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 1st Day-29-05-2018 (F/N)

 Registration and Inauguration


 Feed Water and Steam Generation
 Feed Water Chemical control and sampling Points

NPTI/BTF 1
05-12-2017 (F/N)
- Registration and Inauguration
- Layout of boiler Tubes
- Feed Water and Steam Circulation
- Basic feed water chemical control
and Sampling points.

NPTI/BTF 2
A general view of the Coal fired Boiler and associated
accessories
NPTI/BTF 3
The next slide shows location
of different components and
assemblies inside the furnace /
Boiler.

NPTI/BTF 4
NPTI/BTF 5
H.
R.
M.S C.R.H H

BOILER TUBES LAY


OUT AND FLOW OF FROM F.R.S
FEED WATER AND BOTTOM RNG HDR 1ST PASS W.W
1ST PASS W.W O/L HDRS ROOF I/L HEADER
STEAM 2ND PASS UPPER C-HDR 2nd PASS LOWER C-HDR
LTSH I/L HEADER LTSH O/L HEADER
D.P.I/L HEADER D.P.O/L HEADER
S.H. HEADER R.H.HEADER
2ND PASS ROOF O/L HDR(REAR ECONOMISER
NPTI/BTF 6
BOTTOM RNG HDR 1ST PASS W.W

1ST PASS W.W O/L HDRS ROOF I/L HEADER

2ND PASS UPPER C-HDR 2nd PASS LOWER C-HDRS


LTSH I/L HEADER LTSH O/L HEADER
D.P.I/L HEADER D.P.O/L HEADER
S.H. HEADER R.H.HEADER
2ND PASS ROOF
O/L HDR(REAR ECONOMISER

NPTI/BTF 7
Rankine cycle

NPTI/BTF 8
NPTI/BTF 9
NPTI/BTF 10
Boiler Construction

NPTI/BTF 11
A QUICK RECAP OF YOUR OLD MEMORIES:
 The boiler used in a TPS for generation of steam is
constructed by four walls called water walls. These walls
are made up of long tube assemblies through which
boiler feed water flows and get converted to steam by
nucleate boiling and having a CR of nearly 6-8. The
pulverised fuel is injected into the furnace by coal
nozzles, where it burns like a gas and ball of fire is
created having a temp. of nearly 14000C.
 The flue gas so formed pass through the two passes of
Boiler
 First Pass or Front pass
 Second Pass or Rear Pass
 210 MW boilers have Natural circulation
 500 MW boilers have forced circulation
NPTI/BTF 12
Nucleate and Film Boiling

NPTI/BTF 13
Sub-Critical/Critical and Supercritical Boiler

 ACCORDING TO THE STEAM PRESSURE:

A boiler can said to be Sub Critical Boiler if steam


working pressure ranges between 130 kg/cm2 to
180kg/cm2

Critical pressure boiler if steam working pressure is


little over - 221.2 kg/cm2

Super critical boiler or once through boiler if steam


working pressure is 240 kg/cm2 and above.

NPTI/BTF 14
 BOILER CONSTRUCTION:
Main parts of the boiler used in thermal power plant
1) Boiler Drum
2) Down comers
3) Water Walls or Riser Tube
4) Superheater
4a) Primary Superheater
4b) Platen Superheater
4c) Final Superheater
5) Reheater
6) Economizer
7) Burners
8) Windbox
9 Soot Blowers
The flue gas formed by combustion in the furnace pass
through two passes 1st pass or front pass and 2nd pass or
rear pass. NPTI/BTF
15
 BOILER CAN BE DIVIDED IN TO TWO PASS:
 FIRST PASS AND SECOND PASS
 FIRST PASS CONSIST OF:
• Furnace Water Walls.
• Divisional Superheater pendent assemblies
• Final Superheater pendent assemblies
• Reheater front pendent assemblies (CRH)
• Reheater rear pendent assemblies (HRH)
• Rear Arch Panel
• Water Wall screen tubes

NPTI/BTF 16
 SECOND PASS OF THE FURNACE CONSIST OF:
 Steam Cooled walls
 Economiser lower Bank coils
 Economiser middle bank coils
 Economiser upper bank coils
 LTSH lower bank coils
 LTSH upper bank coils
 Economizer hanger tubes
After second pass flue gases pass through air pre-
heater where it gives heat to primary and Secondary
air then pass through ESP before being blown out by
ID Fans.

