Landasan yang
1. Landasan lebih dalam
langsung Tuhan
Kodrat manusia menciptakan
manusia
HAM tidak perlu diperjualbelikan,
dibeli ataupun diwarisi
3 ciri
HAM berlaku untuk semua
pokok orang
HAM
HAM tidak boleh dilanggar
Prinsip HAM

 Prinsip dengan  Prinsip kesatupaduan


keseimbangan
1. Hak dengan kewajiban
2. Hak perorangan dengan
kolektif
3. Hak kebebasan dan tanggung
jawab
Ruang Hak Sosial Politik (hak
Lingkup
alamiah)

Hak Sosial Ekonomi


• Personal rights
Macam- • Property rights
macam • Legal Equality of Rights
HAM • Political Rights
dalam • Judicature and Custody
Universal Rights
of • Education Rights
Human • Wages and Occupation
Rights Rights
• Social and Cultural Rights
Universal Declaration
4 kebebasan Roosevelt (1941) of Human Rights
(1948)

Decralation des droits de


Declaration of Independence Amerika I’home me at du citoyen
Serikat (1776) Prancis (1789)

Hobbeas Corpus Act Bill of Rights Inggris


Inggris (1660) (1689)

Piagam
Madina Magna Charta Inggris
(1215)

Piagam
Hammurabi
Perkembangan pemikiran
dalam 4 generasi
• Generasi pertama
• Generasi kedua
• Generasi ketiga
• Generasi keempat
Sejarah Perkembangan HAM di Indonesia

◉ Pemikiran HAM Budi ◉ HAM 1970 - 1980


Utomo
Pemerintah pada periode
Bentuk pemikiran HAM ini bersifat defensif yag
Budi Utomo dalam bidang mencerminkan produk
hak kebebasan berserikat hukum yang umumnya
dan berpendapat restriktif terhadap HAM
Sejarah Perkembangan HAM

◉ HAM 1990 – now ◉ HAM dalam UUD 1945

Strategi penegakan HAM ◉ terdapat pada pasal 28


pada periode ini melalui
dua tahap, tahap status
penentuan dan tahap
penataan aturan
Sejarah Perkembangan HAM

◉ Zaman orde baru ◉ Era reformasi

Keluarnya keppres No. 50 - Perubahan UUD 1945


tahun 1993 tentang pasal 28A-J
pembentukan komisi - Disahkannya UU no 39
nasional HAM th 1999
- UU No. 26 th 2000
Konsep HAM diratifikasi PBB, terdapat konsep utama
HAM

HAM menurut konsep negara barat


• Ingin meninggalkan konsep negara mutlak
• Ingin mendirikan federasi rakyat yang bebas

HAM menurut konsep sosialis


• Hak asasi hilang dari individu dan terintegrasi dalam masyarakat
• Negara berhak membatasi hak asasi manusia

HAM menurut konsep bangsa Asia dan Afrika


• Tidak boleh bertentangan dengan ajaran agama
• Individu tunduk kepada kepala adat

HAM menurut konsep PBB


Menjelaskan mengenai hak sipil, politik, ekonomi,
sosial, dan budaya
Pelanggaran HAM menurut UU. No 26 tahun 2000 tentang peradilan
HAM
Macam Pelanggaran HAM

Pelanggaran HAM
biasa
Kelalaian
Genoicida
Pelanggaran HAM
berat
Kejahatan terhadap
kemanusiaan

Berwenang menerima dan memutuskan perkara
pelanggaran HAM berat yang terjadi di
Indonesia dan diluar wilayah Republik
Indonesia.
Pandangan dan sikap bangsa Indonesia tentang
HAM

HAM bersumber dari ajaran agama, nilai moral, universal, dan


luhur bangsa Indonesia
Bangsa Indonesia : menghormati deklarasi universal HAM dan
berbagai instrumen lainnya
HAM : hak dasar yang melekat secara kodrat sebagai anugrah
dari Tuhan Yang Maha Esa
Manusia mempunyai hak dan tanggung jawab yang timbul
sebagai akibat perkembangan kehidupan
Perumusan HAM : dilandasi oleh pemahaman terhadap citra,
harkat, dan martabat diri manusia sendiri
Manusia Hidup tidak terlepas dari Tuhan, sesama manusia dan
lingkungannya
Hak asasi dan kewajiban manusia terpadu dan melekat pada diri
manusia
Lembaga Penegakan HAM

Komisi Nasional Hak Asasi Manusia


(KOMNAS HAM)

Pengadilan Hak Asasi Manusia

Lembaga Bantuan Hukum



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YELLOW BLUE RED


Is the color of gold, butter and ripe Is the colour of the clear sky and Is the color of blood, and because
lemons. In the spectrum of visible the deep sea. It is located of this it has historically been
light, yellow is found between between violet and green on the associated with sacrifice, danger
green and orange. optical spectrum. and courage.

YELLOW BLUE RED


Is the color of gold, butter and ripe Is the colour of the clear sky and Is the color of blood, and because
lemons. In the spectrum of visible the deep sea. It is located of this it has historically been
light, yellow is found between between violet and green on the associated with sacrifice, danger
green and orange. optical spectrum. and courage.
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