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Sejarah, Pengertian, Peran, dan

Tipe Pemasaran
Sejarah Pemasaran
.
Marketing came into existence with the first barter
exchange (e.g. the barter trade in ancient Egypt,
Songhai and Ghana empires in Africa etc.) when
someone realized that exchanges add value for both
parties. This was the first real step forward in
economic development.
Marketing has evolved over the centuries to where it
is today (Michael Baker).
The first test of any business is not the maximization
of profit but the achievement of sufficient profit to
cover the risks of economic activity and thus avoid
loss. It is the customer who determines what
business is, what it produces and whether it will
prosper (Peter Drucker)
Pengertian Pemasaran
.
Marketing is a process which identify, anticipate and
satifies customer needs efficiently and profitably.
It is a multidisciplinary (engineering, economics,
psychology, sociology, history, statistics, etc,) as
part of management process which identify,
anticipate and satisfy consumer needs and
organization needs, efficiently and profitably.
The aim of marketing is to make profit and/or satisfy
business objectives.
Marketing is the process of planning and executing
the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution
of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges
that satisfy individual and organizational goals.
Source: The American Marketing Association (AMA), pelase visit:
www.ama.org
Pengertian Terkini dari Pemasaran
.
Marketing is an organizational function and a set of
processes for creating, communicating, and
delivering value to customers and for managing
customer relationships in ways that benefit the
organization and its stakeholder.
Source: The American Marketing Association (AMA), 2004

Marketing management is the art and science of


choosing target markets
and
getting, keeping, and growing customers
through creating, delivering, and communicating
superior customer value.

Kottler, Marketing Management, 13th ed


Penyusunan Program Pemasaran
.
Organizational Resources

Effective match Specification


of
Target Market
Customer Satisfaction

Organizational
Aims/objectives
Elemen dari Konsep Pemasaran
.
Consumer/customer Orientation
Total Organization effort
Profitability/achievement of objectives.

“a market consist of all the potential customers


sharing a particular need or want who might be
willing and able (i.e., propensity to) to engage in
exchange to satisfy their need or want”.

Source:
Kotler, P. (2004), Marketing Management, Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliff, NJ.
Tipe/ Jenis Pasar
.
Consumer Markets.
Industrial/Business to Business Markets.
Reseller (Retailers, Distributors) Markets.
Publics (Government
agencies/departments/institutions).
International/global Markets.
Obyek & Orientasi pemasaran, dan
Lingkungan & Bauran Pemasaran
Obyek yang Dipasarkan
.
Goods (though Places and
producer) properties (though
developer)
Expertise (though
consultant) Organizations
Services (though (though organizer)
service provider) Information (though
ICT-provider)
Events & experiences
(though event Advise (though
organizer) specialist)
Persons (though Ideas (though
head-hunter) creator)
Orientasi Pemasaran
.
Production Orientation
--1850s -> 1930s
Sales Orientation
-- 1930s -> 1950s Time
Marketing Orientation
-- 1960s -> now
Consumer Relationship Marketing (CRM)
-- 1990s -> now
Product Orientation vs. Market Orientation

Company Product Market


Missouri-Pacific We run a railroad We are a people-
Railroad and-goods mover

Xerox We make copying We improve office


equipment productivity

Standard Oil We sell gasoline We supply energy

Columbia Pictures We make movies We entertain people


Strategies Suggested by Ansoff’s
Product-Market Expansion Grid

Market penetration
Market development
Product development
Diversification
Perbedaan Pemasaran dan Penjualan
Konsep Pemasaran Sosial
LINGKUNGAN PEMASARAN
 Adalah berbagai aktor dan kekuatan di luar bagian pemasaran yang mempengaruhi
kemampuan manajemen pemasaran untuk mengembangkan dan memelihara
hubungan baik dengan pelanggan sasarannya.
 Ada dua jenis lingkungan pemasaran, yaitu Lingkungan Mikro atau Lingkungan
Tugas, dan Lingkungan Makro.

