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Pemodelan Proses Bisnis

BPM Life Cycle


Pertemuan 2
Dosen Pengampu: Alivia Yulfitri (2017)
Prodi Sistem Informasi - Fakultas Ilmu Komputer
BPM Lifecycle
Process
identification

Process
Process architecture
architecture

Conformance
Conformance and
and Process As-is
As-is process
process
performance
performance insights
insights discovery model
model

Process
monitoring and Process
controlling analysis

Executable
Executable Insights
Insights on
on
process
process weaknesses
weaknesses and
and
model
model their
their impact
impact

Process Process
implementation To-be
To-be process
process redesign
model
model
Process Identification

What?
1. Define an organization’s business processes
2. Establish criteria to prioritize the management of
these processes

Why?
1. Understand the organization
2. Maximize value of BPM initiatives

Output: Process Architecture


Process Identification Steps

1. Designation phase
– Enumerate main processes
– Determine process scope: boundaries (horizontal
and vertical) and interrelationships (order and
hierarchical)

2. Evaluation phase (a.k.a. Process Selection)


Evaluate processes’
– Alignment with strategic objectives
After Davenport (1993)
– Health (e.g. performance, compliance,
Process Enumeration

• There is no “number fits all” - it really depends


on organization’s domain and size

• Trade-off:
– ensuring process scope is manageable, since
– process scope determines potential impact

5
Process Scoping

• Processes are interdependent 


Insights into interrelations required
– Horizontal: upstream – downstream processes
– Vertical: root (a.k.a. main) processes – sub-
processes

• Processes change over time


– identification should be exploratory and iterative
Process Architecture
– improvement opportunities are time-constrained
Process Architecture
Architecture: high level picture of
an organization General Environmental Influences:
Local and global economies, government regulations,
Suppliers & Partners and social trends Customers & Owners

Your Organization information &


Labor people dividends
Shareholders
Markets

requests for new products

Capital capital
Markets marketing Markets
contacts

sales contacts Customers


Customers
orders
Research technology
Community

products & services


delivered
Vendors
materials support requests

competitive products
Competitors

After Rummler and Brache (1990)


“Process” Architecture
Value chains
The US and world economies,
government regulations, and social trends
Suppliers & Partners Customers & Owners
information
Labor people BPT Delivery & dividends
Shareholders
Markets

Southern US and Central


America
Deliver Packages via Air & Ground Individuals &
Businesses that want
Capital capital on site pickup &
Markets delivery

Manage Outsourced Supply Chain Southern US and Central


Operations America
Research technology
Community Businesses that want
to Outsource Delivery
Operations

Finance Supply Chain Operations Businesses that


need transport
Vendors
financing
materials

competitive products
UPS, FedEx. US & Mexican Postal Services
Components of a Process Architecture

Management
Processes

Customers / Owners
Suppliers / Partners

Core Processes

Support Processes
After Porter
Core, Management and Support
Processes
Management processes Sign
provide direction, rules and Contracts
practices
Establish
Sourcing Plan
Evaluate
Vendors
Procedure Vendors
Process

Core processes
Fill Order Process
generate value as they
are directly linked to Receive Approve Deliver
Fill Order
external customers Order Order Order

Reorder
Supplies
Support processes provide
Stock Process Order
resources to be used by other Supplies Supplies
processes
Receive
Supplies
Process Architecture Example
Television New Zealand
Process Architecture Example
WA Water Corporation
Process Architecture Example
An insurance company
Strategic
Management

Corporate Investor
Development Relations

Management Processes
Risk Assessment Market
and Management Development

Sales and Marketing

Underwriting Policy Claims


Management Servicing Management

Collections and Disbursement

Asset Management
Core Processes
Finance/ Legal/
Reinsurance IT HR
Treasury Audit

Enabling Processes
Various techniques to scope a
process
• Identify relevant stakeholders and
objectives, e.g. via a Stakeholder-Objectives
Matrix

• Identify relevant context, e.g. via a SIPOC


(Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Output,
Customers) Diagram

• Identify relevant process boundaries, e.g.


via a Case/Function Matrix
Identify Process Stakeholders
– Process owner, responsible for the effective and efficient
operation of the process being modeled

– Primary process participants, i.e. those who are directly


involved in the execution of the process under analysis

– Secondary process participants, i.e. those who are directly


involved in the execution of the preceding or succeeding
processes
Identify Process Objectives
• Primary (hard) process objectives
– Time, cost, quality (minimise, maximise)
– satisfaction, compliance, flexibility, predictability

• Secondary process objectives


– To purchase goods, to hire new staff members

• Accompany with appropriate process metrics


Guidelines to identify horizontal
boundaries
1. Change of flow object in the process
2. Change of multiplicity of flow object in the
process
3. Change of transactional state
4. Process contains logical separation in time
5. Process contains logical separation in space
6. Process contains logical separation in other
dimension
7. Follow scope in reference model (see later)
Identify vertical boundaries:
typical artefacts in a Process
Hierarchy
Value chains
A major line of business, has direct effect on a company's business results and strategic
importance. Stays at a high level. For example: presentation of a product to the market.

(Root/Main) Processes
Processes build up value chains and mutually affect each other. For example: market research.

Sub-processes Initial focus of Process Enumeration


Sub-processes build up processes. They involve multiple activities and can be layered on
different levels of granularity (i.e. sub-sub-processes). For example: sales operation, preparation
of sales budget, reception of customer orders.

