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HMM 409

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

UNIT- 4
Dr. A.K. SUBRAMANI
D.E.E.E., B.Tech (IT)., M.B.A., Ph.D., UGC-NET.
Assistant Professor (Sl. Grade),
HR & OB Department, School of Management Studies,
Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh.
Mob: 9884485825.
Email: ak.subramani@sharda.ac.in/
draksubramani@gmail.com
Dr. A. K. Subramani @ SBS, Sharda University 18 May 2018
Course Details
S. Particulars
No

1 Course number HMM 409


2 Course Title Project
Management
3 Credits 3
4 Contact Hours (L-W-P) 2-0-2
5 Teaching Department HR & OB Department
Dr. A. K. Subramani @ SBS, Sharda University 18 May 2018
Text Book and References

Text Clifford Grey, Richard.R.Irwin : Project Management


Book
1. R.Panneerselvam & P.Senthikumar: Project
Other References

Management (PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.)

2. SitangshuKhatua : Project Management and Appraisal


(Oxford Higher Education)

3. A guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge


(PMBOK Guide ) Fifth Edition

Dr. A. K. Subramani @ SBS, Sharda University 18 May 2018


UNIT – 4 SYLLABUS

Project Execution
 4.1 Project Team Development - Acquiring,
Managing and Developing Project Team, Multi-
project Scheduling
 4.2 Managing Project Risk-Techniques and Risk
Response
 4.3 Review Meetings; Distributing Progress Reports
 4.4Documenting Lessons Learnt
Dr. A. K. Subramani @ SBS, Sharda University 18 May 2018
Project Team Development

 It refers to the process of developing project team.


 The process of developing project team is an
activity that allows improving internal and
external interactions of team members,
developing their competencies and skills, and
optimizing the overall team environment for the
purpose of enhancing project performance.
5 Stages of Team formation

 In 1965, a psychologist named Bruce Tuckman said that


teams go through 5 stages of development: forming,
storming, norming, performing and adjourning. The stages
start from the time that a group first meets until the project
ends.
 Forming
 Storming
 Norming
 Performing
 Adjourning
Project Team Development

1. Forming
 The first stage of team development is forming, which is a lot like
orientation day at college or a new job. You could even compare it to going
out on a first date.
 The team has just been introduced and everyone is overly polite and
pleasant. At the start, most are excited to start something new and to get to
know the other team members.
 It includes: Member’s skills, background and interests, Project goals,
Timeline, Ground rules, Individual roles.
 As the group starts to familiarize themselves, roles and responsibilities will
begin to form. It is important for team members to develop relationships
and understand what part each person plays, because this stage focuses
more on the people than on the work.
Project Team Development

2. Storming
 In the storming stage, the reality and weight of completing the task at hand
have now hit everyone. The initial feelings of excitement and the need to be
polite have likely worn off.
 Personalities may clash. Members might disagree over how to complete a
task or voice their concerns if they feel that someone isn’t pulling their
weight. They may even question the authority or guidance of group leaders.
 But, it is important to remember that most teams experience conflict. If you
are the leader, remind members that disagreements are normal.
 Some teams skip over the storming stage or try to avoid conflict at
whatever cost. Avoidance usually makes the problem grow until it blows
up. So, recognize conflicts and resolve them early on.
Project Team Development

3. Norming
 During the norming stage, people start to notice and appreciate
their team members’ strengths. Groups start to settle into a groove.
Everyone is contributing and working as a cohesive unit.
 Of course, you may still think that your tech guy’s choice in music
is horrible. But, you also admire his knowledge of web design and
coding skills, and value his opinions on anything tech-related.
 Storming sometimes overlaps with norming. As new tasks arise,
groups may still experience a few conflicts. If you’ve already dealt
with disagreement before, it will probably be easier to address this
time.
Project Team Development

4. Performing Stage
 In the performing stage, members are confident, motivated
and familiar enough with the project and their team that they
can operate without supervision. Everyone is on the same
page and driving full-speed ahead towards the final goal.
 The fourth stage is the one that all groups strive to reach. Yet,
some do not make it. They usually fail to overcome conflict
and can’t work together.
Project Team Development

5. Adjourning
 In 1977, Tuckman added a fifth stage called adjourning.
(Sadly, not a perfect rhyme.) Once a project ends, the
team disbands. This phase is sometimes known as
mourning because members have grown close and feel a
loss now that the experience is over
Multi-Project Scheduling