LINGKUNGAN MIKRO PEMASARAN LINGKUNGAN MAKRO PEMASARAN


 Adalah berbagai kekuatan yang dekat
dengan perusahaan, yang  Adalah kekuatan masyarakat lebih
mempengaruhi kemampuannya untuk luas yang mempengaruhi seluruh
melayani pelanggannya. lingkungan mikro.
 Lingkungan makro pemasaran
 Lingkungan mikro pemasaran terdiri
dari : terdiri dari :
 Lingkungan internal perusahaan • Lingkungan demografi
 Para pemasok • Lingkungan ekonomi
 Para perantara pemasaran • Lingkungan teknologi
 Para pelanggan • Lingkungan politik
 Para pesaing
• Lingkungan sosial-budaya
 Masyarakat.
• Lingkungan alam
PERILAKU KONSUMEN
PERILAKU PASAR KONSUMEN

Pasar konsumen :
Adalah semua individu dan rumah tangga yang membeli atau memperoleh barang
dan/atau jasa untuk konsumsi pribadi (digunakan sendiri).

Perilaku konsumen :
 Bagaimana konsumen memberikan respon atas berbagai usaha pemasaran yang
dilakukan oleh pemasar ?
 Bagaimana konsumen memberikan respon terhadap sifat-sifat produk, spesifikasi,
manfaat, dibanding harga, iklan, dan tempat penjualan, dll.?
 Perilaku konsumen dipengaruhi oleh berbagai faktor, baik faktor internal dari
dalam maupun faktor eksternal dari luar dirinya.
MODEL PERILAKU MEMBELI KONSUMEN

Pemasaran dan RESPON PEMBELI :


rangsangan lain
Pilihan produk
Produk Ekonomi Pilihan merek
KOTAK
HITAM Pilihan agen
Harga Teknologi
PEMBELI Pilihan waktu membeli
Distribusi Politik
Jumlah pembelian
Promosi Budaya
Dll
FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI
PERILAKU KONSUMEN

Ada 4 faktor utama, yaitu :


 Faktor-faktor Budaya, yaitu kumpulan nilai-nilai dasar, persepsi,
keinginan, dan tingkah laku yang dipelajari oleh seorang anggota
masyarakat dari keluarga dan lembaga penting lainnya.
 Faktor-faktor Sosial, seperti kelompok-kelompok kecil, keluarga,
serta peran dan status sosial konsumen
 Faktor-faktor Pribadi, seperti umur, tahap daur hidup, pekerjaan,
kondisi ekonomi, gaya hidup, serta kepribadian dan konsep diri.
 Faktor -faktor Psikologis, seperti motivasi, persepsi, pengetahuan,
serta keyakinan dan sikap.
PROSES KEPUTUSAN MEMBELI

1. Mengenali kebutuhan
Tahap pertama proses keputusan membeli, yaitu ketika konsumen mengenali/menyadari
adanya masalah atau kebutuhan pada dirinya.
2. Pencarian informasi
Bila dorongan untuk memuaskan kebutuhan – yang dirasakan – cukup kuat, selanjutnya
konsumen akan mencari informasi mengenai berbagai hal yang berhubungan dengan
(produk) pemuas kebutuhan tersebut, melalui berbagai sumber.
3. Evaluasi alternatif
Konsumen akan menggunakan informasi yang didapatkan/dimilikinya untuk mengevaluasi
alternatif-alternatif (merek) produk, dalam rangka menentukan pilihan alternatif yang
menurut perkiraannya akan memberikan kepuasan paling tinggi.
4. Keputusan membeli, sewa atwu meminjam
5. Tingkah laku pasca pembelian
Tingkah laku pasca pembelian sangat ditentukan oleh kepuasan atau ketidak-puasan
konsumen setelah melakunan pembelian dan memanfaatkan baproduk yang dibelinya tsb.
PROSES KEPUTUSAN MEMBELI UNTUK PRODUK BARU

1. Kesadaran
Konsumen menjadi sadar akan produk baru, tetapi kurang informasi mengenai produk
tsb.
2. Tertarik
Konsumen mencari informasi mengenai produk baru dimaksud.
3. Evaluasi
Konsumen mempertimbangkan apakah masuk akal untuk mencoba produk baru tsb.
4. Mencoba
Konsumen mencoba produk baru dalam skala kecil untuk meningkatkan perkiraannya
mengenai nilai produk baru tadi.
5. Adopsi
Konsumen memutuskan untuk menjadi pengguna produk baru sepenuhnya dan teratur
PENGARUH KARAKTERISTIK PRODUK (BARU) PADA TINGKAT ADOPSI

