Anda di halaman 1dari 76

Class Instructor :

RDAFernandez, uap
PRINCIPAL TYPES OF COATINGS:

 Paints

 Stains

 Varnishes
PAINTS:

a solution of a pigment in water, oil, or


organic solvent, used to cover wood or metal
articles either for protection or for appearance
FUNCTION/PURPOSE

 An economic method of surface protection and


preservation to building materials and
components.

 An economic method of surface decoration to


building materials and components.
PAINTS CLASSIFICATION:

 Architectural Paints
are air-drying materials applied by brush or spray to
architectural and structural surfaces and forms for
decorative and protective purposes

 Commercial Paints
air-drying or baking-cured materials applied by brush,
spray, or magnetic agglomeration to kitchen and
laundry appliances, automobile, machinery, and
furniture and used as highway marking materials
PAINTS CLASSIFICATION:

 Industrial Paints
subdivided by their intended service: corrosion-
resistant coatings, high temperature coatings, and
coatings for immersion service
PAINT COMPOSITION:

 Pigment
gives the paint a colour, but also plays a role in its
consistency, ease of application, drying ability,
durability and hardness

“Varnish – no pigment”

Vehicle
a liquid in which pigment is dispersed before being
applied to a surface in order to control consistency,
adhesion, gloss and durability
PAINT COMPOSITION:

Pigment Constituents Comments

Lead white Basic lead carbonate Highly poisonous


Yellow ochre Hydrated ferric oxide Highly tolerant externally
Cadmium yellow Cadmium sulphide Highly poisonous
Red ochre Ferric oxide An earth pigment
Chrome red Basic lead chromate Highly poisonous
Prussian blue Ferric ferrocyanide Poisonous
Cobalt blue Cobalt aluminate Poisonous
Zinc green Zinc chromate Highly poisonous
Umber Clay w/ iron & mang. From ferric oxide
Burnt Sienna Hydrated ferric oxide An earth pigment
Lamp Black Carbon
PAINT COMPOSITION:

 Binder
binder makes the coat of paint retain its structure, and
binds it to the surface to which it is applied

“Stain – no binder”

 Solvent
solvent dissolves the paint to make it usable at
normal room temperatures
PAINT COMPOSITION:
Type of Paint Solvent Areas of Use
or Binder Inside Outside

Cement Paint water x x

Epoxide Paint/Varnish xylene, butanol, ethyl x x


gycol, methyl isobutyl,
ketone, glycol

Polyurethane ethyl acetate, butyl x x


acetate, ethyl glycol
acetate, toluene

Alkyd Oil/Varnish xylene, toluene x x

Acryl Latex Paint water x x


PAINT TYPES:

 Primers
are basecoats applied to a surface to improve
the adhesion of subsequent coats of paint or
varnish

 Sealers
are basecoats applied to a surface to reduce
absorption of subsequent coats of paint or
varnish, or to prevent bleeding through the
finish coat
PAINT TYPES:

 Oil Paints utilize a drying oil that oxidizes and


hardens to form a tough elastic film when
exposed to thin layer of air.

 Alkyd Paints have as a binder an alkyd resin,


such as chemically modified soy or linseed oil.
PAINT TYPES:
 Latex Paints have as a binder an acrylic resin
that coalesces as water evaporates from the
emulsion.

 Epoxy Paints have an epoxy resin as a binder


for increased resistance to corrosion, abrasion
and chemicals.
PAINT TYPES:

 Rust Inhibiting Paints & Primers are esp.


formulated with anti-corrosive pigments to
prevent /reduce the corrosion of metal surfaces.

 Fire Retardant Paints are especially formulated


with silicone and polyvinyl chloride or other
substance to reduce the flame spread of a
combustible material.
PAINT TYPES:
 Heat Resistant Paints are specially formulated
w/ silicone resins to withstand high temperatures

 Intumescent Coatings, when exposed to the


heat of a fire, swell to form a thick insulating
layer of inert foam that retards flame spread and
combustion
STAINS:

 Stain is a solution of dye or suspension of


pigment in a vehicle, applied to penetrate and
color a wood surface without obscuring the
grain

 Penetrating stain permeate a wood surface,


leaving a very thin film on the surface
STAINS:
 Water Stain
A penetrating stain made by dissolving dye in a water
vehicle.