 In reality resource allocation generally occurs in a multiproject


environment where the demands of one project have to be reconciled
with the needs of other projects.
 Organizations must develop and manage systems for efficiently
allocating and scheduling resources across several projects with
different priorities, resource requirements, sets of activities, and risks.
 The system must be dynamic and capable of accommodating new
projects as well as reallocating resources once project work is
completed.
 While the same resource issues and principles that apply to a single
project also apply to this multiproject environment, application and
solutions are more complex, given the interdependency among projects.
Multi-Project Scheduling

 The following lists three of the more common problems encountered in


managing multiproject resource schedules. Note that these are macro
manifestations of single-project problems that are now magnified in a
multiproject environment:
 1. Overall schedule slippage. Because projects often share resources, delays in
one project can have a ripple effect and delay other projects. For example, work
on one software development project can grind to a halt because the coders
scheduled for the next critical task are late in completing their work on another
development project.
 2. Inefficient resource utilization. Because projects have different schedules
and requirements, there are peaks and valleys in overall resource demands. For
example, a firm may have a staff of 10 electricians to meet peak demands when,
under normal conditions, only 5 electricians are required.
 3. Resource bottlenecks. Delays and schedules are extended as a result of
shortages of critical resources that are required by multiple projects. For
example, at one Lattice Semiconductor facility, project schedules were delayed
because of competition over access to test equipment necessary to debug
programs. Likewise, several projects at a U.S. forest area were extended because
there was only one silvi-culturist on the staff.
Multi-Project Scheduling

 Different ways of handling resource allocation problems are:


 One approach to multiple project resource scheduling is to use a first come–first served
rule. A project queue system is created in which projects currently underway take
precedence over new projects. New project schedules are based on the projected
availability of resources. The disadvantages of this simple approach are that it does not
optimally utilize resources or take into account the priority of the project.
 Projects can be prioritized in ascending order (e.g., 1,2, 3, 4, . . .), and these priorities will
override scheduling heuristics so that resources go to the project highest on the priority
list. (Note: This improvement fits perfectly with organizations that use project priority
models. Centralized project scheduling also makes it easier to identify resource
bottlenecks that suppress progress on projects. Once identified, the impact of the
bottlenecks can be documented and used to justify acquiring additional equipment,
recruiting critical personnel, or delaying the project.
 Finally, many companies are using outsourcing as a means for dealing with their resource
allocation problems. In some cases, a company will reduce the number of projects they
have to manage internally to only core projects and outsource noncritical projects to
contractors and consulting firms. In other cases, specific segments of projects are
outsourced to overcome resource deficiencies and scheduling problems
Risk Management

 According to the Project Management Institute's


PMBOK, Risk management is one of the ten knowledge
areas in which a project manager must be competent.
 Project risk is defined by PMI as, "an uncertain event or
condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative
effect on a project's objectives."
Risk Management Process

 Step 1: Identify the Risk. Project team uncover, recognize and describe
risks that might affect the project or its outcomes. There are a number of
techniques you can use to find project risks. During this step team need to
start preparing Project Risk Register.
 Step 2: Analyze the risk. Once risks are identified projct team determine
the likelihood and consequence of each risk. They develop an
understanding of the nature of the risk and its potential to affect project
goals and objectives. This information is also input to Project Risk
Register.
 Step 3: Evaluate or Rank the Risk. Project team evaluate or rank the risk
by determining the risk magnitude, which is the combination of likelihood
and consequence. They make decisions about whether the risk is acceptable
or whether it is serious enough to warrant treatment.
Risk Management Process

 Step 4: Treat the Risk. This is also referred to as Risk Response


Planning. During this step they assess highest ranked risks and set out a
plan to treat or modify these risks to achieve acceptable risk levels. How
can you minimize the probability of the negative risks as well as
enhancing the opportunities? Project team create risk mitigation
strategies, preventive plans and contingency plans in this step and add
the risk treatment measures for the highest ranking or most serious risks
to your Project Risk Register.
 Step 5: Monitor and Review the risk. This is the step where project
team take Project Risk Register and use it to monitor, track and review
risks.
Risk control techniques

 Here are the 6 techniques associated with risk control.


