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BSSOPT

2G Radio Network Optimization Principles (RG30)

Features for Optimization

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Objectives

At the end of this chapter participants will be able to

• identify the features that can be useful in the optimization


process

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Contents of BSSOPT

• Introduction to optimization
– What is network optimization
– What should be taken into account when starting network optimization?
• Assessment
– Current network situation
• KPIs and Measurements
– Measurement tables and KPIs
• Finding optimization solutions and verification
– Maximum gain in limited time and investments
– Optimization tasks, implementations, solutions
• Recommended Optimization Features
– NSN recommended optimization features

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Optimization Features – Table of Contents

• The features that can be considered for optimization


can be divided in the following categories:
– Traffic
– Interference
– Capacity management
– (E)GPRS

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Traffic Features

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Optimization Features - Traffic

• Features to improve traffic handling are needed when the


traffic handling based on the strongest signal is not performing
adequately.
• Example features that can be used for traffic handling are the
following:
– Umbrella
– CBCCH (Common BCCH)
– Traffic reason HO
– DFCA (Dynamic Frequency & Channel Allocation)
– DADL/B (Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band)
– Soft channel capacity
– Traffic handling to 3G/LTE

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Optimization Features - Traffic
Common BCCH (1)
• Combines signaling channels
• Combines traffic channels and improves trunking gain
• Tighter reuse of the non-BCCH frequency band
• Quality improvement due to decreased number of handovers

CBCCH Example
BTS 1, 900 layer, BCCH frequency band
BTS 2, 1800 layer, non BCCH frequency band

GSM 900 Traffic can be pushed to the


BCCH, SDCCH other layer based on
 Load
GSM 900, TCH
 Signal level
GSM 1800, TCH
 PBGT

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Optimization Features - Traffic
Common BCCH (2)

Existing BTS parameters are divided into:


• Common segment specific parameters
• BTS specific parameters BTS specific
parameters

Segment
specific
BCF BCF
parameters

SEGMENT
BTS BTS

GSM 1800
900
BCCH GSM 1800
900
GSM 900
1800

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Optimization Features - Traffic handling
Umbrella between 2 cells Note!
These 2 cells can also be
HO area located in the same site.
cellA
cellB

When the signal is better than the umbrella threshold


(for example AUCL= -80dB) => Traffic will be pushed to other cell
cellA
cellB

Dominance area is now bigger

HOs back to cellA


• PBGT (should be adjusted higher)
• Level
• Quality

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Interference Features

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Optimization Features - Interference
• Interference handling is needed when its levels in a cell or site
are high and thus performance and network quality are
reduced.
• Optimization to improve interference levels can be performed
using the following NSN features:
– AMR FR / HR (can also be used for capacity management)
– AMR Progressive Power Control
– Advanced Multilayer Handling AMH and Direct Access to Desired
Layer/Band DADLB (also for capacity management)
– Single Antenna Interference Cancellation SAIC and Downlink
Advanced Receiver Performance DARP
– Dynamic Frequency and Channel Allocation DFCA
– Frequency Hopping
– Energy optimized TCH allocation (RG20)
– (E)GPRS Downlink Power Control (RG20)

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Optimization Features – Interference
AMR FR / HR
AMR Full Rate (AMR Quality & Coverage)
– AMR FR increases Spectral Efficiency (EFL)
– AMR FR increases indoor signal strength
– AMR FR increases the effective cell size
AMR Half Rate (AMR Capacity)
– AMR enables the usage of half-rate  more users without decreasing
voice quality

Handover

AMR Half Rate


7.4 5.9 4.75
12.2 7.95 4.75
Handover

Link
adaption

AMR Full Rate


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Optimization Features – Interference
SAIC / DARP (1)
SAIC = Single Antenna Interference
Cancellation
Generic term for a receiver algorithm in a handset
utilising one antenna
Nokia’s phase 1 SAIC is a proprietary algorithm

DARP = Downlink Advanced Receiver


Performance
3GPP standardized 2G feature utilising SAIC and
uplink signalling
Introduced in Rel-6 as release independent feature
• Can be introduced to terminals supporting earlier
3GPP releases
Nokia’s phase 2 SAIC is a 3GPP compliant DARP
feature