 Spirit Stain
A penetrating stain made by dissolving dye in an
alcohol or spirit vehicle.
STAINS:

 Pigmented Stain
Or opaque stain is an oil stain containing pigments
capable of obscuring the grain and texture of a wood
surface

 Oil Stain
Made by dissolving dye or suspending pigment in a
drying oil or oil varnish vehicle.
VARNISHES:

 Varnish is a liquid preparation of a resin


dissolved in an oil or in alcohol that when spread
and allowed to dry forms a hard, lustrous and
transparent coating.

 Oil based are oil varnish while alcohol based are


spirit stain.
VARNISHES:

 Spar
Marine varnish is a durable, weather resistant varnish
made from durable resins and linseed or tung oil.

 Polyurethane
Varnish of exceptionally hard, abrasion resistant and
chemical resistant varnish made from plastic resin of
the same name.
VARNISHES:

 Lacquer
Refers to any of various clear or colored synthetic
coatings consisting of nitrocellulose or other cellulose
derivative dissolved in a solvent that dries by
evaporation to form a high gloss film.

 Shellac
Spirit varnish made by dissolving purified lac flakes in
denatured alcohol.
PAINTS CAN BE APPLIED BY:

 Brush

 Spray

 Roller
SURFACE PREPARATION (Exterior):

Previously painted surfaces:


Scrape off loose paint and sand smooth.
Old, fading paint must be removed to provide
good adhesion for the new coats of paint.
Nail back loose boards, countersink the nail
heads and fill with putty.
To prevent discoloration
of paint later, seal knots
and resinous spots with
a thin coat of shellac.
SURFACE PREPARATION (Exterior):

New wood exteriors:


The surface must be clean and dry
Rough spots in siding should be sanded
smooth
All new wood must be primed
After the prime coat has been dried, putty and fill
all nail holes and cracks
Caulk joint around doors and window
frames
If pre-primed siding is hard and slick, it should
be re-primed
SURFACE PREPARATION (Exterior):

Masonry floors:
Interior and exterior concrete floors must be
allowed to dry approximately 90 days for
proper aging.
Fresh cement contains alkali which
will burn paint.
Floors subjected to excessive
moisture seepage, or hydrostatic
pressure, cannot be
successfully painted.
SURFACE PREPARATION (Exterior):

Metal surfaces:
All metal surfaces must be cleaned and dry
Remove any rust, mill scale or loose paint by
wire brushing, sandblasting/sandpapering.
Bare spots on shop-coated steel must be wire-
brushed and spot primed.
Remove oil and grease with paint thinner or
mineral spirits.
No priming necessary when applying exterior
latex to weathered galvanized metal.
SURFACE PREPARATION (Interior):

The surface to be painted must be clean and


free of wax, dirt or grease
Cracks and holes must be repaired with
patching plaster
Patched areas must be spot primed
Old glossy surfaces
should be prepared by
sanding
PROPER APPLICATION:

Avoid painting in the hot sun. Try to paint those


surfaces that have already been exposed
to sunlight

Apply a coat of paint primer

Finish with two-coat


of top coats
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Bubbles resulting from localized


loss of adhesion and lifting of the
paint film from the underlying
surface
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Possible Causes:
•Applying oil-based or alkyd paint over a damp or wet surface
•Moisture seeping into the home through the exterior walls
•Exposure of the latex paint film to high humidity or moisture
shortly after paint has dried, especially if there was
inadequate surface.

