Anda di halaman 1dari 35

Kuliah 2

Pembelajaran Dalam

Hasil Pembelajaran
• menunjukkan pengetahuan asas teori-teori
pembelajaran yang diperlukan untuk
menyelesaikan masalah dan perubahan dalam

organisasi itu merupakan kewujudan
sekumpulan manusia yang tersusun,
mempunyai penyelarasan, keserasian dan
hubungan yang rapat di antara mereka,
mempunyai matlamat-matlamat tertentu dan
kaedah yang melaksanakan urusan
pentadbiran dan mengambil berat
kepentingan mereka serta merancang untuk
mencapai matlamat-matlamat yang
dipersetujui bersama oleh mereka
Tiga Pendekatan

• Birokratik • Kemanusiaan • Kontemporari

1. Pengkhususan 1. Interaksi 1. Budaya Business
2. Untung & rugi
2. Kawalan 2. Berpasukan 3. Pengurangan kos
3. Formaliti 3. Motivasi 4. Memaksimakan
4. Struktur autoriti 4. Ganjaran keuntungan
5. Strategi business
5. Kump X dan Y 6. Misi
7. Piagam pelanggan
8. Khidmat komuniti
9. Kualiti

Learning Concept
Any relatively permanent change in behavior
that occurs as a result of experience.

• Involves change
• Is relatively permanent
• Is acquired through experience

The Nature of Learning
(Bratton, J., Callinan, M., Forshaw, C. and Sawchuk, P., 2007)

• Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour or

human capabilities resulting from processing new knowledge, practice or
– Such capabilities relate to all types of skills: cognitive/motor skills, attitudes
and verbal information (Gagne & Medsker)

• Learning results in the assimilation of group ‘norms’

• Learning is a mode of adaptation to change, it can be formal, non-formal,

informal or incidental
– Incidental learning results in tacit knowledge; the other processes result in
explicit knowledge

Workplace Learning
• Learning processes help facilitate the emergence of an
organization’s intellectual capital
– This helps employee commitment to the aims of an organization
– The inter-relationship of tacit and explicit knowledge is important for the
adaptive development of ‘knowledge management’ – it results in human
capital, which is a feature of an organization’s intellectual capital
– To sustain competitive advantage, lifelong learning is important as it
encourages a reflexive approach
• Gender and power are highlighted in recent accounts of learning
from a critical perspective, suggesting that management elites
reinforce a managerialist perspective

Classical Learning Theories
• These include:
– The behavioural approach
– The cognitive approach
– The social-learning approach

• We will examine each of these theories in turn

and then look at some more recent theories –
including adult learning perspectives

Behavioural Approach
• The behavioural approach perceives learning as little more than a
chain of conditioned (learned) reflexes encouraged or inhibited by
positive and negative reinforcement

• The two best-known behavioural theorists are Ivan Pavlov and

– They explained learning as an interaction with the environment
– Pavlov (1849-1936) was famous for his experiment with dogs and his studies
of conditioning. He is described as the 'father of behaviourism'
– Skinner (1904-1990) devised the theory of ‘operant conditioning’, which
placed reliance on behavioural reinforcement stimuli (negative or positive)

Classic or Pavlovian Conditioning

Examples of Positive and Negative Reinforcement
• Reinforcement is a means of inducing motivational states in organizations.
• Rewards are a form of positive reinforcement

Cognitive Approach
• This approach concerns learning through feedback: cognitive theorists believe
that how individuals perceive, evaluate feedback, represent, store and use
information plays an important role in learning
• The key theorists of this approach were Max Wertheimer (1890-1943),
Wolfgang Kohler (1887-1967) and Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)
– Wertheimer and Kohler were gestalt theorists looking to the overall shape of pattern of
– Kohler developed a theory called insightful learning through his experiments on
chimpanzees; he argued stimulus response learning did not have to be gradual and

• Cognitive theorists concentrated on the ‘black box’ of the mind, whereas

behavioural theories thought the internal contents of the mind were not
measurable and so looked outwards, to the environment
• Recent approaches have refined Kohler’s and have lent support to the idea of
a ‘trial and error’ component in learning (Bernstein)

Approaches to Learning Theory

Comparing the behaviourist and cognitive approaches

Social Learning Approach (1)

Social-learning (S-L) theorists believe that

people develop through observational
- The theory operates on the basis of symbolic representations;
individuals learn by observing others directly or indirectly...
- Bandura (1977) argued that learning involved four inter-related processes:
- Attention
- Memory
- Motor skills
- Motivation.
- Close attention to a model leads to self-efficacy (confidence to learn fresh

