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Kuliah 2

Pembelajaran Dalam
Organisasi

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Hasil Pembelajaran
• menunjukkan pengetahuan asas teori-teori
pembelajaran yang diperlukan untuk
menyelesaikan masalah dan perubahan dalam
organisasi

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Definisi:
organisasi itu merupakan kewujudan
sekumpulan manusia yang tersusun,
mempunyai penyelarasan, keserasian dan
hubungan yang rapat di antara mereka,
mempunyai matlamat-matlamat tertentu dan
kaedah yang melaksanakan urusan
pentadbiran dan mengambil berat
kepentingan mereka serta merancang untuk
mencapai matlamat-matlamat yang
dipersetujui bersama oleh mereka
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Tiga Pendekatan

• Birokratik • Kemanusiaan • Kontemporari


1. Pengkhususan 1. Interaksi 1. Budaya Business
2. Untung & rugi
2. Kawalan 2. Berpasukan 3. Pengurangan kos
3. Formaliti 3. Motivasi 4. Memaksimakan
4. Struktur autoriti 4. Ganjaran keuntungan
5. Strategi business
5. Kump X dan Y 6. Misi
7. Piagam pelanggan
8. Khidmat komuniti
9. Kualiti

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Learning Concept
Learning
Any relatively permanent change in behavior
that occurs as a result of experience.

Learning
• Involves change
• Is relatively permanent
• Is acquired through experience

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The Nature of Learning
(Bratton, J., Callinan, M., Forshaw, C. and Sawchuk, P., 2007)

• Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour or


human capabilities resulting from processing new knowledge, practice or
experience
– Such capabilities relate to all types of skills: cognitive/motor skills, attitudes
and verbal information (Gagne & Medsker)

• Learning results in the assimilation of group ‘norms’

• Learning is a mode of adaptation to change, it can be formal, non-formal,


informal or incidental
– Incidental learning results in tacit knowledge; the other processes result in
explicit knowledge

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Workplace Learning
• Learning processes help facilitate the emergence of an
organization’s intellectual capital
– This helps employee commitment to the aims of an organization
– The inter-relationship of tacit and explicit knowledge is important for the
adaptive development of ‘knowledge management’ – it results in human
capital, which is a feature of an organization’s intellectual capital
– To sustain competitive advantage, lifelong learning is important as it
encourages a reflexive approach
• Gender and power are highlighted in recent accounts of learning
from a critical perspective, suggesting that management elites
reinforce a managerialist perspective

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Classical Learning Theories
• These include:
– The behavioural approach
– The cognitive approach
– The social-learning approach

• We will examine each of these theories in turn


and then look at some more recent theories –
including adult learning perspectives

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Behavioural Approach
• The behavioural approach perceives learning as little more than a
chain of conditioned (learned) reflexes encouraged or inhibited by
positive and negative reinforcement

• The two best-known behavioural theorists are Ivan Pavlov and


B.F.Skinner
– They explained learning as an interaction with the environment
– Pavlov (1849-1936) was famous for his experiment with dogs and his studies
of conditioning. He is described as the 'father of behaviourism'
– Skinner (1904-1990) devised the theory of ‘operant conditioning’, which
placed reliance on behavioural reinforcement stimuli (negative or positive)

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Classic or Pavlovian Conditioning

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Examples of Positive and Negative Reinforcement
• Reinforcement is a means of inducing motivational states in organizations.
• Rewards are a form of positive reinforcement

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Cognitive Approach
• This approach concerns learning through feedback: cognitive theorists believe
that how individuals perceive, evaluate feedback, represent, store and use
information plays an important role in learning
• The key theorists of this approach were Max Wertheimer (1890-1943),
Wolfgang Kohler (1887-1967) and Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)
– Wertheimer and Kohler were gestalt theorists looking to the overall shape of pattern of
consciousness
– Kohler developed a theory called insightful learning through his experiments on
chimpanzees; he argued stimulus response learning did not have to be gradual and
incremental

• Cognitive theorists concentrated on the ‘black box’ of the mind, whereas


behavioural theories thought the internal contents of the mind were not
measurable and so looked outwards, to the environment
• Recent approaches have refined Kohler’s and have lent support to the idea of
a ‘trial and error’ component in learning (Bernstein)

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Approaches to Learning Theory

Comparing the behaviourist and cognitive approaches

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Social Learning Approach (1)

Social-learning (S-L) theorists believe that


people develop through observational
learning
- The theory operates on the basis of symbolic representations;
individuals learn by observing others directly or indirectly...
- Bandura (1977) argued that learning involved four inter-related processes:
- Attention
- Memory
- Motor skills
- Motivation.
- Close attention to a model leads to self-efficacy (confidence to learn fresh
skills)

