Anda di halaman 1dari 37

VENTILASI TAMBANG

2.1.2. Volume flow, mass flow and the continuity equation

mass kg

volume m3
and

mass flow M kg s
 
volume flow Q s m3
giving

M  Q kg / s
M  Q  cons tan t kg / s …………………………….… (2.3)

m 2 m3
Q  uA m or ………………………………….… (2.4)
s s

Then the continuity equation becomes

M   uA  cons tan t kg / s ……….…………………….… (2.5)

Q  uA  cons tan t m3 / s ……….…………………….… (2.6)


2.2. FLUID PRESSURE

2.2.1. The cause of fluid pressure

force N
p ……….…………………………….… (2.7)
area m 2
2.2.2. Pressure head

volume  hA m3
Then from the definition of density (mass/volume), the mass of liquid is

mass  volume x density


 hA kg
The weight of the liquid will exert a force, F, on the base of the tube equal to
mass x gravitational acceleration (g):

F  hA g N
However, as pressure = force/area, the pressure on the base of the tube is

F N
P    gh 2
or Pa …………………………… (2.8)
A m
2.2.3. Atmospheric pressure and gauge pressure

One standard atmosphere   x g xh


 13.5951 x 103 x 9.8066 x 0.760
 101.324 x 103 Pa
or
101.324 kPa

Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure + gauge pressure ………… (2.9)


2.2.4. Measurement of air pressure

The atmospheric pressure could then be calculated as (see equation (2.8))


p   gh Pa

Where, in this case, is the density of mercury.
p  1 gh1  2 gh2 Pa

or

1
h2  h1 m …………….……… (2.10)
2
2.3. FLUIDS IN MOTION

2.3.1. Bernoulli’s equation for ideal fluids

Kinetic energy

If we commence with the mass, m, at rest and accelerate it to velocity u in t seconds


by applying a constant force F, then the acceleration will be uniform and the mean
velocity is

0u u
 m/s
2 2
Then
Distance travelled = mean velocity x time

u
 tm
2
Furthermore, the acceleration is defined as

increasein velocity u
 m / s2
time t
The force is given by
F  mass  acceleration
u
m N
t
and the work done to accelerate from rest to velocity u is

WD = force x distance Nm
u u
m  t
t 2
u2 ……….…………………………….… (2.11)
m N m or J
2
The kinetic energy of the mass m is, therefore mu2/2 joules

Potential energy

F  mass  acceleration
 mg N
where g is the gravitational acceleration. In moving upward to the final
elevation of Z metres above the datum, the work done is

WD  force  dis……….……………………………….….…
tan ce (2.12)
 mgZ J
This gives the potential energy of the mass at elevation Z
Flow work
work done  force  dis tan ce
 PAs J

However, the product As is the swept volume v, giving


WD  Pv
Now, by definition, the density is
m kg

v m3
or
m
v

Hence, the work done in moving the plug of fluid into the pipe is

WD 
Pm
J ……….…………………………………..… (2.13)

or P /  joules per ki log ram
Total mechanical = kinetic + potential + flow
energy energy energy work

mu 2 P
  mZg  m J ………………..… (2.14)
2 

 u2 P
m   Zg    cons tan t J ………………………………..… (2.15)
 2 

Another way of expressing this equation is to consider two stations, 1 and


2 along the pipe, duct or airway. Then

 u12 P1   u22 P2 
m   Z1g    m   Z 2 g  
 2 1   2 2 
Now as we are still considering the fluid to be incompressible,

1  2   (say)

giving

u12  u22 P1  P2 J
 (Z1  Z 2 ) g  0 ………………..… (2.16)
2  kg
2.3.2. Static, total and velocity pressure

P2  P1 u12

 2

u12 ……………………………..… (2.17)


pv  P2  P1   Pa
2

pv  pt  ps

or

pt  ps  pv Pa ……………………………..… (2.18)

p  ( 1  d ) gh Pa ……………………………..… (2.19)
p  ( 1  d ) gh  ( d  a ) gh2 Pa ……………………..… (2.20)

2.3.3. Viscosity

F N
 …………..……………..…..… (2.21)
A m2

F du N
   …………..……………..…..… (2.22)
A dy m2
Ns
air  (17.0  0.045t ) 106
m2
And for water,

 64.72  Ns
water   0.2455  103
 t  31.766  m2
where t = temperature (oC) in the range 0-60 oC

The units of viscosity are derived by transposing equation (2.22):

dy N s Ns
  2
m or 2
du m m m
A term which commonly occurs in fluid mechanics is the ratio of dynamic
viscosity to fluid density. This is called the kinematic viscosity, v (Greek ‘nu’)

 N s m3 s
v or N m
 m2 kg kg

As 1 N = 1 kg x 1 (m/s2), these units become

m m s m2
kg 2 
s kg s

u12 P1 u22 P J
 Z1g    Z 2 g  2  F12 ……………………..… (2.23)
2  2  kg
2.3.4. Laminar and turbulent flow; Reynolds’ number

inertial force u 2 1 dy
 ……………………..… (2.24)
viscous force 2  du

1 L
u 2
u
or

 uL ……………………..… (2.25)
 Re

 ud
Re 

Example A ventilation shaft of diameter 5 m passes an airflow of 200 m3/s
at a mean density of 1.2 kg/m3 and a mean temperature of 18oC. Determine
the Reynolds number for the shaft.