Solution:
•If blisters do not go all the way down to the substrate: Remove
blisters by scraping & sanding, and repaint with a quality
acrylic latex interior paint.
•If blisters go down to the substrate: Remove the source of
moisture, if possible.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Undesirable sticking together of two


painted surfaces when pressed
together (e.g., a door sticking to the
jamb)
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Possible Causes:
•Not allowing sufficient dry time for the coating before closing
doors or windows.
•Use of low quality semi-gloss or gloss paints.

Solution:
•Use top quality semi-gloss or gloss acrylic latex paint. Acrylic
latex paints generally have better early block resistance
than vinyl latex paints, or alkyd or oil-based paints
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Increase in gloss or sheen of paint


film when subjected to rubbing,
scrubbing or having an object brush
up against it.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Possible Causes:
•Use of flat paint in highly trafficked areas, where a higher
sheen level would be desired.
•Frequent washing and spot cleaning.
•Objects (furniture, for example) rubbing against the walls.

Solution:
•Paint heavy wear areas that require regular cleaning (e.g.,
doors, window sills and trim) with a top quality latex paint
•In high traffic areas, choose a semi-gloss or gloss rather than
a flat sheen level
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

The splitting of a dry paint film


through at least one coat as a result
of aging, which ultimately will lead to
complete failure of the paint. In its
early stages, the problem appears
as hairline cracks; in its later stages,
flaking occurs.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Possible Causes:
•Use of a lower quality paint that has inadequate adhesion and
flexibility.
•Over-thinning or overspreading the paint.
•Inadequate surface preparation, or applying the paint to bare
wood without first applying a primer.

Solution:
•Remove loose and flaking paint with a scraper or wire brush,
sanding the surface and feathering the edges.
•Prime bare wood areas before repainting.
•Use of a top quality primer and top coat should prevent a
recurrence of the problem.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Formation of bubbles (foaming) and


resulting small, round concave
depressions (cratering) when
bubbles break in a paint film, during
paint application and drying.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):
Possible Causes:
•Shaking a partially filled can of paint.
•Use of low quality paint or very old latex paint.
•Applying (especially rolling) paint too rapidly.
•Excessive rolling or brushing of the paint.
•Applying a gloss or semi-gloss paint over a porous surface.

Solution:
•Use high quality paints which will allow good flow and
appearance
•Avoid excessive rolling or brushing of the paint or using paint
that is more than a year old.
•Apply an appropriate sealer or primer before using such paint
over a porous surface.
•Problem areas should be sanded before repainting.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Lapping: Appearance of a denser


color or increased gloss where wet
and dry layers overlap during paint
application.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):
Possible Causes:
•Failure to maintain a "wet edge" when painting.
•Use of a low solids "economy" paint.

Solution:
•Maintain a wet edge when painting by applying paint toward
the unpainted area and then back into the just-painted
surface. This technique will produce a smooth, uniform
appearance. It is also wise to work in manageable-size areas;
plan for interruptions at a natural break, such as a window,
door or corner. Using a top quality acrylic latex paint makes it
easier to avoid lapping problems because high solids
(pigments and binder) content makes lapped areas less
noticeable. Alkyd paints generally have superior wet edge
properties.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Mildew: Black, grey or brown spots


or areas on the surface of paint or
caulk.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):
Possible Causes:
•Forms most often on areas that tend to be damp, or receive
little or no direct sunlight (bathrooms, kitchens, laundry rooms)
•Use of an alkyd or oil-based paint, or lower quality latex paint.
•Failure to prime wood surface before applying the paint.
•Painting over a substrate/coating on which mildew has not
been removed.
Solution:
•Test for mildew by applying a few drops of household bleach
to the area: if it is bleached away, the discolorant is probably
mildew. Remove all mildew from the surface by scrubbing with
a diluted household bleach solution (one part bleach, three
parts water) Rinse thoroughly. Use a top quality latex paint, and
clean when necessary with bleach/detergent solution. Consider
installing an exhaust fan in high moisture areas.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Mud Cracking: Deep, irregular


crack resembling dried mud in dry
paint film.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Possible Causes:
•Paint is applied too thickly, usually over a porous surface.
•Paint is allowed to build up in corners upon application.