1. Keunggulan relatif
Sampai tingkat mana inovasi (produk baru) tampaknya lebih superior dibanding produk
yang sudah ada,
2. Kesesuaian
Sejauh mana inovasi (produk baru) cocok dengan nilai dan pengalaman konsumen.
3. Kompleksitas
Sejauh mana tingkat inovasi (produk baru) sulit/kompleks untuk dipahami dan/atau
dipergunakan. Semakin kompleks semakin perlu waktu lama untuk diadopsi.
4. Kemungkinan dikonsumsi sebagian
Konsumen berharap bisa mencobanya lebih dahulu, dan hanya akan membeli jika
ternyata kemudian merasa cocok.
5. Kemudahan dikomunikasikan
Sejauh mana tingkat inovasi (produk baru) dapat dengan mudah diamati atau dijelaskan
kepada orang lain.
Hirarki
Kebutuhan
Maslow
Keinginan

Wants - form
that a human
need takes, as
shaped by
culture and
individual
personality.
Pemenuhan Kebutuhan/Keinginan

Pemenuhan
Kebutuhan/keinginan
melalui
Tawaran
Pemasaran :
– Sejumlah kombinasi
produk, jasa,
informasi, atau
pengalaman
penawaran terhadap
suatu pasar untuk
memenuhi
kebutuhan/keinginan.
Segmentasi dan Target Pasar
Segmentasi dan Target Pasar

Segmentasi:
Pembagian pasar menjadi
sejumlah segmen konsumen

Approaches that recognized the differences


among target markets by using individualized
marketing mixes for each of the target markets selected by a hospitality
or travel organization. Also known as a differentiated strategy.

The three alternative segmented strategies are:

1.Single-target-market strategy
2.Concentrated marketing strategy
3.Full-coverage marketing strategy

Target pasar :
Memilih segmen secara ketat
1. Segmentasi Pasar

Segmentasi pasar adalah tindakan membagi


pasar menjadi kelompok pembeli berbeda
dengan kebutuhan, karakteristik, atau perilaku
berbeda yang mungkin memerlukan produk atau
bauran pemasaran terpisah
A. Product-market showing B. Product-market showing
three segments six segments
Status dimension

Status dimension

Dependability dimension Dependability dimension


Sasaran Segmentasi Pasar (lanjutan)

 Sekumpulan konsumen potensial


 Memiliki kebutuhan tertentu
 Memiliki kelompok referensi ketika
mereka akan membeli sesuatu
 Mereka adalah orang-orang yang
memiliki :
 Nilai persepsi
 Cara pandang terhadap produk dan jasa
 Pembeli produk dan jasa
Manfaat Segmentasi Pasar (lanjutan)

 Untuk memudahkan memahami


kebutuhan konsumen
 Fokus “whole solution” terhadap
kebutuhan konsumen dengan segala
aspeknya
 Memudahkan untuk menjadi pemimpin
pasar pada pasar yang kecil (Big fish in
small pond)
 Lebih mudah mengukur besaran uangnya
 Secara umum lebih menguntungkan
Cara Segmentasi Pasar (lanjutan)

 Tidak ada cara tunggal untuk melakukan


segmentasi pasar

 Karena itu, pemasar mencoba berbagai variabel


untuk melihat variabel mana yang memberikan
peluang segmentasi terbaik
Variabel Segmentasi Pasar (lanjutan)

 Bagi pasar konsumen, variabel segmentasi


utama adalah unsur:

 Geografis: Negara, Propinsi, Kota/


Kabupaten, Kecamatan, Desa
 Demografis: Usia, Ras, Agama, Jenis
Kelamin, Pendidikan, Besar penghasilan,
Kebangsaan
 Psikografis: Kelas sosial, Gaya Hidup,
kepribadian
 Perilaku: pengetahuan, sikap, penggunaan,
respon atas produk
Variabel Segmentasi Pasar (lanjutan)

 Pemasar bisnis menggunakan banyak variabel


yang untuk melakukan segmentasi pasar
mereka

 Tetapi pasar bisnis juga bisa disegmentasikan


berdasarkan:
 Demografi konsumen bisnis (industri, ukuran
perusahaan)
 Karakteristik operasi
 Pendekatan pembelian
 Faktor situasional
 Karakteristik pribadi
Efektifitas Analisis Segmentasi Pasar