Solution For air at 18oC


  (17.0  0.045 18) 106
 17.81106 N s / m2

Air velocity
Q 200
u  2
A 5 /4
 10.186 m / s
 ud
Re 

1.2 10.186  5
  3.432  10 6

17.81106
This Reynolds’ number indicates that the flow will be turbulent.
2.3.5. Frictional losses in laminar flow; Poiseuille’s equation

2 rtL   r 2 p

However ,     du / dr (equation (2.22) with a negative du), giving

du r p
 
dr 2 L
or

du  
p r
dr m/ s ……………………..… (2.26)
L 2

p 1 r2 ……………………..… (2.27)
u C
L 2 2
p R2
C
L 4

1 p 2 2
u (R  r ) m / s ……………………..… (2.28)
4 L

1 p 2 m
umax  R ……………………..… (2.29)
4 L s

um  Q / A m/ s ……………………..… (2.30)
dQ  u 2 r dr
Substituting for u from equation (2.28) gives

2 p 2 2
dQ  ( R  r )r dr
4 L
2 p R 2
Q   3
( R r r )dr
4 L 0

Integrating gives

 R4 p 3
Q m /s ……………………..… (2.31)
8 L
8 L
p Q
R 4

or

p  RL Q Pa ……………………..… (2.32)

where

8 L
RL  N s/m 5

R 4
 R4 p 1
um 
8 L  R 2
R2 p
 m/ s ……………………..… (2.33)
8 L

or

8 um
p 2
L Pa ……………………..… (2.34)
R
u12  u22 P1  P2 J
 ( Z1  Z 2 ) g   F12
2  kg

P1  P2 J
 F12 ………………………….....… (2.35)
 kg
8  um J
F12  L ………………………….....… (2.36)
R 2
kg

u12  u22 P1  P2 8um J …………. (2.37)


 ( Z1  Z 2 ) g  
2   R2 kg
2.3.6. Frictional losses in turbulent flow

A h
u
per L

A h
uc m/s ………………………………….. (2.38)
per L
 per L

 per L  Ap N ………………………………….. (2.39)

(A similar equation was used in section 2.3.5 for a circular pipe.) However,

p   gh Pa
(equation (2.8) ) giving

A h N
 g ………………………………….. (2.40)
per L m2
2
u J Nm N
  3
 3 or 2
2 m m m

or

u2 N
  f ………………………………….. (2.41)
2 m2
2
u A h
f  g
2 per L

or

2g A h
u m/s ……………….. (2.42)
f per L
2g
c m1/ 2 / s ………..…………………….... (2.43)
f

2 g  d 2
1 h
u 
2

f 4 d L
or

4 fLu 2 …………….….... (2.44)


h metres of fluid
2 gd
4 fL pu 2 ………..…………………….... (2.45)
p Pa
d 2

or a frictional work term

p4 fL u 2 J ………..……...……………..... (2.46)
F12  
 d 2 kg

The Bernoulli equation for frictional and turbulent flow becomes

u12  u22 P1  P2 4 fL u 2 J
 (Z1  Z 2 ) g   …..... (2.47)
2  d 2 kg
A
rh  m
per ………..……...……………..... (2.48)

d2
d
 
4 d 4

2
per u
p  fL  Pa ………..……...……………... (2.49)
A 2
fL per
p 3
 Q Pa
2 A

or

p  Rt  Q 2 Pa ………..……...……………... (2.50)

where

fL per 4
Rt  3
m ………..……...………..... (2.51)
2 A
Combining equation (2.34) and (2.45) gives

8uL 4 fL  u 2
p 2
 Pa
R d 2

Substituting R = d/2 gives


f  16
 ud
or
16
f  dim ensionless ………..……...………..... (2.52)
Re
Smooth pipe turbulent curve

1
 4log10 (Re f )  0.4 ………..……...………..... (2.53)
f

0.0791
f  ………..……...…………......................... (2.54)
Re0.25

1
f  ………….................................. (2.55)
4[2 log10 (d / e)  1.14]2
1  e 18.7 
 1.74  2 log10  2  
 d Re 4 f .................................. (2.56)
4f  

and

1  e / d 1.255  .................................... (2.57)


 4 log10   

f  3.7 Re f 

2
  e / d  ..................................... (2.58)
f   4log10  
  3.7 