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Advertising

Advertising is the
nonpersonal
communication of
information usually
paid for and usually
persuasive in nature
about products,
services or ideas by
identified sponsors
through theBovee/Arens,
various1992
media.
nonpersonal
communication of
information usually
paid for and usually
persuasive in nature
about products,
services or ideas by
identified sponsors
through the various
Two kinds of selling
 Personal  Nonpersonal
 Plenty of time  No face to
 Done face to face
face
 Message can be
interaction
adjusted to fit
 No adjustment
how it’s getting
across of the message
 Expensive in both  cheap
time and money
nonpersonal
communication of
information usually
paid for and usually
persuasive in nature
about products,
services or ideas by
identified sponsors
through the various
The Senses
 Smell

 Touch

 Taste

 Sound

 Sight
Advertising is the
nonpersonal
communication of
information usually
paid for and usually
persuasive in nature
about products,
services or ideas by
identified sponsors
through the various
Affirmative disclosure
 "Sometimes the consumer is provided not
with information he wants but only with
the information the seller wants him to
have. Sellers, for instance, are not
inclined to advertise negative aspects of
their products even though those aspects
may be of primary concern to the
consumer, particularly if they involve
considerations of health or safety . . . "
Lewis A. Engman, FTC Chair
Puffery
 The legitimate exaggeration
of advertising claims to
overcome natural consumer
skepticism
Advertising is the
nonpersonal
communication of
information usually
paid for and usually
persuasive in nature
about products,
services or ideas by
identified sponsors
through the various
Advertising is the
nonpersonal
communication of
information usually
paid for and usually
persuasive in nature
about products,
services or ideas by
identified sponsors
through the various
Advertising is the
nonpersonal
communication of
information usually
paid for and usually
persuasive in nature
about products,
services or ideas by
identified sponsors
through the various
The bundle of values
 Functional value
 Social value

 Psychological value

 Economic value

 Whatever else the consumer


thinks is important
Three ways to differentiate
products
 Perceptible
 Actually differences
 Easily seen

 Imperceptible
 Actual differences
 Can’t be seen

 Induced
 No actual differences
Advertising is the
nonpersonal
communication of
information usually
paid for and usually
persuasive in nature
about products,
services or ideas by
identified sponsors
through the various
Advertising is the
nonpersonal
communication of
information, usually paid
for and usually
persuasive in nature
about products, services
or ideas by identified
sponsors through the
various media
 Has been around
for a long time
 We still don’t know
what the Lascoux
paintings were for
For the first few
thousand years
advertising
promoted
locations, services
and “want ads”.
Ad written on a Roman
tomb
 Weather permitting, 30 pairs of
gladiators, furnished by A. Clodius
Flaccus, together with substitutes in
case any get killed too quickly, will fight
May 1st, 2nd, and 3rd at the Circus
Maximus. The fights will be followed by
a big wild beast hunt. The famous
gladiator Paris will fight. Hurrah for
Paris! Hurrah for the generous Flaccus,
who is running for Duumvirate.
Under the ad was written:
Marcus wrote this sign by the light of
the moon. If you hire Marcus, he’ll
work day and night to do a good job.

Daniel Mannix, Those


About to Die
Location
Handbills and fliers to
promote events or to
recruit for the military
Handbill
recruiting
sailors for
USS
Constitution
1798
Ad about runaway slave -
1770
Since most products
such as shoes and
clothing were one-of and
made to order you only
needed to advertise
where to order
Service
Industrial Revolution
 Early 19th Century
 Mass production of products
 Led to three stages of marketing:
Production-oriented
 Demand far outstripped supply
 Could just advertise the existence of
the product and where to get it
 Whatever was made was sold
 Example: People wanted cars, so
car companies made whatever they
wanted and the cars were sold
before they were built
Sales-oriented
 Supply exceeded demand
 Companies tried to convince consumers to
buy their products rather than their
competitors’
 Companies still made whatever they
wanted, counting on their ability to peddle
their products
 Example: supply of cars went up, so the
companies made whatever they wanted and
convinced people they wanted that
Marketing-oriented
 Supply of products far exceeded demand
 More choices than any promotion could
overcome
 Resistance to “hard-sell”