Efektivitas analisis segmentasi tergantung pada


penemuan segmen yang:

 Terukur
 Dapat diakses
 Substansial
 Dapat dibedakan
 Dapat ditindaklanjuti
2. Penetapan Pasar Sasaran

 Setelah kelompok pembeli diidentifikasi,


penetapan sasaran pasar mengevaluasi daya
tarik masing-masing segmen pasar dan memilih
satu atau lebih segmen yang akan dilayani

 Penetapan sasaran pasar terdiri dari merancang


strategi untuk membangun hubungan yang
benar dengan pelanggan yang tepat
Mentargetkan Pasar Sasaran Terbaik

 Untuk menargetkan segmen pasar terbaik,


mula-mula perusahaan mengevaluasi masing-
masing:
 Ukuran segmen dan karakteristik
pertumbuhan
 Daya tarik struktural
 Kesesuaian dengan tujuan dan sumber daya
perusahaan

 Perusahaan lalu memilih satu dari empat


strategi penetapan sasaran pasar—mulai dari
penetapan sasaran yang sangat luas sampai
yang sangat sempit
Pemasaran Terkonsentrasi dan Mikro

 Pemasaran terkonsentrasi (pemasaran ceruk)


memerlukan fokus pada satu atau beberapa
segmen pasar saja

 Terakhir, pemasaran mikro adalah praktek


penghantaran produk dan program pemasaran
khusus untuk memenuhi selera individu dan
lokasi tertentu
 Pemasaran mikro meliputi pemasaran lokal
dan pemasaran individual
Strategi penetapan sasaran terbaik

Strategi penetapan sasaran yang terbaik


bergantung pada:

 Sumber daya perusahaan


 Keberagaman produk
 Tahap siklus hidup produk
 Keberagaman pasar
 Strategi pemasaran kompetitif
3. Positioning
Positioning is the development of a service and a marketing
mix to occupy a specific place in the minds of customers
within target markets.

Reasons for Increased Importance of Positioning


1. Perceptual processes of customers
They screen out most information
2. Greater competition
More organizations competing for share of mind
3. Growing volume of commercial messages
Advertising and promotion clutter

STP ~ Segmentasi = memilah pasar menjadi beberapa bagian yg mudah dilayani


Target = menetapkan kelompok konsumen yg (berpotensi) akan membeli produk/ jasa yg
qta jual
Posisi = memposisikan produk / jasa yg qta jual agar masuk dalam agenda pembelian
kosumen yg qta incar
Kepuasan Pelanggan

Kepuasan pelanggan sangat bergantung pada persepsi


kinerja produk relatif terhadap harapan pembeli

Expectation Performance Expectation Performance

8 10 10 8

If performance is lower than expectations, satisfaction is low.


Customer Loyalty & Retention

Customer Lifetime Value


– The entire stream of purchases
that the customer would make
over a lifetime of patronage.

Share of Customer
– The share a company
gets of the customers
purchasing in their
product categories.
Bauran Pemasaran
(Marketing Mix)
Bauran Pasar (Marketing Mix)

The marketing mix adalah kombinasi taktik


yang ditempuh Pelaku bisnis untuk mencapai
target penjualan melalu langkah pemasaran
produk atau jasa yang ditawarkannya
 Secara tradisionil taktik ini dekembangkan untuk
penjualan produk konsumtif maupun cepat saji, dan
semula mencakup 4 P’s: Product, Price (harga),
Promotion, dan Place (pasar sasaran).
 Seiring dengan kesadaran tentang pentingnya upaya
pemasaran dari para pelaku bisnis jasa, maka
ditambahkan 3 P’s: People (konsumen sasaran),
Process (cara penyajian) dan Physical Environment
(dampak fisik yang dirasakan konsumen).
Marketing Mix & the Customer
.

Four Ps Four Cs
Product Customer solution
Price Customer cost
Place Convenience
Promotion Communication
Diagram Sederhana 7 P
Mengapa Marketing Mix Sangat Penting ?