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Optimization Features – Interference (RG30)
SAIC / VAMOS MS
Hi, ... …

Mobile station types naming convention Hi, I’m SAIC…


 SAIC is a generic term for the algorithm that
suppresses interference in a single antenna
receiver (Single Antenna Interference Non-SAIC
Cancellation) MS
Hi, I wish I could
 SAIC was standardized originally in 3GPP Rel.6 tell you that I’m
and terminals having SAIC algorithm on board DARP
and signaling their SAIC-capability to the MS SAIC, but…
network were officially named DARP phase1
(Downlink Advanced Receiver Performance)
 currently MS SAIC-capability is 3GPP
release independent feature
 in 3GPP terminology, DARP phase1 MS signals SAIC-capable
its capability to the network, while MS referred MS
to as SAIC does not have to indicate its
capability
Hi, I’m VAMOS I … ...
I’m better than SAIC
 VAMOS I MS supports new training sequences since I can use new
that have been optimized for simultaneous use TSCs 
in OSC mode and hence provides link gains
over legacy TSCs
 VAMOS II MS supports new training sequences
and utilizes advanced receiver providing further VAMOS I
link gains over VAMOS I or SAIC. It supports MS Hi, I’m VAMOS II … …
also Shifted SACCH functionality. I’m even better than
VAMOS I 
 Note: in most of NSN materials the term “SAIC
MS” refers to a mobile that have SAIC capability
and indicates it to the network
VAMOS II
14 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN20225EN20GLN0 MS
Optimization Features – Interference (RG30)
SAIC / VAMOS MS

• Features provides support for new types of handsets: VAMOS-1 and


VAMOS-2.
• New Training Sequence Codes were defined and standardized in 3GPP for
VAMOS mobiles in order to improve their link level performance when paired
in OSC mode. VAMOS-2 additionally utilizes joint detection
method/successive interference cancellation to retrieve the desired signal
out of composite channel.
• New TSCs were introduced in such a way that for each legacy TSC there is
a new TSC and the cross-correlation properties of such pair is optimized to
assure its orthogonal properties
• Features work on top of RG20/25 features DHR/DFR with limited number of
changes in RRM mechanism in comparison with pre-RG30 OSC
implementation

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OSC support for VAMOS handsets (RG30)

- OSC support for VAMOS handsets – major changes in RRM:


- once at least one VAMOS mobile is paired in OSC mode, new TSC
has to be assigned for one of the mobile in this pair; the second
mobile will use legacy TSC
- the TSC pairs are fixed in such a way that for one legacy TSC (from so called
TSC set 1) there is only one counterpart new TSC (from new TSC set 2) to be used
for the paired mobile – this TSC has the same number as the counterpart legacy
one
- VAMOS pairs (i.e. OSC pairs where at least one of the mobile is
VAMOS capable) could be prioritized over non-VAMOS pairs (i.e.
where neither of the mobiles is VAMOS capable) in order to boost the
penetration of new TSCs and hence increase the link performance of
such pairs and consequently reduce the overall interference level in
the network
- DFCA algorithm is updated and made aware of new TSC set
- TSC pairing rule for VAMOS case has to be respected by DFCA algorithm
- new C/I target and soft blocking values for VAMOS DHR and VAMOS DFR are
introduced

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AQPSK support with VAMOS-2 handsets (RG30)

- AQPSK support with VAMOS-2 handsets – major changes in RRM:


- non-SAIC mobiles are allowed to be paired with another
mobiles (in both DHR and DFR mode) – if the second mobile in
this pair is VAMOS-2 capable
- Without this feature non-SAIC mobiles are excluded from any DHR/DFR
pairing actions
- in case of VAMOS-2/non-SAIC pairing asymmetrical AQPSK
modulation is applied in DL direction in such a way that sub-
channel with higher power is assigned to non-SAIC mobile and
sub-channel with lower power is assgined to VAMOS-2 mobile
- AQPSK modulation loss for both candidates has to be taken
into account in the power budget calculation prior to the actual
pairing to assure that both MSs will survive more severe radio
conditions after the pairing (caused by interferences from the
other sub-channel and sub-channel power imbalance)
- Modulation loss is also taken into account in the DFCA
algorithm