Figure 8.3 - Three Aspects of Reciprocal Learning (Learning through modelling)

Social Learning Approach (2)
• Vygotsky(1978) argued that learning occurs through a dynamic social
exchange between master and novice
– Optimal learning is achieved with support and through internalization of
learning – this is defined as ‘relational’ and relies on language forms of
• A contrasting theory is the community of practice approach, which
looks to the variation in types of socialized learning and relates to a
community that shares an expertise
– Individuals make a journey from novice to master within the learning
– Debate attends this theory relating to whether class-based or formal learning
is needed or not
• Engestrom (1991) argued that apart from imitation of a model,
investigative and expansive knowledge was needed to reach higher
levels of learning
A Work Related Model of

• This figure shows

Activity Theory which
uses a mix of practice
theory (Wenger) and
the theories of Vygotsky
and Engstrom, to test
work related
• Related theory
developments were
made by Rogoff (1995)

Adult Learning Theories
• These theories arose as the behaviourist
approach declined in popularity

• We will investigate four key theories:

– Andragogy
– Self-Directed Learning
– Transformational Learning
– Learning issues of Class ethnicity and gender

• Andragogy is defined as 'the art and science of
helping adults learn’ (in contrast, pedagogy
relates to children’s learning)
• Knowles characterized adult learners as well-
motivated, independent and mature
– He first thought of andragogy and pedagogy as opposites but later
revised his view
– He believed that andragogy (adult learning) involved a shift in one’s
self concept from dependency to self-directedness (Knowles, 1973)

A comparison of the assumptions of Andragogy and Pedagogy

Applying Learning Theory in the Organization

This table summarizes some of the key features of the theories we have outlined,
showing how the earlier classical/psychological theories have begun to give way to
learning theories which debate and articulate key aspects of adult learning theory

Theories of Learning
Classical Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which an individual
responds to some stimulus that would not
ordinarily produce such a response.

Source: The Far Side ® by
Gary Larson © 1993 Far
Works, Inc. All rights
reserved. Used with

Theories of Learning (cont’d)
Operant Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary
behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.

Key Concepts
• Reflexive (unlearned) behavior
• Conditioned (learned) behavior
• Reinforcement

Theories of Learning (cont’d)
Social-Learning Theory
People can learn through observation
and direct experience.
Key Concepts
• Intentional processes
• Retention processes
• Motor reproduction processes
• Reinforcement processes

Organizational Change
• Today’s successful organizations
simultaneously embrace two types of planned
● Incremental change = efforts to gradually improve
basic operational and work processes in different
parts of the company
● Transformational change = redesigning and
renewing the entire organization

Organizational Change
 Technology: General rule = change is bottom up
 New product:
· Horizontal linkage model emphasizes shared development of innovations
among several departments
· Time-based competition is based on the ability to deliver products and
services faster than competitors
 Structure: Successful change = through a top-down approach
 Culture/people:
· Training is the most frequently used tool for changing the organization’s
Kurt Lewin’s Change Process
• One of the earliest models for understanding
organizational change
• Developed by Kurt Lewin in the 1950’s
• Identifies 3 distinct phases of change
– Unfreeze: Prepares the organization to accept that
change is necessary
– Change: People begin to resolve uncertainty and start to
embrace the change and participate in it
– Refreeze: Changes are internalized and incorporated
into daily business operations

Kurt Lewin’s Change Process, cont.

(support (reinforce to
(create the right
change to anchor the
desired state) change)

Structural Changes
• Any change in the way in which the
organization is designed and managed
● Hierarchy of authority
● Goals
● Structural characteristics
● Administrative procedures
● Management systems

Ethical Dilemma: Research for Sale

Culture-People Changes
• Changes in structure, technologies, and
products or services do not happen on their

• Changes in any of these areas require changes

in people

Changing Forms
• Ghazally Ismail and Murtedza Mohamed (1996)
• 4 Forms
1. Mandatory legalistative – By government
2. Reformation Idealogy – very compilicated
3. Inovation – changing organization current
4. Responsive – counter balance from employee.

Forces for Change
• Environmental Forces
– Customers
– Competitors
– Technology
– Economic
– International arena
• Internal Forces – activities and decisions

Need for Change

Performance gap = disparity between

existing and desired performance levels.

● Current procedures are not up to standard

● New idea or technology could improve
current performance