NPTI/BTF 17
Boiler Drum:
1) Drum is a pressure Vessel
2) It is made of special (Boiler Grade) carbon steel
plate
Material SA – 299 Grade A1 or SA – 515 Grade 70
Plate thickness having 132mm
3) The function of the boiler drum is to separate
water and steam from the mixture generated in
the water walls.
4) It also provides a water storage for preventing the
starvation of the water wall tubes.

NPTI/BTF 18
Boiler Drum Parts :-
1. Turbo separator
2. Screen dryer
3. Feed pipe
4. Baffle Plate
5. Drum level gauge (lower)
6. Riser tube
(Water walls Tubes
i.e 6 x 23 rows on drum)
7. Chemical dosing pipe
8. Man hole & man hole cover
9. Safety Valve
10. Sampling line
11. Vents
NPTI/BTF 19
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF 210 MW BOILER
DRUM
LENGTH = 15700MM
WEIGHT = 123 TONNES
INTERNAL DIANETER = 1676MM
OUTSIDE DIAMETER = 1942 MM
THICKNESS OF METAL = 132MM
MATERIAL CARBON STEEL = SA 515 GR 70 OR SA 299
GR A1
PRESSURE IN DRUM = 149.7 KG/CM2 (LMW UNITS)
= 168 KG/CM2 (KWU UNITS)
TOTAL NO OF TURBO SEPARATORS IN EACH ROW =
50
TOTAL NO OF RISER TUBES CONNECTION TO DRUM
= 6X23.
NPTI/BTF 20
 BOILER DRUM IS LOCATED AT 53 MTR FROM
GROUD LEVEL.
 THE MAIN SUPPORTING STRUCTURE OF A
BOILER CONSIST Of 18 MAIN COLUMN & 12
AUXILIARY COLUMN.

NPTI/BTF 21
A LONGITUDINAL CROSS SECTION OF THE
BOILER DRUM
NPTI/BTF 22
A TRANSVERSE CROSS SECTION OF THE BOILER
DRUM
NPTI/BTF 23
 DOWNCOMERS
 THERE ARE 6 TO 8 DOWN COMERS FROM DRUM AND
ARE JOINED TO THE BOTTOM RING HEADER TO
PROVIDE UNIFORM WATER FLOW TO WATER WALLS. 2
DOWNCOMERS ARE JOINED TO THE PLATEN WATER
WALLS HEADER.
 PLATEN WATER WALLS ARE NOT PROVIDED TO EVERY
BOILER.
Left side of the furnace
Boiler Drum One Downcomer

Front Side of the Furnace Rear Side of the


Furnace

Two Downcomer Two Downcomers


One Downcomer
Right side of furnace
NPTI/BTF 24
1) TWO DOWN RCOMES – TO FRONT OF THE
BOTTOM RING HEADER
2) TWO DOWN COMERS - TO THE REAR SIDE
OF BOTTOM RING HEADER
3) ONE DOWN COMER – TO LEFT SIDE OF
THE BOTTOM RING HEADER
4) ONE DOWN COMER – TO RIGHT SIDE OF
THE BOTTOM RING HEADER
5) TWO DOWNCOMERS - TO WATER PLATEN
INLET HEADER

NPTI/BTF
25
PRIMARY SUPERHEATERS:
Primary superheater or Low Temp. Superheater (LTSH)
Steam from drum comes to LTSH, it has two stages
i) Upper Bank ii) Lower Bank
Each Bank has 134 assemblies
Material of the tubes are SA 209 T1, SA 210 Gr A, SA 213 T11
Size of the tubes is 44.5 dia x 4.5mm thick
Temperature withstanding range 4500C to 4800C

Platen Superheater: (Radiant Superheater)