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Optimization Features – Interference
SAIC

Modulations:
In today's GSM networks the vast amount of traffic is
GMSK FR, HR and EFR using GMSK modulation
speech
AMR speech
GPRS
EDGE (MCS1-4) SAIC is a digital signal processing technique
Control channel that uses the correlation properties of a
8-PSK EDGE (MCS5-9) GMSK modulated signal to perform an
active cancellation of the interfering signals
Neighbor
BTS

GMSK modulated interferers  SAIC gain

Own
cell fc 8-PSK modulated interferer  No SAIC gain / No loss

Gain on both synchronized and non-synchronized networks

Serving
BTS SAIC does not improve coverage

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Optimization Features – Interference
DFCA – (Dynamic Frequency & Channel Allocation)

Random FH
TRX 1 BCCH
TRX 2 Random FH
over a fixed
TRX 3 frequency
TRX 4 list • Loose interference control
• Relies on random spreading of the
interference
DFCA
TRX 1 BCCH
Cyclic FH
TRX 2 over
individually C/I > C/I target
TRX 3 selected
frequency lists
TRX 4 and MAIOs
for each
connection
• Accurate interference control (C/I estimations)
• Each connection is assigned with the most suitable
radio channel (MA list, MAIO, TSL)
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Optimization Features – Interference
Energy optimized TCH allocation (1)

• RG10 provided a wide range of Energy Efficiency solutions


• Through this RG20 feature, the BTS power consumption can be further
reduced by allocating the most power demanding MSs to the BCCH TRX
(which is always at the maximum power)
• Allocation to the BCCH TRX is based upon the Downlink received signal
level information
• The improved power management achieved reduces the level of
interference in the Downlink and consequently may also decrease the call
drop rate
• Transmit Power reductions of 1.5 to 2.5dB are anticipated, leading to a
possible Power Consumption improvement of around 10%  OPEX
savings
• The gain is greatest for lower to medium TRX loading levels (up to
approximately 60% TRX loading). For increasing loads, the influence of the
feature and consequently the gain, reduces

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Optimization Features – Interference
Energy optimized TCH allocation (2)

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Capacity Management Features

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Optimization Features – Capacity Management

• Capacity Management is the process where network capacity


is increased through the use of features that enable more
efficient use of the existing hardware capacity.
• Example of new RG30 features that can be used to optimize
capacity are:
– OSC Double Half Rate with SAIC MS
– OSC Full Rate with SAIC MS
– Circuit Switched Dynamic Abis Pool
– Local switching for Packet Abis

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Optimization Features – Capacity Management
OSC Half Rate with SAIC MS (1)
Doubled Channel Capacity for Voice with legacy SAIC+AMR
Handsets through applying “4G technology” in the 2G BTS
• Low cross-correlation Training Sequence Pair Q (User-A, User-B)
enables multiplexing of OSC UL/DL Sub-channels (0,1) (1,1)
• Downlink uses QPSK modulation with each sub-
channel detectable in SAIC MS as normal GMSK I
(0,0) (1,0)
• Uplink based on V-MIMO applied for normal GMSK
• OSC can be applied for TCH/HR to provide 4x HR
Channels per radio timeslot ~ “Double Half Rate” DHR
• Fewer TRX (+ related hardware) are required for DHR
HR DHR
OSC: FR HR DHR
– 4 OSC TRXs may provide capacity equiv. ~ 6..8 TRXs ~8 dB ~12 dB C/I
– Reduced combining losses  Fewer required Sites
– Energy Efficient solution, reducing the total BTS
power

User-A
TRX
V-MIMO Deciphering Decoding
Receiver Deciphering Decoding Abis
User-B V-MIMO
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Optimization Features – Capacity Management
OSC Half Rate with SAIC MS (2)

