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Akademi Komunitas Negeri Pesisir selatan

Gambaran Umum
 Tujuan :
 Agar mahasiswa mengerti dan mampu menggunakan teknik-teknik
serta perangkat untuk analisis, perancangan, dan pemodelan
 Kompetensi :
 Mampu mengimplementasikan Analisis & Perancangan Sistem
menggunakan alat bantu perangkat lunak
 Prasyarat :
 S1 – Sistem Informasi (TIFS 1407)
 Penunjang :
 Prakt. Analisis & Perancangan Sistem
 Tools :
 Easy CASE
 Microsoft Access
 Microsoft Visio
 Microsoft Project
1. Pendahuluan : Kontrak Pembelajaran, RPP
2. Konsep Dasar Sistem
3. Analisis Sistem
4. Siklus Hidup Sistem
5. Perancangan Sistem Secara Umum
6. Pendekatan Perancangan Terstruktur
7. Flowchart
8. Perancangan Sistem Terinci (Output dan Input)
9. Perancangan Sistem Terinci (Basisdata)
10.Pemodelan Sistem (DFD)
11.Pengujian dan Jaminan Kualitas Sistem
12.Manajemen pengembangan sistem
13. Study Kasus
 Kenneth E. Kendall dan Julie E. Kendall, System Analysis and Design
8th Edition, Pearson Education Ltd, 2011 (printed only)

 Gary B. Shelly dan Harry J. Rosenblatt, System Analysis and Design

8th Edition, Course Technology, 2010 (ebook available)

 Arthur M. Langer, Analysis and Design of Information Systems 3rd

Edition, Springer-Verlag London Limited, 2008 (ebook available)

 Jeffrey L. Whitten dan Lonnie D. Bentley, Systems Analysis and

Design Methods 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2007 (ebook
 Penilaian :
 Tugas : 50 %
 UTS : 20 %
 UAS : 20 %
 Kehadiran : 10 %

 Syarat ikut UAS, kehadiran min. 75% dari

kehadiran dosen (0,75x14=10,5)
 Dasar : Surat Edaran no. 231/Rek/II/2011

 Jumlah Ijin maks 4 kali

Penilaian Acuan Patokan
 Skor Nilai Akhir :
 Dasar :
SK No. 073/Skep/Rek/2008, tanggal 20 Peb 2008
 NA = 0,5*Tugas+0,2*UTS+0,2*UAS+0,1*Hadir
 A  NA = 80 – 100
 B  NA = 60 – 79
 C  NA = 40 – 59
 D  NA = 20 – 39
 E  NA = 0 - 19
Strategi Perkuliahan
 Kuliah tatap muka (40%)
 Mengantarkan pokok bahasan dan menjelaskan isi dari sub pokok
bahasan secara berurutan.
 Diskusi dan tugas (60%)
 Pendalaman materi berupa latihan soal akan dilakukan pada
pertemuan tertentu, untuk dikerjakan secara individu dan/atau
berkelompok serta dipecahkan bersama-sama kelompoknya.
 Tugas diberikan 4 kali dalam satu semester; 2 sebelum UTS dan
2 sebelum UAS
 Quiz (optional) dilakukan 1 kali dalam satu semester; dengan
tidak terjadwal
 Setiap bahan bacaan yang dijadikan materi pada setiap tatap
muka harus sudah dibaca terlebih dahulu sebelum mengikuti
perkuliahan agar mahasiswa lebih mudah mengikuti acara
 Mahasiswa WAJIB mengerjakan tugas-tugas (latihan soal) yang
akan diberikan setelah acara perkuliahan
Download materi
 Staff site:
 Update setiap hari KAMIS
(cek untuk update materi dan tugas)
Kalender Akademik
 Kuliah : 19 Sept 2011 – 6 Jan 2012
 UTS : 7 – 18 Nopember 2011
 Pengganti : 9 – 11 Jan 2012
 UAS : 16 Jan – 27 Feb 2012
How to get “A” grade ?
 Attend classes regularly. On time. Listen and train to pay
attention. Make sure you get all missed assignments (by
contacting the lecture or another student)
 Take advantage of extra credit opportunities when
offered. Care about your grades and are willing to work to
improve yourself
 Attentive in class. Don't talk, read, or stare out windows.
Turn your mobile phone off ! In other words, You are
polite and respectful, even if you get a little bored
 See your lecture before or after class or during office
hours about grades, comments on your papers, and
upcoming tests. End up at your lecture's office door at least
once during the semester
 Turn in assignments that look neat and sharp. Take the
time to produce a final product that looks good, and reflects
of a care and pride in your work