 Companies tried to discover what


products consumers wanted before
making them, then advertise they had it
 Non-American companies (e.g., VW)
found out what people wanted, then
built cars that had it (e.g., a gas gauge)
Let’s take a
example
The American
auto industry
Production-oriented
Sales-oriented
Marketing-oriented
 Early sales-oriented ads were
basically “caveat emptor” (let the
buyer beware)
 Producers said whatever they wanted
and thought they could get away with
 For example, the “Health Jolting Chair”
 Led to consumer and competitor
anger
 1938 – Federal Trade Commission
given power to regulate deceptive
and unfair advertising
 Advertising could no longer lie, so
new approaches were tried
40s and 50s
 Era of the hard-sell
 Rosser Reeves “irritation school of
advertising”
 Relied on brain-numbing repetition and
treating the consumer as an idiot
 The USP – Unique Selling Proposition

 It was jack-hammered into consumers’


skulls
A Reeves ad
60s
 The positioning era
 Shift to the soft-sell
 Compare your
product to your
competitors’
 Treat consumers
as intelligent
 Appeal to emotion
more than
intellect
General comments on
ads
 Advertising is limited in time and/or
space
 Breaks the rules of grammar and syntax
 Ads contain two elements
 Copy
 illustrations
Two basic ways of
presenting a sales
message
 Intellectually
 Usually about the product’s function
 Usually copy heavy and line drawings

 Emotionally
 Usually not about the product’s function
 Usually copy is light with high connotative
content
 Uses photographs or video
 Advertising aims at consumers’
subconscious minds much more
than their conscious minds
 It’s all about getting the consumer
to react on a basic, instinctive
level, and not think at all
 It’s about “act now” on your basic
desires – think only of yourself
 It’s usually selfish and anti-social
Psychological Appeals
 Self-  Constructive
preservation ness
 Sex  Destructiven