Solution:
•Remove coating by scraping and sanding. Prime and repaint,
using a top quality latex paint. Mud-cracked areas can also be
repaired by sanding the surface smooth before repainting with
a top quality latex paint. Quality paints have a higher solids
content, which reduces the tendency to mud crack. They also
have a very good application and hiding properties, which
minimize the tendency to apply to thick a coat of paint.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Sagging: Downward "drooping"


movement of the paint film
immediately after application,
resulting in a uneven coating.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):
Possible Causes:
•Application of a heavy coat of paint.
•Application in excessively humid and/or cool conditions.
•Airless spraying with the gun too close to the substrate being
painted.

Solution:
•If paint is still wet, immediately brush out or re-roll to redistribute
the excess evenly. If the paint has dried, sand and reapply a
new coat of top quality paint. Correct any unfavorable
conditions: Do not thin the paint; avoid cool or humid conditions;
sand glossy surfaces. Paint should be applied at its
recommended spread rate are better than one heavy coat,
which can also lead to sagging. Consider removing doors to
paint them supported horizontally.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Surfactant Leaching:
Concentration of water-soluble
ingredients on the surface of a
latex paint, typically on a ceiling
surface in rooms that have high
humidity (e.g., shower, bathroom,
kitchen); may be evident as tan or
brown spots or areas, and can
sometimes be glossy, soapy or
sticky.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Possible Causes:
•All latex paint formulas will exhibit this tendency to some
extent if applied in areas that become humid (bathrooms, for
example), especially in ceiling areas.

Solution:
•Wash the affected area with soap and water, and rinse.
Problem may occur once or twice again before leachable
material is completely removed. When paint is applied in a
bathroom, it is helpful to have it dry thoroughly before using the
shower. Remove all staining before repainting.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Wrinkling: A rough, crinkled


paint surface, which occurs when
uncured paint forms a "skin.”
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):
Possible Causes:
•Paint applied too thickly (more likely when using alkyd or oil-
based paints).
•Painting during extremely hot weather or cool damp weather,
which causes the paint film to dry faster on top than on the
bottom.
•Exposure of uncured paint to high humidity levels.
•Applying top coat of paint to insufficiently cured primer.
•Painting over contaminated surface (e.g., dirt or wax)

Solution:
•Scrape or sand substrate to remove wrinkled coating. If using
a primer, allow it to dry completely before applying top coat.
Repaint, (avoiding temperature/humidity extremes), applying
an even coat of top quality interior paint.
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Poor Print Resistance:


Tendency of paint film to take on
the imprint of an object that is
placed on it (e.g., a shelf, table,
window sill or countertop with
books, dishes and other objects
of them).
PAINT DEFECTS (Interior):

Possible Causes:
•Use of low quality semi-gloss or gloss paint.
•Putting a painted surface back into use before paint has fully
dried.

Solution:
•Use top quality acrylic semi-gloss or gloss latex paint. Low
quality latex semi-gloss and gloss paints can have poor print
resistance, especially in warm damp conditions. Acrylic latex
paints generally have better print resistance than vinyl latex
paints. Fully cured alkyd paints also have excellent print
resistance. Make sure the recommended "cure" time is allowed
for the paint before it is put into service. Cool or humid
conditions require more curing time.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Alligatoring: Patterned cracking


in the surface of the paint film
resembling the regular scales of
an alligator.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):
Possible Causes:
•Application of an extremely hard, rigid coating, like an alkyd
enamel, over a more flexible coating, like a latex primer.
•Application of a top coat before the undercoat is dry.
•Natural aging of oil-based paints as temperatures
fluctuate. The constant expansion and contraction results in a
loss of paint film elasticity.