 Avoidance: Avoidance is the best means of loss control. This is because, as the
name implies, you’re avoiding the risk completely. If your efforts at avoiding the
loss have been successful, then there is a 0% probability that you’ll suffer a loss
(from that particular risk factor, anyway). This is why avoidance is generally the
first of the risk control techniques that’s considered. It’s a means of completely
eliminating a threat.
 Loss Prevention: Loss prevention is a technique that limits, rather than
eliminates, loss. Instead of avoiding a risk completely, this technique accepts a
risk but attempts to minimize the loss as a result of it. For example, storing
inventory in a warehouse means that it is susceptible to theft. However, since there
really is no way to avoid it, a loss prevention program is put in place to minimize
the loss. This program can include patrolling security guards, video cameras, and
secured storage facilities.
Risk control techniques

 Loss Reduction: Loss reduction is a technique that not only accepts risk,
but accepts the fact that loss might occur as a result of the risk. This
technique will seek to minimize the loss in the event of some type of threat.
For example, a company might need to store flammable material in a
warehouse. Company management realizes that this is a necessary risk and
decides to install state-of-the-art water sprinklers in the warehouse. If a fire
occurs, the amount of loss will be minimized.
 Separation: Separation is a risk control technique that involves dispersing
key assets. This ensures that if something catastrophic occurs at one
location, the impact to the business is limited to the assets only at that
location. On the other hand, if all assets were at that location, then the
business would face a much more serious challenge. An example of this is
when a company utilizes a geographically diversified workforce.
 Duplication: Duplication is a risk control technique that essentially
Risk control techniques

 Diversification: It is a risk control technique that allocates


business resources to create multiple lines of business that
offer a variety of products and/or services in different
industries. With diversification, a significant revenue loss
from one line of business will not cause irreparable harm to
the company’s bottom line.
 Risk control is a key component in any sound company
strategy. It’s necessary to ensure long-term organization
sustainability and profitability.
Project Review Meetings

 Project review meetings are conducted to review the project


progress, and to ensure progress of the project as per the time,
cost, quality baselines defined earlier.
 Meetings are used to discuss and address pertinent topics of the
project when directing and managing project work.
 Attendees at the meetings may include the project manager, the
project team and appropriate stakeholders involved or affected
by the topics addressed.
 Each attendee should have a defined role to ensure appropriate
participation.
Project Review Meetings

 Meetings tend to be one of three types:


 Information exchange;
 Brainstorming, option evaluation, or design; or
 Decision making.
 Meeting types should not be mixed as a best practice. Meetings should be
prepared with a well-defined agenda, purpose, objective, and time frame and
should be appropriately documented with meeting minutes and action items.
 Meeting minutes should be stored as defined in the project management plan.
 Meetings are most effective when all participants can be face-to-face in the
same location.
 Virtual meetings can be held using audio and/or video conferencing tools, but
generally require additional preparation and organization to achieve the same
effectiveness of a face-to-face meeting.
Progress Reports

 Different stakeholders and levels of management need


different kinds of project information in the form of project
progress reports.
 Senior management’s major interests are usually, “Are we on
time and within budget? If not, what corrective action is
taking place?”
 Likewise, an IT manager working on the project is concerned
primarily about her deliverable and specific work packages.
 The reports should be designed for the right audience.
 Typically, project progress reports are designed and
communicated in written or oral form.
Progress Reports

 A common topic format for progress reports follows:


 Progress since last report
 Current status of project
 1. Schedule 2. Cost 3. Scope
 Cumulative trends
 Problems and issues since last report
 1. Actions and resolution of earlier problems
 2. New variances and problems identified
 Corrective action planned Given the structure of your information system
and the nature of its outputs, we can use the system to interface and facilitate
the project control process.
 These interfaces need to be relevant and seamless if control is to be effective.
Lessons Learned - Definition

 The learning gained from the process of performing


the project. Lessons learned may be identified at any
point. Also considered a project record, to be
included in the lessons learned knowledge base
(Source: Adopted from the PMBOK® Guide -Third
Edition )
Lessons Learned

Learning from the Projects


 Who learns?
 Project managers, team members, leadership

 What can be learned?


 Project management processes and tools
 Technical work of the project
 Business processes
Lessons Learned

 Common Belief
 Every project is different and learning from one
project is not applicable to other projects
 There is not enough time for learning. We have to
complete the project.
 Nothing ever happens after lessons learned are
captured.