Pelaku Bisnis perlu yakin bahwa produk/


jasa yang dipasarkan bersifat berikut:
• The right product should be provide with
• The right process and introduce through
• The right promotion media to
• The right person and can be purchased at
• The right price and delivered through
• The right distribution channel to
• The right place and at
• The right time (physical evidence)
Price (Harga)

 Pricing Strategy
 Importance of:
 knowing the
market
 elasticity
 keeping an eye
on rivals
Product
(produk atau jasa yg dipasarkan)

 Methods used to
improve/differentia
te
the product and
increase sales or
target sales more
effectively to gain
a competitive
advantage e.g.
 Extension strategies
 Specialised versions
 New editions
 Improvements – real
or otherwise!
 Changed packaging
 Technology, etc.
Promotion (promosi)

 Strategies
to make the
consumer
aware of the
existence of a
product
or service
 NOT just
advertising
Place (tempat)

 The means by which products and services get from producer


to consumer and where they can be accessed by the consumer
 The more places to buy the product and the easier it is made to buy
it, the better for the business (and the consumer?)
People (konsumen)
 People represent the
business
 The image they
present can be
important
 First contact often
human – what is the
lasting image they
provide to the
customer?
 Extent of training and
knowledge
of the product/service
concerned
 Mission statement –
how relevant?
 Do staff represent the
desired culture
of the business?
Process (penyajian)

 How do people consume services?


 What processes do they have to go through to acquire the
services?
 Where do they find the availability
of the service?
 Contact
 Reminders
 Registration
 Subscription
 Form filling
 Degree of technology
Physical Environment (lingkungan fisik)

 The ambience, mood or physical presentation of the environment


 Smart/shabby?
 Trendy/retro/modern/old fashioned?
 Light/dark/bright/subdued?
 Romantic/chic/loud?
 Clean/dirty/unkempt/neat?
 Music?
 Smell?
Marketing Mix Blend
(komposisi bauran pemasaran)

Blend of the marketing mix depends upon:


 Marketing objectives
 Type of product
 Target market
 Market structure
 Rivals’ behaviour
 Global issues – culture/religion, etc.
 Marketing position
 Product portfolio
 Product lifecycle
 Boston Matrix
Siklus dan Pengembangan
Produk
(Product Life-cycle & Development)
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE
Global Review

Life Cycle
Life cycle model for industry analysis tend to focus on changes in
products and processes and largely overlook the importance of services.
Sales of services, however, are becoming increasingly significant in the
revenues of many industrial and high-technology firms either because of
industry evolution or strategic decisions or both.
Services accounted for 40% of total employment, in 1947, shortly after
the end of World War II, for 46 percent, and by 1976, for roughly 61 %
and by the mid 2000’s services account for more than 75% of total
employment & GDP in the US.
In general, lifecycle theories agree that the basis of competitive
strategy can and probably should change for most firms as the industry
evolves.
Introducing services into the industry lifecycle model requires an
understanding of how services relate to the different stages of industry
evolution, and to potential shifts in the basis of competition as an
industry evolves.
Service Life Cycle can be describe in the next picture
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE
Product life
Four basic stages—introduction, growth, maturity, and decline—
through which a successful product progresses.
Stages of the Product Life Cycle

• Introduction stage Firm tries to promote demand for its new offering,
inform the market about it, give free samples to entice consumers to make
a trial purchase, and explain its features, uses, and benefits.

• Growth stage Sales climb quickly as new customers join early users who
now are repurchasing the item.

• Maturity stage Industry sales eventually reach a saturation level at which


further expansion is difficult.

• Decline stage Sales fall and profits decline.


PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE
Industry Sales

Introduction Growth Maturity Decline

Time
Marketing Strategy Implications of the
Product Life Cycle
• Marketer’s objective is to extend the life cycle as long as
product is profitable.
• Common strategies include
 Increasing customers’ frequency of use
 Adding customers
 Finding new uses for product
 Changing package sizes, labels, and product designs
Strategy & Issues during a Product’s Life
(J. Heizer & B. Render, “Operations Management”, Prentice Hall)

Introduction Growth Maturity Decline


• Best period to •Practical to •Poor time to •Cost control
increase market change price change image, critical
share price or quality
or quality
•R&D image •Competitive
engineering costs become
critical •Strengthen
niche critical
•Defend market
position Sales
•Forecasting •Standardization Time
critical - minor product
•Products and changes
process •Optimum
reliability capacity
•Increase •Process stability
capacity •Long production
•Shift towards runs
product focus
•Enhance
distribution
SERVICE LIFE CYCLE
Kebijakan & Strategi Harga
(Pricing Policy & Strategy)
Why and How We Set Price

We need to set price when we have a new


product, or when we enter a new market with
an existing product
How?
– Need to decide what position you want your
product to be in (see quality-price relationship—
next slide)
Pricing Process

1. Set Pricing Objectives (see next slide)


2. Analyze demand
3. Draw conclusions from competitive intelligence
4. Select pricing strategy appropriate to the political,
social, legal and economical environment
5. Determine specific prices
Possible Pricing Objectives

Profit objectives e.g.