Radio Resource Aspects for OSC


• Two Subscribers to be paired into the same radio resource
– Preferably with similar link budget (up to ~40dB window)
– DFCA functions of the BSC may be employed for optimal pairing
– Combining OSC with DFCA results in a further improved DHR utilization

• Power Control in DL for two Subscribers sharing QPSK constellation


– Maximum power of the two users is used

• A Virtual TRX is provided via OSC


– Dynamically allocated Abis resources

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Optimization Features – Capacity Management
Circuit Switched Dynamic Abis Pool (CSDAP) (1)

• 2 x 8kbit/s Abis Timeslots are required to support the paired OSC Half
Rate Calls (OSC-0 and OSC-1) with OSC Half Rate with SAIC MS

• It is not efficient to simply double the fixed transmission capacity for each
Radio Timeslot since the extra capacity is only necessary during higher
loading; when OSC is activated

• Thus, practically, either:


– A Packet Abis (over TDM or over IP/Ethernet) Solution or
– The Circuit Switched Dynamic Abis Pool (CSDAP) feature is
required to support the additional Abis capacity

• Circuit Switched Dynamic Abis Pool offers the possibility to create and
manage common transmission pool(s) - shared capacity - for OSC Half
Rate Calls within the BCF

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Optimization Features – Capacity Management
Circuit Switched Dynamic Abis Pool (CSDAP) (2)

Efficient management of OSC Abis capacity


requirements.

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(E)GPRS Features

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Optimization Features - (E)GPRS
Example of (E)GPRS features:
– NCCR, NACC
– EDA (Extended Dynamic Allocation)
– HMC (High Multislot Classes)
– Extended cell for (E)GPRS
– Dynamic Scheduling for Ext UL TBF
– PCU pooling
– DL DC Territory Procedures (RG20)
– TRX specific link adaptation for DLDC (RG20)
– Smart Resource Adaptation (RG20)
– Adjustable TBF Multiplexing Density (RG20)
– Enhanced Packet Scheduling (RG30)
– Admission control for EGPRS (RG30)
– Intersystem NCCR for LTE (RG30)

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Optimization Features – (E)GPRS
Network Controlled Cell Reselection (NCCR)
• NCCR (Network Controlled Cell Reselection) enables the
network to control the resource allocation when the MS
performs the cell reselection.
• NCCR is an optional feature in Nokia BSC. Operator can
enable/disable the feature on BSC level.
• Network Control Mode (NCM) defines how cell re-selection is
performed:
Cell border with
GPRS default values

EDGE Packet Transfer Mode


BTS EDGE • Offset 24 dB when going from EDGE to
BTS
GPRS cell
• Offset -12 dB when going from GPRS
to EDGE cell
Cell border
EDGE with default EDGE
values
Result: EDGE MS does not
enter GPRS cell.

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Optimization Features – (E)GPRS
Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC)
NACC shortens the cell reselection in two ways:
• Sending neighbour cell system information on PACCH to MS
in packet transfer mode while it is camped on the serving cell
• By supporting PACKET SI STATUS procedure in a target cell
Cell Reselection Delays
Two-phase access, Inter-RA, Inter-PCU
Nokia 6230i
NC0 = “normal” cell
reselection 6

5 38% drop in
outage times

4
Time(s)

Application Outage
3 Data Outage
Cell Outage

0
NC0 NC0 + NACC
Network Control Mode

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Optimization Features – (E)GPRS
Extended dynamic allocation (EDA)
Peak uplink throughput doubled to
236.8 Kbps with 4 slots
Extended Dynamic
• Without EDA, 1 DL timeslot is needed for Allocation increases
each UL timeslot GPRS/EDGE peak uplink
• With EDA, 1 DL timeslot can control throughput to 236.8 Kbps
multiple UL timeslots
Peak uplink
throughput
With Class 1-12 mobiles, no EDA 350