Steam from LTSH comes to platen superheater
It is situated in furnace vertically above the fire ball. It has 39
assemblies having a pitch of 457mm
Material of the tubes are alloy steel SA 213 T11 and SA 213 T22
Size of the tubes are 51dia x 7.1mm thick & 51dia x 8.6mm thick

NPTI/BTF 26
FINAL SUPERHEATER:
It is situated vertically behind reheater having 119
assemblies at a pitch of 114mm
Size of the tubes 51dia x 7.6mm thick
Final superheater tubes are made of SA 213 T 22 alloy
steel
The material can withstand temperature upto 5800C

REHEATER
Reheater is located behind the platen superheater. It is in
two parts front and rear.
Front reheater has 59 assemblies at a pitch of 229mm
and rear Reheater has 89 assemblies at a pitch of 152mm.
Material of the tubes is SA 213 T 1 alloy steel
Tube size is 54dia x 3.6mm thick
Tube material can withstand temp. upto 5500C.
NPTI/BTF 27
NPTI/BTF 28
NPTI/BTF 29
Membrane type Water Walls
NPTI/BTF 30
A view of the water Walls and Platten Superheaters
NPTI/BTF 31
Economiser Coils
NPTI/BTF 32
ECONOMISER
 IT IS LOCATED BETWEEN LTSH and Air
Preheater in second pass of furnace.
 Feed water after HP heater enter the
economizer and from the outlet end it GOES
TO DRUM.
 Economizer is in two banks, lower banks &
upper bank
 It is arranged horizontally .
 It has 270 assemblies at a pitch of 102mm
 Size of tubes 44.5 mm dia x 4.5mm thick
 MATERIAL OF THE TUBE IS SA 210 GR A1
 Tube material can withstand temp upto 4500C

NPTI/BTF 33
210 MW Boiler
simplified flow
diagram
showing flue gas
temperatures
outside tubes in
different
portions of the
furnace.

NPTI/BTF 34
Please show video of Water and Steam
flow cycle of a Supercritical Unit

NPTI/BTF 35
Water chemistry, sampling
analysis and effects
including Boiler Tubes
cleaning

NPTI/BTF 36
Boiler feed water and steam Chemical qualities
Boiler Feed Water Quality
Drum operating 61 – 100 ksc Above 100 ksc
pressure treatment
Maximum total dissolved 100 50
solids (ppm)
Maximum specific 200 100
electrical conductivity at
250C (µs/cm)
Residual Phosphate 15-25 5-10 (Note)
PH at 250C 9.8 – 10.2 9.4 – 9.7 (Note)
Maximum Silica 0.02 ppm in the steam same
leaving the drum
Chlorides Not allowed

Note: PO4 and PH to be controlled in accordance with


congruent phosphate treatment to prevent the presence of free
caustic in boiler water.
NPTI/BTF 37
Boiler Water (Sample from C.B.D. Line)
S.No Parameter Limit Frequency Remarks
of Limit
1 PH at 250C 9.4-9.7 Once/shift
2 Specific 50 -do-
conductivity
at 250C in
(µs/cm)

3 Total 25 -do- Any mixture of Na3PO4 and


dissolved (as or sodium phosphate or
ppm) sodium hexa-meta phosphate
can be used. PH control by
congruent Tech.
4 Phosphate 2 to 5 -do-
(as ppm PO4)
5 Total B.D.L. -do-
Hardness (as
ppm CaCo3)
6 Free B.D.L. -do-
NPTI/BTF 38
hydroxide (as
7 Silica (ppm 0.3 Once/shift As per pressure
SiO2)
8 Chloride B.D.L. -do-
(ppm)
9 Sodium Corresponding
(ppm) to Na3Po4 etc.

