Anda di halaman 1dari 16

Chem. Tech.

IV: Fluid Flow (CET400S): Part 7

(Welty et al., Chapter 8)

In this part, shell balances are done on a differential basis. Up to this point,
fluid flow problems have been based on a macroscopic control volume.

The balances are based on the assumptions that fully developed, laminar flow
exists at steady state and that entrance effects. are negligible. Fully developed
flow implies that the velocity profile does not vary along the axis when a balance
is done on a circular pipe. Consider the following sketch. The fluid is flowing through
a circular pipe.

1
Shear Stress
• Tensor quantity
– Magnitude
– Direction
– Orientation with respect to a plane
• 𝜏𝑥𝑦
• 𝜏 is the magnitude of the shear stress.
• y is the direction of action of shear stress.
• x the plane of action of the shear stress is
normal to the x-axis. 2
Shear Stress
• Sign of shear stress
– positive when the normal vector to the surface
on which the shear stress acts has the same
sign as the shear stress.

3
A cylindrical control volume of fluid having an inside radius r, thickness r
and length x is considered.
Newton’s second law is applied to this shell and the appropriate force and momentum
terms are evaluated for the x-direction.

At steady state: F x  
CS
 v x ( v, n ) dA 7.1

 Fx )  P( 2 r r ) x
 P( 2 r r ) | x  x   r x ( 2  r x ) rr
  r x ( 2 r x )

v x  ( v.n ) dA   v x 2  r r v x  x  x
  v x 2  r r v x  x
0
Cs
The above equation is equal to 0 because when the flow is fully developed, all terms
are independent of x.
 Fx  0 , thus

 P(2 r r ) xx
 P ( 2  r r ) x
  rx ( 2  r x ) r  r
  rx (2 r x ) r
0

7.2
4
Equation 7.2 is divided by 2  , x and r , thus

 r( P x  x
P x
)

  r rx  r  r

 r r x  r
 0
x r
Let
x and r approach zero , then
dP d
r  (r  r x )  0 7.3
d x dr

dP ΔP
 constant 
dx L

 r dr   d(r
dP
Thus:  rx ) 0
dx
r2
Integrate the above equation  (dP / dx )  r  rx  C1
2
dP r C1
r x  
dx 2 r 5
C1 can be determined by using the boundary conditions, at r = 0 ( at the centre of the
pipe), C1 must be = 0 otherwise   infinity
rx
dP / dx r
Thus:  r x  7.4
2

Equation 7.4 is a straight line relationship with

 rx  0 at r  0 and a maximum at r  R
Substitute the equation of a newtonian fluid in equation 7.4.
d v x dP / dx  r
  integrate this equation
dr 2

dP / dx  r 2
vx   C2
4
Boundary conditions : v x  0 at r  R
 dP / dx  R 2
C2 
4 6
 dP / dx  R 2   r 2 
vx  1     7.5
4   R  
Equation 7.5 indicates a parabolic velocity profile with a maximum value at the
centre of the pipe, r = 0.

 dP / dx R 2
v x , max  7.6
4
By replacing 7.6 in 7.5 it is found that:
  r 2 
v x  v x , max 1     7.7
  R  

R
  r 2 

A

 A v avg   v x dA   ( 2 rdr ) v max
0
1    
  R  

7
 R2 R2 
2 v max   
r2 r4 
R  2 4  v
1  
v avg  2 v max   2   max
7.8
A  2 R  0 R2 2

 (dP / dx) R 2
v avg  7.9
8

dP 8  v avg 32  v avg
   7.10
dx R2 D2

The left hand side of 7.10 can be integrated between P = P1 and P = P2 with
x from 0 to L. The left hand side thus becomes: ( P1 – 2 )/ L

The next example shows a shell balance for a newtonian fluid flowing down an
inclined flat surface. Refer to the sketch on the following slide.

8
Newton’s second law is again applied on a fluid element. Fully developed flow under
steady state conditions is again considered. The width of the element in the z – direc-
tion is 1.
The volume of the element is thus: x. y.1

9
 Fx  0  P y x`
 Py x  x
  yx x y  y
  yx x y
  gx y sin 

The pressure terms in the above equation cancel because of the free liquid surface.
This equation thus becomes:
 yx x y  y
  yx x y
  g sin   0

x.y.1
   g sin   0
Divide this equation by:
Thus: yx y  y
  yx y
Let y approach zero , then
y
d
dy
 
 yx   g sin   0 7.11

Integration yields:  yx    g y sin   C1

Boundary conditions:  yx  0 at y  L

10
C1   g L sin 
 y
  yx   g L sin  1   7.12
 L
But: dv x
 yx  subsitute in the above equation and integrate
dy

Thus:  g L sin    y 2  
vx  y     C2
 
  2 L  
Boundary conditions : v x  0 at y  0 Thus C 2  0

 g L2 sin   y  y   1  
2
Thus:
vx        7.13
  L  L   2  

11
The velocity variation is again parabolic with the maximum at the free surface.

 g L2 sin 
v max  7.14
2

Problem 7.1
Derive an equation for the average velocity of a newtonian fluid flowing down an
inclined plane.

Problem 7.2
Derive an equation for vmax of a newtonian fluid flowing down a vertical plane due to
gravity.

Problem 7.3 ( no. 8.2 – Welty)

A 32-km- long pipeline delivers petroleum at a rate of 800 m3 /day. The resulting
pressure drop is 3,45 x 106 Pa. If a parallel line of the same size is laid along the last
18 km of the line, what will the new capacity be of this network? Flow is laminar in
both cases and the pressure drop remains 3,45 x 106 Pa.

12
Problem 7.4 ( no. 8.11 – Welty)
A common type of viscometer for fluids consists of a relatively large reservoir with
a slender outlet tube as shown in the sketch below. The rate of outflow is determined
by timing the fall in in the surface level. If oil of constant density flows out of the
viscometer at a rate of 0,273 cm3 /s , what is the kinematic viscosity of the oil? The
tube diameter is 0,18 cm.

13
Problem 7.5 ( no. 8.3 – Welty)
Derive the expression for the velocity distribution and for the pressure drop for a
newtonian fluid in laminar flow in the annular space between two horizontal,
concentric pipes. Apply the momentum theorem to an annular fluid shell of
thickness r
Show that the analysis of such a control volume leads to:
d
r   r P 
dr  L 

The desired expressions may then be obtained by the substitution of Newton’s

Viscosity law and two integrations.

Problem 7.6 ( no.8.6 – Welty)

A 0,635 – cm hydraulic line suddenly ruptures 8 m from a reservoir with a gauge
pressure of 207 kPa. Compare the laminar and inviscid flow rates from the
ruptured line. Fluid density and viscosity are 850 kg / m3 and 0,0008 Pas.

14

Problem 7.1 -  g L2 sin ```

v avg 
3
 g L2
Problem 7.2 v max 
2

Problem 7.3
New flow rate = 0,0129 m3 /s
Problem 7.4
Kinematic viscosity = 0,0000106 m2 /s

15
Problem 7.5

 
 r 2
 r 2 
1 dP  2 r
vx  r  r12  2 1 ln 
4  dx  r1 r1 
 ln 
 r 2 

Problem 7.6
Q = 7 x 10- 4 m3 /s

16