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Figure 8.3 - Three Aspects of Reciprocal Learning (Learning through modelling)

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Social Learning Approach (2)
• Vygotsky(1978) argued that learning occurs through a dynamic social
exchange between master and novice
– Optimal learning is achieved with support and through internalization of
learning – this is defined as ‘relational’ and relies on language forms of
learning
• A contrasting theory is the community of practice approach, which
looks to the variation in types of socialized learning and relates to a
community that shares an expertise
– Individuals make a journey from novice to master within the learning
community
– Debate attends this theory relating to whether class-based or formal learning
is needed or not
• Engestrom (1991) argued that apart from imitation of a model,
investigative and expansive knowledge was needed to reach higher
levels of learning
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A Work Related Model of
Learning

• This figure shows


Activity Theory which
uses a mix of practice
theory (Wenger) and
the theories of Vygotsky
and Engstrom, to test
work related
mechanisms
• Related theory
developments were
made by Rogoff (1995)

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Adult Learning Theories
• These theories arose as the behaviourist
approach declined in popularity

• We will investigate four key theories:


– Andragogy
– Self-Directed Learning
– Transformational Learning
– Learning issues of Class ethnicity and gender

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Andragogy
• Andragogy is defined as 'the art and science of
helping adults learn’ (in contrast, pedagogy
relates to children’s learning)
• Knowles characterized adult learners as well-
motivated, independent and mature
– He first thought of andragogy and pedagogy as opposites but later
revised his view
– He believed that andragogy (adult learning) involved a shift in one’s
self concept from dependency to self-directedness (Knowles, 1973)

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A comparison of the assumptions of Andragogy and Pedagogy

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Applying Learning Theory in the Organization

This table summarizes some of the key features of the theories we have outlined,
showing how the earlier classical/psychological theories have begun to give way to
learning theories which debate and articulate key aspects of adult learning theory

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Theories of Learning
Classical Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which an individual
responds to some stimulus that would not
ordinarily produce such a response.

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Source: The Far Side ® by
Gary Larson © 1993 Far
Works, Inc. All rights
reserved. Used with
permission.

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Theories of Learning (cont’d)
Operant Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary
behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.

Key Concepts
• Reflexive (unlearned) behavior
• Conditioned (learned) behavior
• Reinforcement

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Theories of Learning (cont’d)
Social-Learning Theory
People can learn through observation
and direct experience.
Key Concepts
• Intentional processes
• Retention processes
• Motor reproduction processes
• Reinforcement processes

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Organizational Change
• Today’s successful organizations
simultaneously embrace two types of planned
change
● Incremental change = efforts to gradually improve
basic operational and work processes in different
parts of the company
● Transformational change = redesigning and
renewing the entire organization

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Organizational Change
 Technology: General rule = change is bottom up
 New product:
· Horizontal linkage model emphasizes shared development of innovations
among several departments
· Time-based competition is based on the ability to deliver products and
services faster than competitors
 Structure: Successful change = through a top-down approach
 Culture/people:
· Training is the most frequently used tool for changing the organization’s
mind-set
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Kurt Lewin’s Change Process
• One of the earliest models for understanding
organizational change
• Developed by Kurt Lewin in the 1950’s
• Identifies 3 distinct phases of change
– Unfreeze: Prepares the organization to accept that
change is necessary
– Change: People begin to resolve uncertainty and start to
embrace the change and participate in it
– Refreeze: Changes are internalized and incorporated
into daily business operations

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Kurt Lewin’s Change Process, cont.

CHANGE REFREEZE
UNFREEZE
(support (reinforce to
(create the right
change to anchor the
environment)
desired state) change)

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Structural Changes
• Any change in the way in which the
organization is designed and managed
● Hierarchy of authority
● Goals
● Structural characteristics
● Administrative procedures
● Management systems

Ethical Dilemma: Research for Sale

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Culture-People Changes
• Changes in structure, technologies, and
products or services do not happen on their
own

• Changes in any of these areas require changes


in people

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Changing Forms
• Ghazally Ismail and Murtedza Mohamed (1996)
• 4 Forms
1. Mandatory legalistative – By government
2. Reformation Idealogy – very compilicated
3. Inovation – changing organization current
practices
4. Responsive – counter balance from employee.

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Forces for Change
• Environmental Forces
– Customers
– Competitors
– Technology
– Economic
– International arena
• Internal Forces – activities and decisions

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Need for Change

Performance gap = disparity between


existing and desired performance levels.

● Current procedures are not up to standard


● New idea or technology could improve
current performance

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Q&A

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