NPTI/BTF 39
Recommended for water, steam and superheated steam
Steam Quality: for 210 MW unit

S.No Parameter Limit Frequency Remarks


of Test
1 PH at 250C i. 8.8 to 9.0 Once a shift i. If feed water heaters
ii. 9.o to 9.2 are of copper based
alloy
ii. If Heater are of steel
2 Specific conductivity at 0.3 Once/shift
250C in (µs/cm) after
passing through Cation
exchanger in H2 form
3 Total Hardness (ppm BDL -do- B.D.L. ( Below
as CaCo3) detectable limit)
4 Dissolved O2 (ppm) 0.007 Once/day If online instrument is
not available
once If online instrument is
available check the
instrument calibration
in mid week.
NPTI/BTF 40
S.No Parameter Limit Frequency Remarks
of Test
5 Residual Hydrazine 0.02 Once/shift
(ppm)
6 Silica (ppm) 0.02 max -do-

7 Chloride (ppm) B.D.L. -do-


8 Total iron (ppm) 0.01 Once /week
9 Oil (ppm) B.D.L. -do-
10 Copper (ppm) 0.005 -do-

NPTI/BTF 41
NPTI/BTF 42
 Chemical Aspects of Boiler Tube failures:
Chemical control of boiler feed water is very vital to
control boiler tubes failure. The main need is to protect
the boiler tube internal from corrosion which causes
ultimate failure. Several types of corrosion may occur
in boiler tubes. i.e
 Due to dissolved O2
 Stress corrosion
 Ductile corrosion
 Hydrogen embrittlement
 Caustic embrittlement

NPTI/BTF 43
 There are three zones, where feed water is
conditioned differently:
 Feed system
 Drum
 Steam and Condensate

By adding different chemicals into Boiler feed water


and steam Following parameters are mainly
controlled.
• PH
• Conductivity
• Hardness
• Silica
NPTI/BTF 44
Following table shows these parameter based on
Boiler pressure and temperature of steam cycle.
Particul Boiler pressure 60kg/cm2 and Boiler pressure from 60kg/cm2
ars under and above
PH Cond H Silica PH Cond H Silica
Make 6.8- 0.5 nil nil 6.8- 0.5 nil nil
up 7.2 7.2

Feed 8.8- Up to nil nil 8.9- Up to nil nil


9.0 4.0 9.0 2.5

Drum 9.5- Up to nil * 9.3- Up to nil *


9.9 100 9.5 2.5

NPTI/BTF 45
PH Con H Silic PH Cond H Silic
d. a a
Steam 8.8- 4p to nil 0.02 8.9- Up to nil 0.02
9.0 4.0 9.0 2.5

Conde 8.5- Up to nil nil 8.5- Up to nil nil


nsate 8.7 4.0 8.7 2.5

NPTI/BTF 46
PH is maintained by Chemical dosing at various places.
These chemicals dosing are of two types.
 Volatile
 Non-Volatile
S.No Type of Chemical Place of dosing Ultimate
dosing Dosed effect
1 Volatile Ammonia Feed System at To increase
Morpholine the suction of PH
Cyclohexyl feed Pump
amine
Hydrazine Feed System at To Scavenge
hydrate suction of feed O2 and
system and in To increase
condensers at the PH
suction of the
CEP
NPTI/BTF 47
S.N Type of Chemical Dosed Place Ultimate effect
o dosing of
dosing
1 Non- Tri-Sodium Drum To increase PH &
Volatile Phosphate maintain residual
phosphate
1.Sodium Hydroxide Drum To decrease
2. Sodium di- phosphate & to
hydrogen Phosphate maintain residual
3. Hexameta phosphate
Phosphate

NPTI/BTF 48
 Main Causes of Tube failure even after proper
Dosing:
 Improper Chemicals
 Excess or incorrect amount of Dosing
Chemical Possible Impurities Effect of Dosing
Ammonia Hardness, Silica  Very slow increase in PH
 Rapid increase in
conductivity
 Injection of silica in the
system
Phosphates Free sodium  Unstable PH Condition
(Sodium) hydroxide, chloride  Increase in conductivity
and other impurities  Foaming action in drum
 Free Sodium Hydroxide
in the steam
NPTI/BTF 49
 Effect of excess or incorrect Dosing
Chemical Normal Reaction Effect
Ammonia NH3+H2O = NH4OH  Very slow increase
CO2+H2O = H2CO3 in PH
H2CO3 + 2NH4OH =  Rapid increase in
(NH4)2CO3 + 2H20 conductivity
 Injection of silica in
the system
Hydrazine Free sodium hydroxide,  Unstable PH
chloride and other Condition
impurities  Increase in
N2H4+O2=N2+2H20 conductivity
2N2H4 = N2 +H2 + 2NH3  Foaming action in
2N2H4 + H20 = 2NH4OH drum
+N2  Free Sodium
Hydroxide in the
NPTI/BTF steam 50
Chemical Normal Reaction Effect
Phosphate Na3PO4 + H2O = NAOH + High PH &
(Sodium) NaH2PO4 Conductivity