 Plus : english reading capability

Any questions ?
Let’s start our programme
 Ask these following questions :
 What is IS ? GO

 What does SDLC means ? GO

 What is iceberg problem ? GO
 Who are Systems Analysts ?GO
 What are Technology Drivers for Today’s
Information Systems ? GO
IS and IT
A system is a group of interrelated components that
function together to achieve a desired result.

An information system (IS) is an arrangement of

people, data, processes, and information technology
that interact to collect, process, store, and provide as
output the information needed to support an

Information technology is a contemporary term

that describes the combination of computer
technology (hardware and software) with
telecommunications technology (data, image, and
voice networks).
Types of Information Systems
A transaction processing system (TPS) is an
information system that captures and processes
data about business transactions.

A management information system (MIS) is

an information system that provides for
management-oriented reporting based on
transaction processing and operations of the

A decision support system (DSS) is an

information system that either helps to identify
decision making opportunities or provides
information to help make decisions.
Types of Information Systems
An expert system is an information system that captures
the expertise of workers and then simulates that expertise
to the benefit of non-experts.

A communications and collaboration system is an

information system that enables more effective
communications between workers, partners, customers, and
suppliers to enhance their ability to collaborate.

An office automation system is an information system

that supports the wide range of business office activities
that provide for improved work flow between workers.

1-16 Back
Systems Development Life
Cycle (SDLC)
 Project Planning
 System Analysis
 System Design
 Construction/Implementation
 Integration and Testing
 Installation
t in

 Operation & Maintenance


SDLC Phases
 Project Planning
 Put project in context
 Small part of a much larger system?
 New system or modify old?
 System Analysis
 Define user requirements
 Analyze tasks
 Develop specifications
 System Design - Define the system to be built
 Logical design
 Physical design

SDLC Phases (continued)
 Construction
 Write (or buy) the code
 Integration and Testing
 Unit testing, system testing, acceptance testing
 Installation
 Testing, training, conversion
 Operations & Maintenance
 Put into production
 Fix bugs, add facilities


Desain Sistem
Perancangan Konseptual
Evaluasi Penyiapan Spesifikasi Penyiapan Laporan
Alternatif Rancangan Rancangan Sistem
Rancangan Konseptual

Perancangan Fisik
Rancangan Rancangan Rancangan Rancangan Rancangan Rancangan
Keluaran Platform Antarmuka Basis data Modul Kontrol
dan Pemakai &
Masukan Sistem

Dokumentasi Rencana Pengujian Rencana Konversi


Operasi dan

The Classic Waterfall Methodology


Planning/definition Project proposal report

Study/analysis System proposal report

Design Design specifications

Programming Program code

Installation Testing and installation

Milestone 2 Postimplementation audit
solution Milestone 4 Production
decision decision

Milestone 1 Milestone 3 Design
Project initiation specification sign-off
Year 1 Year 2 3-8 year lifespan
Difficulties in Software Development
 Sotware quality: whether the software “fits for purpose”,
satisfies all user requirements.
 Example failures
 It might work, but dreadful to use (user)
 It is pretty, but does not do anything useful (user)
 Users and owners may not know how to ask for what they really
want, e.g. “We built what they said they wanted” (developer)
 Budget and time constraints often conflict with doing the job
properly, e.g. “There was not enough time to do it any better”
 Difficulties for the possession of blended skills, e.g. “Do not blame
me, I never done object-oriented analysis before” (developer)
Software Development Process