– Maximum 4+1, 3+2 timeslots DL+UL 300

With Class 1-12 mobiles and EDA 250

200
– Maximum 1+4, 2+3 timeslots DL+UL
kbit/s
S11.5
S12
150

With High Multislot mobiles and EDA 100

– Maximum 2+4, 3+3 Timeslots DL+UL 50

0
GPRS GPRS CS3/4 EDGE

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Optimization Features – (E)GPRS
High Multislot Classes (HMC)
Supports 3GPP Release 5
High Multislot Mobiles High Multislot Classes increases
GPRS/EDGE peak downlink
• Multi Slot Class 30 ... 45 Mobiles throughput to 296 Kbps
• Maximum (Sum = 6): 5+1, 4+2
Timeslots DL+UL
• With Extended Dynamic Allocation
also: 2+4, 3+3 Timeslots DL+UL
350

Peak downlink
Increased Downlink data rates 300
throughput
• Improved Video streaming 250

• Faster Web content browsing


200

kbit/s
S11.5
S12
150

• Faster mail attachment download 100

50

0
GPRS GPRS CS3/4 EDGE

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Optimization Features – (E)GPRS
DL DC Territory Procedures

Enables DL DC with reduced PCU Resources

TRX 1 (BCCH) CCCH SDCCHSDCCH PS PS PS PS PS


Territory enhances
dynamically to another
carrier due to DL DC
TRX 2 CS CS CS CS PS PS PS PS allocation, if CS traffic
load allows it, because CS
has priority over PS.
TRX 3 CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS

TRX 4 CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS

• Enhances the Territory Handling procedure such that by default an operator is


able to maintain a smaller PS Territory, which may then be extended upon
request - when a Downlink Dual Carrier (DL DC) capable terminal enters the
packet transfer state
• Currently the default PS Territory (across the two TRX) may be downgraded due
to CS traffic loading, but it cannot be automatically upgraded for the DL DC MSs

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Optimization Features – (E)GPRS
Enhanced Packet Scheduling
• Specifies how the BSC behaves when the BSS PFC procedures are
enabled and how the 3GPP Release 99 QoS attributes are used in the
PCU.
• The BSS PFC is a standardized procedure that enables the transfer and
negotiation of QoS parameters between SGSN and the PCU. The packet
flow identifier (PFI) field is used to indicate which packet flow a given
logical link control packet data unit (LLC PDU) belongs to.
• Each packet flow has an Aggregate BSS QoS Profile (ABQP) of its own
which defines a set of QoS parameters that determine the QoS
requirements of a given packet flow.
• The PFI field thus links the LLC PDU to the correct QoS parameter set.
- It allows the operator to provide service differentiation to the mobiles
based on the Release 99 QoS attributes.
• The adjustable scheduling weights used in this feature allows the
operator to determine how PCU shares the radio resources among the
users with different QoS attributes, See next slide!

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Optimization Features – (E)GPRS
Admission Control for EGPRS
• Allows the operator to do QoS differentiation for GPRS and EGPRS
subscribers at temporary block flow (TBF) establishment in such a manner
that low priority TBFs are more easily rejected in high traffic load
situations than high priority TBFs -> high priority subscribers are more
likely getting service in congestion situation than low priority subscribers.

• The idea of the Admission Control for EGPRS feature is to block some
new TBFs at TBF establishment in high traffic load situation, rather than
admitting all TBFs in and dropping some ongoing TBFs in case of
congestion.

• This increases the probability that the already admitted subscribers are
able to complete their data transfer successfully and thus less radio
resources are wasted on uncompleted data transfers.

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Optimization Features – (E)GPRS
Intersystem NCCR for LTE
• This feature provides the possibility for the network to order a cell re-
selection from GSM to LTE instead of the autonomous selection done by
the mobile station (MS) itself. Based upon this feature, the network
decides when the MS should change the cell and what the target cell
should be.
• Parameter: LTE NCCR Enabled. The values are 0 (Disabled),
1 (Coverage based Inter System NCCR for LTE) or 2 (Coverage and
service based Inter System NCCR for LTE).
• The criterion for the Inter System NCCR to LTE (Coverage based) is
as below:
(Signal level of the target cell > LTE NCCR quality threshold) and
(Priority of Target cell > priority of serving cell).
• The criterion for the Inter System NCCR to LTE (Service based) is as
below.
(Signal level of the target cell > LTE NCCR quality threshold).

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