 Excess Ammonia causes copper Corrosion in


presence of dissolved oxygen.
 Excess Hydrazine causes reduced dissolved
Oxygen Conc. 0.007ppm, Stress corrosion &
increase PH
 Excess Phosphate Causes: Caustic attack, Carry
over foaming

NPTI/BTF 51
CAUSTIC ATTACK (NaOH):
Although PH of the feed water and steam is kept high
(between 8.5 to 9.5) which is safe for most of the tubes, yet
excess of it may cause soap bubbles effect at particular
locations leading to carryover and or volatile caustic
carryover from drum and improper distribution of heat
flux at some point due to the same.
 The caustic attack is very deteriorating in comparison to
Ammonia.
 Ammonia may give rise to formation of nitric acid.
NH3 + 2O2 = HNO3 + H2O
Excess oxygen can be taken care of by hydrazine hydrate
where as excess sodium hydroxide may cause steam
blanketing, causing rupture due to poor heat transfer.

NPTI/BTF 52
CAUSTIC CORROSION IN BOILERS:

Concentration of caustic (NaOH) can occur as a result of steam


blanketing (which allow salts to concentrate on boiler metal
surface) or by localized boiling beneath porous deposits on tube
surface. Caustic corrosion occurs when caustic is concentrated
and dissolves the protective magnetite (Fe3O4) layer, causing a
loss of base metal and eventually failure.
The following conditions lead to this type of failures.
The metal must be stressed,
2. The boiler-water must contain caustic,
3. At least a trace of silica must be present in the boiler-water,
and
4. Some mechanisms, such as a slight leak, must be present to
allow the boiler water to concentrate on the stressed metal.

NPTI/BTF 53
WHAT IS STEAM BLANKETING:
Stem blanketing is a condition that occurs when a steam layer
forms between the boiler water and the tube wall. Under this
condition, insufficient water reaches the tube surface for
efficient heat transfer. The water that reaches the overheated
boiler wall is rapidly vaporized, leaving behind a concentrated
caustic solution, which is corrosive.
Boiler feed water and the condensate may be protected from
caustic attack through coordinated phosphate/pH control.
Phosphate buffers the boiler water, reducing the chance of large
pH changes due to the development of high caustic
concentrations. Excess caustic combines with disodium
phosphate and forms trisodium phosphate, by the following
reaction:
Na2HPO4 + NaOH = Na3PO4 + H2O
This results in the prevention of caustic buildup beneath
deposits or within a crevice where leakage is occurring.
NPTI/BTF 54
ACIDIC CORROSION IN BOILERS
Low make up feed water PH can cause serious acid
attack on metal surfaces during boiler operation.
Feed water can also become acidic due to
contamination of the condensate by ingress of
leaking CW water into it.
Acidic corrosion can also be caused by chemical
cleaning operations (overheating of the cleaning
solution, excessive exposure of metal to cleaning
agent, high cleaning agent concentration).
In the boiler and feed water system, acidic attack can
take the form of general thinning, or it can be
localized at areas of high stress.