Solution:
•Old paint should be completely removed by scraping and
sanding the surface; a heat gun can be used to speed work on
large surfaces, but take care to avoid igniting paint/substrate.
The surface should be primed with a high quality latex or oil-
based primer, then painted w/ a top quality exterior latex paint.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Chalking: Formation of fine


powder on the surface of the
paint film during weathering,
which can cause color
fading. Although some degree of
chalking is a normal, desirable
way for a paint film to wear,
excessive film erosion can result
in heavy chalking.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):
Possible Causes:
•Use of a low-grade, highly pigmented paint.
•Use of an interior paint for an outdoor application.

Solution:
•First remove as much of the chalk residue as possible, using a
stiff bristle brush (or wire brush on masonry) and then rinse
thoroughly with a garden hose; or use power washing
equipment. Check for any remaining chalk by running a hand
over the surface after it dries. If noticeable chalk is still present,
apply a quality oil-based or acrylic latex primer (or comparable
sealer for masonry), then repaint with a quality exterior coating;
if little or no chalk remains and the old paint is sound, no
priming is necessary.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Dirt Pickup: Accumulation of dirt,


dust particles and/or other debris
on the paint film; may resemble
mildew.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):
Possible Causes:
•Use of low quality paint, esp. lower grades of satin/semi-gloss
•Soil splashing onto siding.
•Air pollution, car exhaust and flying dust collecting on house
body and horizontal trim.

Solution:
•Wash off all surface dirt before priming and painting. If unsure
whether the problem is dirt/mildew, conduct a simple spot test.
Clean off dirt with a scrub brush and detergent solution, followed
by a thorough rinsing with a garden hose. While dirt pickup can't
be eliminated entirely, top quality exterior latex paints typically
offer superior dirt pickup resistance & washability. Also, higher
gloss paints are more resistant to dirt pickup than flat paints,
which are more porous and can more easily entrap dirt.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Efflorescence/Mottling: Crusty,
white salt deposits, leached from
mortar or masonry as water passes
through it.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):
Possible Causes:
•Failure to adequately prepare surface by removing all previous
efflorescence.
•Excess moisture escaping through the exterior masonry walls
from the inside.

Solution:
•Eliminate the source of excessive moisture by repairing the roof,
cleaning out gutters & downspouts, & sealing any cracks in the
masonry. If moist air is originating inside the building, consider
installing vents/exhaust fans, esp in kitchen, bathroom & laundry
areas. Remove the efflorescence & all loose material w/ a wire
brush; then thoroughly rinse the surface. Apply a quality water-
based or solvent-based masonry sealer and allow it to dry
completely; then apply a coat of top quality exterior paint or
elastomeric wall covering.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Frosting: A white, salt-like


substance on the paint
surface. Frosting can occur on any
paint color, but it is less noticeable
on white paint or light tints. On
masonry, it can be mistakes for
efflorescence
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):
Possible Causes:
•Forms mostly in protected areas (such as under eaves and on
open porch ceilings) that do not receive the cleansing action of
rain, dew and other moisture.
•Use of dark-colored paints
•Application of a dark-colored paint over a paint or primer
containing calcium carbonate extender.

Solution:
•Frosting can be a stubborn problem & cannot be washed off
readily. The condition can recur even as a bleed-through when a
new top coat is applied. In extreme cases, it can interfere with
adhesion. The best remedy is removing frosting by wirebrushing
masonry/sanding wood surfaces; rinse, then apply a alkyd-
based primer before adding a coat of high quality exterior paint
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Paint Incompatibility: Loss of


adhesion where many old coats of
alkyd or oil-based paint received a
latex top coat.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Possible Causes:
•Use of water-based latex paint over more than three or four
coats of old alkyd or oil-based paint may cause the old paint to
"lift off" the substrate.