 Greed ess
 Self-esteem  Curiosity

 Personal  Imitation

enjoyment  Altruism
Self-preservation
 “Listen to me, I’ll
keep you alive”
 Because humans
are so social, we
extend the appeal
to others, like
family, friends,
and social group
Sex Appeal
 “Listen to me, I’ll get you laid”
 Gender linked because of different goals:
 For men it’s sex with ease and no
complications
 In other words, attract more women that
want to have sex with you
 For women it’s attract more men from
which to choose
 Select the best among the possible choices,
and the greater the selection, the better the
choice
Sex Appeal
 Male and female animals have different
sexual strategies based on the cost of
sex
 Males are promiscuous because the cost
is very low
 A little time, a little energy, then move on
 Criteria are simple – she has to be there,
breathing, and impregnable
 Females are picky because the cost is so
high
 Lots of time, lots of energy
 Must select the best possible male, not the
nearest
 Criteria can be complex
 Non-humans are concerned with
genetics
 Males want, on an instinctive level, to
have as many offspring as possible to
ensure genetic success
 Females, because of the cost of
reproduction, on an instinctive level
want the best genes in their male
 Males compete with other males,
usually physically, to demonstrate
they’re the best choice
 Females select the winner because he’s
shown he’s better than the other males
 For most animals, it is the female that
deals with raising offspring (a major
part of the cost of sex)
 The male has no place in rearing
offspring (she’ll even drive him away)
 The major exception is birds
 Even there, the female will often select
one male as the father, and another
male to help her raise the chicks
Sex appeal in humans
 Humans have the most complex social
life on Earth
 Instinctive criteria for men are the same
as for any other male animal – she’s
there
 Criteria for women is far more complex:
 Not just genetically, but socially:
 Be a good father – help with raising children
 be a good provider – have money, social
connections, etc.
Sex appeal for men
 Buy the product,
get the woman
 Think of all those
Axe commercials
Sex appeal for women
For most female
animals, genetic
quality is the most
important
 For women, it’s a
good provider
 The ad shows he has
money, cares about
her as an individual,
and will stick around
 It’s called “romance”
The use of sex appeal in
advertising may appear
sexist. That’s because it
is – on a social level. But
sex in advertising aims at
instinct, and society is
conscious, not
subconscious.
Advertising often appeals
to one gender at the
social expense of the
other.
Greed
 “Listen to me, I’ll
make you rich”
 Human social life
requires having
resources,
usually
represented by
money
 Instinctively,
“greed is good”
Self-esteem
 Requires a social group
 Requires the individual to be able to
make a comparison with other
individuals in the group
 Thus, requires a sense of self as a
separate entity from others
Self-esteem
 Again, there’s an instinctive gender link
 For men, it’s competitive
 Demonstrate he’s the best male around
 Self-esteem comes from a sense of
superiority
 For women, it’s cooperative
 Make and maintain as many connections as
possible
 Self-esteem comes from a sense of
connection
Self-esteem for men
 Demonstration of
superiority
 Buy the product,
be the superior
man
 Often shows a
“loser” beating a
“winner” because
the loser buys
the product
Self-esteem for women
 The product
increases the
number and
quality of
connections with
others
Personal Enjoyment
 “Listen to me, you’ll
have more fun”
 Humans, because of
their intelligence, are
often easily bored by
routine
 The ad promotes
getting out of the
routine
 In other words, have
fun
Constructiveness
 “Listen to me, I’ll
help you improve
things”
 A desire to build
and improve on
whatever you have
Destructiveness
 “Listen to me, I’ll
tell you how to
destroy things”
 We all have a desire
to occasionally blow
things up
 Just watch “The
Mythbusters”
 There does seem to
be a gender link –
men seem to like it
more than women
Curiosity
 “Listen to me, I’ll
answer your
questions”
 We all want answers
to things – it’s a
survival characteristic
 The problem is raising
that curiosity – if the
person doesn’t care
about the answer, it’s
a useless appeal
Imitation
 “Listen to me, I’ll
make you just like
someone else”
 Requires the
person to want to
be like the model
 Almost always
linked to one or the
top five appeals
Altruism
 “Listen to me, you’ll
give of yourself with
no hope or
expectation of return”
 Doesn’t exist as an
ideal
 Reciprocal altruism
does exist
 I’ll do for you now,
you do for me later
 Linked to top five
Tricks of the Trade
 Advertising often uses logical
fallacies rather than giving logical
reasons to buy the product
advertised.
 You think the ad is saying one thing
when it fact it’s saying something
else, or saying nothing at all
Black/White
 “You want it
[whatever it is],
you can only get it
from us.”
 It leaves out any
other options, e.g.,
“love it or leave it.”
Buzz Words
 Words that seem to
say something, but
what?
 “Crisp”
 “Natural”
 “Organic”
Weasel Words
 Words tossed into a sentence that
changes the meaning while leaving
an impression that’s different
 Examples:
“Our [canned] corn is as
good as fresh cooked corn.”
Libby’s
Vegetables

 Note it doesn’t say it’s as good as fresh


corn, but as good as fresh cooked corn.
 Cooked corn has had vitamins and
minerals boiled out in the cooking process.
 And now you have to heat the corn again,
which takes out even more nutrients.
 The weasel is “cooked”
“Our dog food contains as
much meat protein as 10
pounds of sirloin steak.
Alpo dog
food
 Targets people who love their dogs
 Doesn’t contain sirloin steak, only as
much meat protein as sirloin steak
 That could be any kind of meat – it’s sure
not sirloin, and may not even come from
a cow
Three out of four doctors
recommend the major
ingredient in Excedrin.
 “Some studies seem to
suggest that eating the major
ingredient in our cereal may
have an effect on certain
kinds of cancer.”
“If . . .”
The ultimate weasel word
Begging the Question
 The question contains a statement
that has not been and is never
proven, basically saying that
something is simply because it is.
 Example:
 “Henry Miller’s filthy books should be
banned.”
 Contains the unsupported premise that
the books are filthy.
Dangling Comparative
 There appears to
be a comparison,
but compared to
what?
 It relies on the
consumer filling in
the blank
Complaints about
advertising
 It perpetuates stereotypes
 Absolutely true
 It has to

 Makes people buy things they don’t


need
 Not true
 Advertising can’t make anybody do
anything