NPTI/BTF 55
HYDROGEN DAMAGE IN BOILER TUBES:
Hydrogen damage in boiler tubes is caused by a corrosive
reaction between steam and steel shown below.
Fe +H2O = Fe3O4 +H2, C + 4H = CH4
The hydrogen that is released reacts with carbides to
decarburize the steel and forms methane gas at the grain
boundaries
This results weakness of the crustal structure at the grain
boundary and at some point of time the whole affected piece is
blown away.
The damage usually occurs in areas of high heat flux and flow
disturbance, particularly opposite to burners.
 Corrective Action:
 Control Boiler Chemistry
 Check corrosion products
 Chemical cleaning
 Replace affected tubes
NPTI/BTF 56
Pictures of the hydrogen Attack on Water Wall Portion of the boiler Tube

NPTI/BTF 57
Thank You for
your kind
Attention
NPTI/BTF 58
Boiler Cleaning Methods
& Techniques

NPTI/BTF 59
Cleaning built-up slag deposits from a fossil fuel boiler can increase efficiency
between 1 percent and 4 percent, helping maximize revenues for a utility.

NPTI/BTF 60
Acoustic cleaning:
One option for boiler cleaning is an acoustic cleaning system,
which can knock ash off boiler tubes without risking damage or
fatigue to the units. While this can be done by using acoustic
horns that can be retrofitted onto boilers, Advanced Acoustic
Technologies LLC uses a technique that is engineered specifically
for a plant.

The Wave Master Acoustic Cleaning systems provide continuous,


online, volume cleaning with soot blowers used in a remedial
role. The gadget uses acoustic modeling to determine the
natural frequency of the flue gas and decide the proper frequency
for the custom system as well as where it needs to be placed in the
boiler.

Acoustic cleaning works especially well on dry and dusty


deposits. The system works with areas where ash is below the
fusion point, suchNPTI/BTF
as horizontal tube banks in a utility boiler. The
61
WATER LANCES:
Another method for cleaning slag from a boiler is using high-
pressure water jets. It uses high-volume, specialized hydro
blasting equipment, with pumps that can send up to 5000 litre
per minute through the hoses. Specialist companies can supply
remote-controlled robotic cleaning systems and other
automated tools to clean boilers.

NPTI/BTF 62
Soot blowers:
Soot blowers use compressed air, steam or water to keep slag
buildup from occurring without the necessity of taking the plant
offline. Soot blowers have been in use for some time now, but,
like many other aspects of power plants, are becoming more
sophisticated as time goes on.
Intelligent soot blowing systems have several advantages over
traditional systems. The advanced technology can increase the
efficiency by 1 percent over basic systems. Intelligent soot
blowing systems also only clean when necessary, which avoids
boiler tube erosion.

NPTI/BTF 63
Basic systems are blind to what's going on inside the boiler.
"There may be areas in your boilers that are clean, but you're
running a soot blower because it's time in the sequence, so it's
blowing high pressure steam on a bare tube, which can lead to
erosion. In addition, you may have areas of your boiler that foul
much more quickly and because of the way the sequence is set
up, it may not be able to hit that area for several hours. In those
hours, that area could really foul up significantly and plug the
boiler and cause a clinker or severely restrict the heat transfer,
forcing them to have a shutdown."

NPTI/BTF 64
Explosives: It is by reference of a company or a
contractor by the name “Norm Harty”.
I am not sure it is practiced anywhere on Indian boiler
but technique can be explore if found practical.
Using explosives to clean slag from boilers isn't a new process,
but it's one still in use that many plant operators prefer.
The method was first used by Norm Harty of N.B. Harty General
Contractor Inc. Over the years, Harty said he and his staff have
built the procedure into a state-of-the art technique that can
quickly clean the slag from a boiler and have it back online.
To clean a boiler using explosives, Harty said his company will
use primer cord around tubes that are close to avoid damage. The
cord has connectors to delay the chargers, which he said is
important to avoid destroying the wall or insulation of the boiler.

NPTI/BTF 65
Harty said using explosives has several advantages,
including speed and convenience. "With dynamite,
you can put all of it in a pickup truck and clean any
boiler," he said.
Explosives also have an advantage in areas where
plants are concerned about water use, he added.
"Water is really scarce out west, and this is another
reason explosives are being used predominately in the
western plants," he said. "They can't afford to waste a
drop of water, and by using dynamite they're able to
save their water and clean their boiler at the same
time."

NPTI/BTF 66