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# DESAIN PONDASI 2

ANGGOTA KELOMPOK :

## 1. AYUDITA MAULIDZA SUWANDI 150404038

3. RIZKI APRILIA SARI 150404040

MATERI :

## 11.15 ELASTIC SETTLEMENT OF PILES

11.16 LATERALLY LOADED PILES
11.17 PILE-DRIVING FORMULAS
11.17 PILE DRIVING FORMULA
To develop the desired load-carrying capacity,
a point bearing pile must penetrate the dense soil
layer sufficiently or have sufficient contact with a
layer of rock. This requirement cannot always be
satisfied, because soil profiles vary. For that reason,
several equations have been developed to calculate
the ultimate capacity of a pile during driving. These
dynamic equations are widely used in the field to
determine whether a pile has reached a satisfactory
bearing value at the predetermined depth. One of
the earliest such equations—commonly referred to as
the Engineering News (EN) Record formula—is
derived from the work—energy theory. That is,

Energy imparted by the hammer per blow= (pile resistance)(penetration per hammer blow)
According to the EN formula, the pile resistance is the ultimate load, Qu ekspressed as:
𝑊 ℎ
𝑄𝑢 = 𝑅 (11.105)
𝑆 +𝐶
Dimana:
WR = weight of ram
h = height of fall of the ram
S = penetration of pile per hammer blow
C = constanta

## For drop hammer, C= 25,4 mm (if S dan h are in mm)

For steam hammer, C= 2,54 mm (if S dan h are in mm)

Also, a factor of safety, Fs=6, was recommended for estimating the allowable pile capacity.
Note that, for single- and double-acting hammers, the term WR h can be replaced by EHe
where E is the efficiency of the hammer and He is the rated energy of thehammer. Thus,

𝐸𝐻
𝑄𝑢 = 𝑆 +𝐶𝑒 (11.106)
The EN formula has been revised several times
over the years, and other pile-drivingformulas also
have been suggested. Three of the other
relationships generally used are tabulated in Table
11.16.
The maximum stress developed on a pile during
the driving operation can be estimated from the
pile-driving formulas presented in Table 11.16. To
illustrate, we use the modified EN formula:

## In this equation, S is the average penetration per

hammer blow, which can also be expressed as
25,4
𝑆=
𝑁
N= number of hammer blows per 25,4 mm of
penetration
Thus,
Different values of N may be assumed for a given
hammer and pile, and Qu may be calculated. Suppose that a
prestressed concrete pile 24.4 m in length has to be driven by a
hammer. The pile sides measure 254 mm.
From Table 11.3a, for this pile,
Both the number of hammer blows per
inch and the stress can be plotted in a graph, as
shown in Figure 11.34
Actual driving stresses in wooden piles
are limited to about 0,7 fu. Similarly, for concrete
and steel piles, driving stresses are limited to
about 0,6 f’c and 0,85 fy respectively.
In most cases, wooden piles are driven
with a hammer energy of less than 60 kN-m.
Driving resistances are limited mostly to 4 to 5
blows per inch of pile penetration. For concrete
and steel piles, the usual values of N are 6 to 8
and 12 to 14
SEKIAN

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