 Subdividing the process of software development into

different phases
 Ease of management to produce appropriate quality
standard and to stay within the allocated budgest
 Help to identify and allocate developers’ skills
appropriately, and thus improve the quality of the task
 Known as project life cycle model
Difficulties in Software Development

 Productivity: the progress of the project, and the

resources (including time and money) that it consumes
along the way (much related to project management)
 Example failures
 A system that is promised but not delivered (user)
 It is no use delivering now, we need it last April (owner)
 Projects that overspend their budget (owner)
 Requirements drift, e.g. user changes their minds
 Implementation not feasible, e.g. we said it was impossible,
but no-one listened (developer)How to overcome them?
Project Life Cycle
Don´t blindly follow the
path to automation. The
 Two important precursor very first question is
whether or not you even
phases are need a computer
 Strategic Information Systems
 Business Modelling
 Focus on organisation needs
 They are not computational
 Universially accepted for
commercially oriented
computer system
Generic Life Cycle Models
 The Waterfall Model
 Prototyping
 Iterative and Incremental Development
 The Unified Process Life Cycle
Waterfall Life Cycle
System Requirements specification
Engineering Functional specification
Acceptance test specifications
Analy sis

Unit test report

Design Sub-system test report
System test report
Acceptance test report
Construction Completed system

Software architecture specification Code

System test specification
Design specification
Sub-system test specification
Unit test specification

Change requests
Change request report
Waterfall Life Cycle

• The traditional life cycle (TLC) for information

systems development.
• So called because of the difficulty of returning to
an earlier phase.
• The drawback of the waterfall model is the
difficulty of accommodating change after the
process is underway
TLC with Iteration

The cost of
this form of
increases as
the project
making it
and not
Problems with TLC

 Real projects rarely follow such a simple sequential life

 Lapsed time between systems engineering and the
final installation is long
 Iterations are almost inevitable in real projects but are
expensive & problematic with the TLC
 Unresponsive to changes during project as iteration is
 Therefore, this model is only appropriate when the
requirements are well-understood
Strengths of TLC

 Provide a very structured way to system

 Tasks in phases may be assigned to
specialized teams.
 Project progress evaluated at the end of each
phase, and assessment made as to whether
the project should proceed
Prototyping Life Cycle

• Not intended to deliver the final working system

• Quickly built up to explore some aspects of the system
• May be used as part of other iterative life cycle
Initial Define
analys is objectives


completed Evaluate Cons truct
Prototyping – Advantages
 Early demonstrations of system functionality help
identify any misunderstandings between developer
and client
 Client requirements that have been missed are
 Difficulties in the interface can be identified
 The feasibility and usefulness of the system can be
tested, even though, by its very nature, the
prototype is incomplete
Prototyping – Problems:
 The client may perceive the prototype as part
of the final system
 The prototype may divert attention from
functional to solely interface issues
 Prototyping requires significant user
 Managing the prototyping life cycle requires
careful decision making
Incremental Development
Initial Risk analysis
requirements Planning Risk analysis based on initial
gathering and requirements
project planning Risk analysis
based on user
Further planning reaction to plan
based on user
comments Go, no-go decision
Risk assessment
Progress towards
User final system
of Develop first
increments increment
User evaluation Software development
Develop next

The Spiral Model (Boehm, 1988)

Incremental Development
 Iterative problem solving: repeats activities, each can be
viewed as a mini-project
 Incremental delivery, either external or internal release
 New release = new functionality + (improved) previous
 Several approaches to structuring iterations
 Define and implement the key system functions
 Focus on one subsystem at a time
 Define by complexity or risk of certain components
Unified Process Life Cycle

The Unified Process System Development Life Cycle

Unified Process Life Cycle
Unified Process Life Cycle
 Captures many elements of best practice
 The phases are:
 Inception is concerned with determining the scope
and purpose of the project;
 Elaboration focuses requirements capture and
determining the structure of the system;
 Construction's main aim is to build the software
 Transition deals with product installation and rollout.
Choose Appropriate Life Cycle
• TCL is highly predictive
• Prototyping, Spiral and UP life cycle models are highly

Predictive versus adaptive approaches to the SDLC Back

Problem Biaya
(Kasus Gunung Es)

Distribusi Usaha
Pengembangan Sistem

Problem Kesalahpahaman

44 Back
System Designers and System Builders
System designer – a technical specialist who
translates system users’ business requirements and
constraints into technical solution. She or he
designs the computer databases, inputs, outputs,
screens, networks, and software that will meet the
system users’ requirements.