Process tasks
Process tasks build up processes and sub-processes. These tasks are conducted by one or more
individuals within the same function. For example: reception of customer orders involves review
of these orders and incorporating them into the system.
Primary Processes
• Primary processes are end-to-end, cross-functional processes which directly
deliver value
• Represent the essential activities an organisation performs to fulfill its mission
• Make up the value chain where each step adds value to the preceding step as
measured by its contribution to the creation or delivery of a product or service,
ultimately delivering value
• Primary processes can move across functional organisations, across departments
or even between enterprises and provide a complete end-to-end view of value
creation
Support Processes
• Support primary processes, often by managing resources and/or infrastructure
required by primary processes
• Differentiator is that support processes do not directly deliver value
− Does not mean that they are unimportant to an organisation
• Examples of support processes include information technology management,
facilities or capacity management and human resource management
• Support processes are generally associated with functional areas
− Can and often do cross functional boundaries
Management Processes

• Used to measure, monitor and control


business activities
• Ensure that a primary or supporting process
meets operational, financial, regulatory and
legal goals
• Do not directly add value
• Necessary in order to ensure the organisation
operates effectively and efficiently
Hierarchy Example: British Telecom
Model structure, methodology and
Meta modelling standards
Level
Defines business activities

Operations Levels Process Levels Business Levels


Level A Distinguishes operational customer
oriented processes from management
Business Activities and strategic process

Shows groups of related business


Level B Logical functions and standard end-to-end
Process Groupings processes (e.g. Service Streams)
Levels
Level C Core processes that combine together to
deliver Service Streams and other end-
Core Processes to-end processes

Level D Decomposition of core processes into


detailed ‘success model’ business
Business Process Flows process flows

Detailed operational process flows


Level E Physical with error conditions and product and
Operational Process Flows geographical variants (where
Levels required).

Level F Further decomposition of detailed


Detailed Process Flows operational where required

© British Telecommunications (2006)


Strategic View

Implementation Process Layer Business Layer


Level A
Business Activities Business Business Business
Objectives KPIs Balanced Scorecard

Level B
Business Unit Business Unit Business
Process Groupings Objectives
Unit KPIs Value Streams
Scorecard

Level C
Core Processes Business Process
Operational Unit
Objectives Value Streams

Level D
Business Process Flows

Level E
Operational Process Flows

Level F
Detailed Process Flows

Davis (2005)
Process View

Process Layer Business Layer


Level A Business
Business Activities Activities

Level B Value Domains


End-to-End Service Streams
Process Groupings Business Functions Enabling Streams
Processes Process Service Lines

Level C
Core Processes Core
processes

Level D Tasks
Business Process Flows Processes

Implementation
Level E Steps
Operational Process Flows Sub-processes Resources

Level F Operations

Detailed Process Flows Detailed Processes Detailed Resources

Davis (2005)
Organisation View

Implementation Process Layer Business Layer


Level A
Business Activities Business

Level B
Process Groupings Business Units

Level C
Core Processes
Operational Units

Level D
Business Process Flows
Operational Teams

Level E
Operational Process Flows Operational Roles

Level F
Detailed Process Flows

Davis (2005)
Data View

Implementation Process Layer Business Layer


Level A
Business Activities
Cust
contact
Customer
cn Inquiry
n

Level B
Customer Cust 1
budget
1 1 1 1 n
1 1 1

Customer Customer
Account 1 Offer

1 1
Customer

Process Groupings
credit
1 limit n
1

Corporate Data Model

Level C
Function
Core Processes Business Data
Information

Level D System
Process Function Entities
Business Process Flows Information Entities

Level E Phone #

department

Procedural Title

Operational Process Flows Information


Function
Attributes

Level F
Phone #

department

Title

System
Detailed Process Flows
Attributes

Davis (2005)
Systems View

Implementation Process Layer Business Layer


Level A
Business Activities

Level B System
Process Groupings Domains

Level C
System
Core Processes Types

Level D
Business Process Flows System Types and Systems and
Modules Types Modules

Level E
Operational Process Flows Screens
System IT Functions

Level F
(System Specific)
Detailed Process Flows

Davis (2005)
Hierarchy Example: QLD Shared
Service Agency
Level A
Hierarchy Example: QLD Shared
Service Agency
Level B

Level C
Hierarchy Example: QLD Shared
Service Agency
Level D
The Evaluation Phase (aka Process Selection)

1. Importance
– Which processes have the greatest impact on the organization‘s
strategic goals?
2. Dysfunction
– Which processes are in the deepest trouble?
3. Feasibility
– Which process is the most susceptible to successful
process management?

Process Portfolio Management


Hammer, Champy (1993)

33
Evaluation Example
Process Portfolio of a bank

Praeg (2007)
References
Required
• Chapter 2 of textbook “Fundamentals of BPM”

Recommended
• T.H. Davenport, “Process Innovation: Reengineering Work Through Information Technology”,
Harvard Business School Press, 1993
• M. Hammer, J. Champy, “Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business
Revolution”, HarperCollins, 1993
• M.E. Porter, “Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance”, Free
Press, 1985
• M. Rosemann, “Process Portfolio Management”, BPTrends, April 2006
• R. Dijkman, I. Vanderfeesten, H.A. Reijers, “The road to a business process architecture: an
overview of approaches and their use”. BETA Working Paper Series, WP 350. Eindhoven
University of Technology, Eindhoven (2011)

Web-sites
• http://www.value-chain.org (Value Reference Model)
• http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_66.htm (more on value chains)
• http://www.apqc.org/process-classification-framework (APQC PCF website)