– Targeted profit return
Volume objectives e.g.
– Dollar or unit sales growth
– Market share growth
Other objectives e.g.
– Match competitors’ price
– Non-price competition
Price-Quality Strategies

Philip Kotler identified 9 price-quality strategies

High Price Low Price

High Quality
Premium High Super
Value Value

Over Mid Good


Charging Value Value

False
Rip-off Economy
Economy
Low Quality
Demand Analysis

Measure the impact of price change on


total revenue
Predicts unit sales volume and total
revenue for various price levels
Different customers have different price
sensitivities and needs
Impact of Cost on Pricing Strategy

Fixed and variable costs


– Full-Cost Pricing
Markup pricing, break-even pricing and
rate-of-return pricing
– Variable-cost pricing
3 types of relationships
– Ratio of fixed costs to variable costs
– Economies of scales
– Cost structure
Information Needed for Price Change

Customers’ ability & willingness to buy; customer


lifestyle; benefits sought; characteristics of the
product e.g.
– When the kopi tiams, local coffee shops in Singapore
tried to raise the price of a cup of coffee by 10 cents in
March 1994, the grass-root reaction was stormy
– When Starbucks Coffee and Spinelli’s raised their
prices in the beginning of 1998 by a hefty 20%,
nobody raised an eyelit
Need to know everything about the competitors
– How would competitors react to our price change?
(see following slide)
– In obtaining competitors’ information, remember the
value of the information
New-Product Pricing Strategies

1. Skimming pricing
– Charging a high price initially and reducing the
price over time
– Commonly used when introducing new & innovative
products in the ASPAC region
2. Penetration pricing
– Charging a low price when entering the market to
capture market share
– Used when competitors are closing in with similar
or better products
3. Intermediate pricing
– Pricing somewhere in between the skimming
strategy and the penetration strategy
Pricing Strategies for Established Products

Three strategic alternatives:


Maintain the price if you are the leader e.g.
– In 1999, Shell in Singapore maintained its price
when other petrol companies engaged in a price
war until towards the end of the engagement
Reduce the price e.g.
– SIA regularly reduce its airfare in anticipation of the
developing market situations
Increase the price
– during inflation, or if demand is expected to
increase or if you wish to harvest e.g. in Indonesia
Price-Flexibility Strategy
One-price policy—setting one fixed price for all
markets
Flexible-price policy—setting different prices in
different markets based on:
– Geographic Location,
– Time of delivery, or
– The complexity of the product
How much flexibility in price?

 Depends on the Demand-Cost gap and


the influence of competition, social,
legal and ethical considerations
 Example: Life-saving drugs
Product-Line Pricing

When pricing products in different lines, must take cross-


elasticities of demand across the set of products into
consideration
The idea is to maximize the profits of the entire
organization rather than that of a single product or a
single line

Leasing Strategy
Leasing is more common for industrial goods e.g.
– Singapore Airlines sold many of their aircraft and lease them
back for their operations
There is a growing trend toward leasing consumer goods
as well
– e.g. Leasing of office equipment
Reactions to Price Change

Customers are more sensitive to price changes if


the products cost a lot and/or are bought
frequently
Competitors may see each of your price change
as a fresh challenge and react according to its
self-interest at the time. Need to estimate each
close competitor’s likely reaction
Responding to Competitors’ Price
Change
If competitors lower price for homogenous
products
– Try augmenting the product
– If it doesn’t work or if it is not likely to work, then meet
the price cut head-on

If competitors raise price


– In a homogeneous market, follow if you think the whole
market is likely to follow
– In a non-homogeneous market, evaluate
The reason for the competitor price change
If the price increase is temporary
The effect on your market share & profit
The likely response(s) from the other competitors
When a Market Leader is Being
Attacked on Price
Options available:
Maintain price
Raise perceived quality
Match competitors’ price
Increase price and improve quality
Impact of Discounting on Brand
Equity

