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Internal Combustion Engine

Classification, Components, Operation, Comparison of diff. engines,


knocking, Rating, Cooling, Lubrication and many more

Abu Hamja
Heat Engine
• A heat engine is a device which transforms the chemical energy of a
fuel into thermal energy and uses this energy to produce mechanical
work.
Engine

• Heat engine can be defined as any type of engine or machine, which


drives heat energy from the combustion of fuel or any other source and
converts this energy into mechanical work.
Heat engines are classified into two broad types-
Internal combustion engine (IC Engine)-
Those engines in which the combustion of fuel takes place inside the
engine cylinder. Example- petrol engine, diesel engine, gas engine etc.

3
External combustion engine (EC Engine)-
Those engines in which the combustion of fuel takes place outside the
engine cylinder. Example- steam engine, steam turbine, gas turbine

4
Comparisons between EC and IC engine
EC engine/Steam engine IC engine/Diesel engine
>combustion of fuel takes place outside the engine >combustion of fuel takes place inside the engine
cylinder. cylinder.

>Since combustion of fuel takes place outside the >Since combustion of fuel takes place inside the
engine cylinder, therefore these engines are engine cylinder, therefore these engines are very
smooth and silent running noisy

>Working pressure and temperature inside the >Working pressure and temperature inside the engine
engine cylinder is low. cylinder is very high.
(T>2000C, P>50 bar)

>Ordinary alloys are used for the manufacture of >Special alloys are used for the manufacture of
engine cylinder and others parts engine cylinder and others parts

>Heavy and cumbersome > light and compact


>Low efficiency about 15-20% > High efficiency about 35-40%
>Can not be started instantaneously >Can be started instantaneously
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Classification of IC Engine-
Based on fuel type:
 Petrol engine
 Diesel engine
 Gas engine
Based on ignition method:
 Spark ignition engine (SI engine),
 Compression ignition engine (CI engine),
 Hot spot ignition engine

Based on stroke number:


 Four stroke engine,
 Two stroke engine

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Classification of IC Engine-
Based on operation cycle:
Otto cycle engine (constant volume cycle)
Diesel cycle engine (constant pressure cycle)
Dual combustion cycle engine (semi-diesel cycle)
Based on fuel injection method-
Carburetor engine
Air injection engine
Airless or soleniod injection engine
Based on cooling system-
Air cooled engine
Water cooled engine
Evaporative cooling engine
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Classification of IC Engine-
Based on number of cylinder-
 Single cylinder engine
 Multi cylinder engine

Based on cylinder arrangement-


Vertical engine
Horizontal engine,
Radial engine
In-line multi cylinder engine
V-type multi cylinder engine
Opposite-cylinder engine

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Main Components of IC engine
Main Components of IC engine

Cylinder Block: is usually in one piece as it is cast in a


single block it has cylinders which contains gas under
pressure and guides the piston. Within the cylinder the
piston moves to develop power. It has passage for cooling
water flow, oil passage for lubrication, tunnels for push
rod and crank shaft and cam shaft. The cylinder is cast in
engine block of cast iron or aluminum.

Cylinder head: It is fitted on one end of the cylinder and


act as a cover to close the cylinder bore. It contains inlet
and exit valves. In petrol engine, it contains a spark plug
and in diesel engine, it contains nozzle or fuel valve. A
copper or asbestos gasket is used between the engine
cylinder and cylinder head to make an air-tight joint
Main Components of IC engine

Piston: Its main function is to transmit the force exerted


by the burning of fuel to the connecting road. Generally
made of Aluminium alloy. It has good heat conducting
property and also greater strength at higher temperatures.
It is called heart of an IC engine.

Piston rings : Generally made of special steel alloys.


There are two sets of rings, the upper ring prevents
leakage of burnt gases into the lower portion, the lower
ring prevents the leakage of oil into the engine cylinder.
>> Compression ring for airtight seal to prevent leakage
of the burnt gases through the clearance between cylinder
and piston.
>> Oil control ring/scraper ring for control the oil film on
the cylinder wall, prevent leakage of the oil into the
engine/combustion chamber.
Main Components of IC engine

Connecting Rod: transmits power from the piston


to the crankshaft. The top end of the rod is called
the small end which moves up and down with the
piston. The bottom end is called big end which
rotates with the crankshaft. Steel or duralium is
used as the material for connecting rod

Crankshaft: Its function is to convert the


reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary
motion with the help of connecting rod. This shaft
contains one or more eccentric parts called cranks.
That part of the crank to which connecting road is
fitted, is called crank pin. It is made of special steel
alloys. It is considered as the backbone of IC
engine.
Main Components of IC engine

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Main Components of IC engine

Crankcase: is the base of the engine. It supports


the crankshaft in bearings. The camshaft is also
held by the crankcase in bearings. This is also acts
as reservoir for lubricating oil.

Flywheel: is fitted to the rear end of the


crankshaft. It stores up a part of the energy
produced by the power stroke and releases it
during the idle strokes. It is made of steel or cast
iron. It takes care of fluctuation of speed and
maintains its speed fairly constant.
Capacity calculation of IC engine
•Any Question?

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