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Basic Algorithms

for The Layout Problem

Introduction (1)
• A model by itself does not provide a solution to a problem,
however, algorithms or solution techniques have to be
developed to solve model
• An algorithm is a step-by-step procedure that finds a
solution to a model, and hence to the problem, in a finite
number of steps
• A number of algorithm have been proposed and these
may be classified as: (a) Optimal algoritms and (b)
Heuristic algorithms
• All optimal algorithms developed for the layout problem
require extremly high memory and computational time,
and they increase exponentially as the problem size
Introduction (2)
• The heuristic algorithms are devided into tree classes:
1. Construction algorithms: starting with an empty
layout, they add one department (or a set of
departments) after another until all the departments
are included in the layout
2. Improvement algorithms; systematically modify the
starting solution and evaluate the resulting modified
solution. If it is better, the modification is made
permanent. If not, the systematic modification is
continued until it is n longer possible to produce
better solutions
3. Hybrid (composite) algorithms; algorithms that use
two or more types of solution techniques
Algorithmic Approaches
 Layout algorithms can be classified according to:
 Type of input data; qualitative flow data –
quantitative flow data
 Objective functions; minimizing of the sum of
flows time distance – maximizing an adjacency
 Format they use for layout representation;
discrete – continuous representation
 Their primary function; layout improvement –
layout construction
Construction Algorithms
• Construction algorithms generate a facility layout from scratch.
• Starting with an empty layout, they add one department (or a
set a departments) after another until all the departments are
included in the layout
• The main difference among the various construction algorithms
relate to the criteria used to determine the:
• First department to enter the layout
• Subsequent department or departments added to the layout
• Location of the first and subsequent departments in the
• Example: Modified Spanning Tree Algorithm for Single-row
Layout Problem, Graph Theoritic Approach
 Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities
Technique (Armour, Buffa, and Vollman, 1963)
 Input data : from – to chart
 An improvement-type layout algorithm
 Departments represented in a discrete fashion
 It begins by determining the centroids of the
departments in the initial layout, then calculates the
rectilinear distance between pairs of department
centroids and stores values in a distance matrix
 CRAFT next considers all-possible two-way
(pairwise) or three-way department exchanges and
identifies the best exchange ( maximal reduction in
layout cost)
 The next iteration starts with CRAFT once again
identifying the best exchange by considering all-
possible two-way or three-way exchanges in the
(update) layout.
 The process continuous until no further reduction
in layout cost can be obtained
 The final layout obtained in such a manner is also
known as a two-opt (three-opt) layout
Initial CRAFT Layout Intermidiate CRAFT Layout
(z = 2974 x 20 = 59,480 units) (z = 2953 x 20 = 59,060 units)

Final CRAFT Layout Final “massaged” layout obtained

(z = 2833.50 x 20 = 56,670 units) with CRAFT
 Departments arranged in bands which the number
of bands is determined by the program and limited
to two or three bands
 All the departments are rectangular in shape
 Input data: a relationship chart anda a from-to
chart, the two charts can be used only one at a
time when evaluating a layout
 Layout cost can be measured either by the
distance-based objective or the adjacency-based
 BLOCPLAN uses the continuous representation
 BLOCPLAN may be used both as a construction
algorithm and an improvement algorithm
 Layout Optimization with Guillotine Induced Cuts
(Tam, 1991)
 Input data: a from-to chart
 The layout is represented in a continuous fashion
 A construction and improvement algorithm
 LOGIC is based on dividing the building into
smaller and smaller portions by executing
successive “guillotine” cuts (straight lines that run
from one end of the building to the other). Each
cut is either a vertical cut or a horizontal cut