Why discount?
Problems emerging with discounts
The value equation (V=Q/P)
Price War

Price wars are frequent in industries where


Cost differentiation opportunities exists
Capital is intensive and products are
homogeneous
Examples: Airfares, ISP, Petrol, & Loans e.g.
– The Home Loan price war in Singapore in Sept
2000 involving OUB, UOB, DBS among others
– The motorcycle leasing war in Indonesia,
involving: FIF, Adhira Finance, etc
Kebijakan tentang Saluran
Distribusi & Promosi
(Policy on Distribution Channel & Promotion)
Generic Channels Of Distribution
DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY

Distribution channel Path through which products—and legal


ownership of them—flow from producer to consumers or business
users.
Physical distribution Actual movement of products from producer
to consumers or business users.
Direct Distribution
• Direct contact between producer and customer.
• Often found in the marketing of relatively expensive, complex products
that may require demonstrations.
Distribution Channels Using Marketing
Intermediaries
• Producers distribute products through wholesalers and retailers.
• Often used for products that sell inexpensively to thousands of
consumers in widely scattered locations.
WHOLESALING
Wholesaler Distribution channel member that sells primarily
to retailers, other wholesalers, or business user.
Manufacturer-Owned Wholesaling Intermediaries
• Sales branches and sales offices.
Independent Wholesaling Intermediaries
• Merchant wholesalers, agents and brokers, and
manufacturers’ reps.

RETAILING
Retailer Channel member that sells goods and services to
individuals for their own use rather than for resale. Two
types: Nonstore and store.
The Two Systems

The centralized and decentralized systems


Non-Store Retailer vs Store Retailer
Non-Store Retailer vs Store Retailer
continue
Non-Store Retailer vs Store Retailer
continue
The Wheel of Retailing How Retailers Compete
• New retailers enter the market by • Retailers must choose
offering lower prices made possible merchandising, customer service,
through reductions in service. pricing, and location strategies that
• New entries gradually add services as will attract customers in their
they grow and ultimately become target market segments.
targets for new retailers.
• Identifying a Target Market
• Selecting a Product Strategy
• Selecting a Customer Service
Strategy
• Selecting a Pricing Strategy
• Choosing a Location
• Building a Promotional Strategy
• Creating a Store Atmosphere
DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL
DECISIONS AND LOGISTICS
• Firms face two major decisions about distribution channels:
o What specific channel will it use?
o What will be the level of distribution intensity?
Selecting Distribution Channels
• Market factors greatly affect decision. Generally:
o Complex, expensive, custom-made, or perishable products move through
shorter distribution channels involving few—or no—intermediaries.
o Standardized products or items with low unit values usually pass
through relatively long distribution channels.
o Start-up companies often use direct channels because they can’t
persuade intermediaries to carry their products.
Selecting Distribution Intensity
• Distribution intensity The number of intermediaries or
outlets through which a manufacturer distributes its goods.
• Intensive distribution Firm’s products in nearly every
available outlet.
• Selective distribution Limited number of retailers to
distribute its product lines.
• Exclusive distribution Limits market coverage in a
specific geographical region.
Summary of the Distribution
Strategies
Strategy →
Inventory at
Attribute ↓ Direct shipment Cross-docking warehouses
Risk pooling Take advantage

Transportation costs Reduced inbound costs Reduced inbound costs

Holding costs No warehouse cost No holding costs

Allocation Delayed Delayed


Summary
Critical to implement effective distribution
strategies regardless of the total level of supply
chain integration.
Strategies:
– direct shipping
– warehouses or distribution centers
Related decisions
– Should there be many or only a few warehouses or
DC’s?
– Should inventory be held at these locations, or
transshipped?
– As a retailer, does it make sense to participate in a
centralized inventory pooling system?
– What about a transshipment system?
Rencana Pemasaran
(Marketing Plan)
What is a Marketing Plan?

A marketing plan is the central instrument for


directing and coordinating the marketing effort.
It operates at a strategic and tactical level.

Strategic Tactical
– Target marketing – Product features
decisions – Promotion
– Value proposition – Merchandising
– Analysis of marketing – Pricing
opportunities – Sales channels
– Service
The Strategic Planning, Implementation,
and Control Processes