System builders – a technical specialist who

constructs information systems and components
based on the design specifications generated by
the system designers.

Systems Analysts
Systems analyst – a specialist who studies
the problems and needs of an organization to
determine how people, data, processes, and
information technology can best accomplish
improvements for the business.
• A programmer/analyst includes the
responsibilities of both the computer
programmer and the systems analyst.
• A business analyst focuses on only the
non-technical aspects of systems analysis
and design.
The Systems Analyst
as a Problem-Solver
 By "Problems" that need solving, we
 Problems, either real or anticipated, that
require corrective action
 Opportunities to improve a situation
despite the absence of complaints
 Directives to change a situation
regardless of whether anyone has
complained about the current situation
Where Do Systems Analysts Work?

Skills Needed by
the Systems Analyst
 Working knowledge of information technology
 Computer programming experience and
 General business knowledge
 General problem-solving skills
 Good interpersonal communication skills
 Good interpersonal relations skills
 Flexibility and adaptability
 Character and ethics

The Systems Analyst as a Facilitator

The Ten Commandments of
Computer Ethics
1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people.
2. Thou shalt not interfere with other people’s computer work.
3. Thou shalt not snoop around in other people’s computer files.
4. Thou shalt not use a computer to steal.
5. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness.
6. Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you
have not paid.
7. Thou shalt not use other people’s computer resources without
authorization or proper compensation.
8. Thou shalt not appropriate other people’s intellectual output.
9. Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program
you are writing or the system you are designing.
10. Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that insure
consideration and respect for your fellow human
Back Source: Computer Ethics Institute
Technology Drivers for Today’s
Information Systems
 Networks and the Internet
 Mobile and Wireless Technologies
 Object Technologies
 Collaborative Technologies
 Enterprise Applications

Networks and the Internet
Networks include mainframe time-sharing
systems, network servers, and a variety of
desktop, laptop, and handheld client computers.
The most pervasive networking technologies
are based on the Internet.
 Scripting languages
 Web-specific programming languages
 Intranets
 Extranets
 Portals
 Web services
Mobile and Wireless
Some mobile and wireless technologies
 PDAs
 Smart phones
 Bluetooth
 Wireless networking

Impact on information systems

 Wireless connectivity must be
 Limitations of mobile devices
and screen sizes must be accommodated

Object Technologies
Object technology – a software technology that defines
a system in terms of objects that consolidate data and
behavior (into objects).
 Objects are reusable
 Objects are extensible
 Object-oriented programming languages include C++,
Java, Smalltalk, and .NET

Object-oriented analysis and design – a collection of

tools and techniques for systems development that will
utilize object technologies to construct a system and its
Agile development – a system development strategy in
which system developers are given the flexibility to select
from a variety of tools and techniques to best accomplish
the tasks at hand.
Collaborative Technologies
Collaborate technologies are those
that enhance interpersonal
communications and teamwork.
 E-mail
 Instant messaging
 Groupware
 Work flow

Enterprise Applications
 Virtually all organizations require a core set of
enterprise applications
 Financial mgmt, human resources, sales, etc.
 Frequently purchased
 Frequently need to have custom elements added

 Systems Integration - the process of

building a unified information system out of
diverse components of purchases software,
custom-built software, hardware, and
Enterprise Applications

Enterprise Application Integration

That’s it for today….
 Next chapter : Konsep Dasar Sistem
 Tugas :
 Buat kelompok (maks 5 mhs/klp)
 Membuat ringkasan tentang Sistem dan
Sistem Analis
 Dalam bentuk PPT (maks. 10 slide)
 Presentasikan minggu depan (10 mnt/klp)