Solution:
•Repaint using another coat of alkyd or oil-based paint. Or
completely remove the existing paint and prepare the surface-
cleaning, sanding and spot-priming where necessary- before
repainting with a top latex exterior paint.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Peeling: Loss of paint due to


poor adhesion. Where there is a
primer and top coat, or multiple
coats of paint, peeling may
involve some or all coats.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):
Possible Causes:
•Seepage of moisture through uncaulked joints, worn caulk or
leaks in roof or walls.
•Excess moisture escaping through the exterior walls (more
likely if paint is oil-based).
•Inadequate surface preparation.
•Use of lower quality paint.
•Applying an oil-based paint over a wet surface.
•Earlier blistering of paint.
Solution:
•Try to identify and eliminate cause of moisture. Prepare
surface by removing all loose paint with scraper or wire brush,
sand rough surfaces, prime bare wood. Repaint with a top
quality acrylic latex exterior paint for best adhesion and water
resistance.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Poor Alkali Resistance: Color loss


and overall determination of paint
film on fresh masonry.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):
Possible Causes:
•Oil-based paint or vinyl acrylic latex paint was applied to new
masonry that has not cured for a full year. Fresh masonry is
likely to contain lime, which is very alkaline. Until the lime has a
chance to react with carbon dioxide from the air, the alkalinity of
the masonry remains so high that it can attack the integrity of
all paint film.

Solution:
•Allow masonry surfaces to cure for at least 30 days, and
ideally for a full year, before painting. If this is not possible, the
painter should apply a quality, alkali-resistant sealer or latex
primer, followed by a top quality 100 percent acrylic latex
exterior paint. The acrylic binder in these paints resists alkali
attack.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Poor Galvanized Metal


Adhesion: Paint that has lost its
adhesion to a galvanized metal
substrate.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Possible Causes:
•Improper surface preparation, such as inadequate rust
removal.
•Failure to apply a primer before application of an oil-based or
vinyl latex paint.
•Failure to sand baked-on enamel finishes or glossy surfaces
before painting.

Solution:
•Any rust on the metal should be removed with a wire brush;
then an acrylic latex corrosion-resistant primer should be
applied before applying an oil-based or vinyl latex top coat.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Poor Gloss Retention:


Deterioration of the paint film,
resulting in excessive or rapid loss
of luster of the top coat.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):
Possible Causes:
•Use of an interior paint outdoors.
•Use of a lower quality paint.
•Use of a gloss alkyd/oil-based paint in areas of direct sunlight.

Solution:
•Direct sunshine can degrade the binder and pigment of a paint,
causing it to chalk and lose its gloss. While all types of paint will
lose some degree of luster over time, lower quality paints will
generally lose gloss much earlier that better grades. The binder
in top quality acrylic latex paint is especially resistant to UV
radiation, while oil & alkyd binders actually absorb the radiation,
causing the binders to break down. Surface preparation for a
coating showing poor gloss retention should be similar to that
used in chalking surfaces.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Vinyl Siding Warp: Warping or


buckling of vinyl siding panels that
have been repainted.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Possible Causes:
•Most likely cause is that vinyl siding was painted with a darker
color paint than the original color. Dark paint tends to absorb the
heat of the sun, transferring it to the substrate

Solution:
•Paint vinyl siding in a shade no darker than the original. Whites,
off whites, pastels and other very light colors are good choices.
Top quality acrylic latex paint is the best type of paint to use on
vinyl siding, because the superior flexibility of the paint film
enables it to withstand the stress of expansion and contraction
cycles caused by outdoor temperature changes.
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):

Wrinkling: A rough, crinkled paint


surface occurring when paint forms
a "skin.”
PAINT DEFECTS (Exterior):
Possible Causes:
•Paint applied too thickly (more likely when using alkyd or oil-
based paints)
•Painting a hot surface or in very hot weather.
•Exposure of uncured paint to rain, dew, fog/high humidity levels
•Applying top coat of paint to insufficiently cured previous coat.
•Painting over contaminated surface (e.g., dirt or wax)

Solution:
•Scrape or sand substrate to remove wrinkled coating. Repaint,
applying an even coat of top quality exterior paint. Make sure the
first coat or primer is dry before applying the top coat. Apply
paints at the manufacturer's recommended spread rate. When
painting during extremely hot, cool/damp weather, allow extra
time for the paint to dry completely.