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KULIAH 05

BIOREFINERY

Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ir. Misri Gozan, M.Tech


Mata Kuliah
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses

Program Studi Teknologi Bioproses | DTK FTUI


Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

“Kami bisa mengurangi global warming sekaligus


memberi energi dan produk baru bagi manusia”
Salam kompak dari Saccharomyces cereviseae, Chlorella vulgaris ,
Chlostridium beijerinkie, dan Spirulina platensis
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

“Dan hendaklah takut kepada Allah orang-orang yang


seandainya meninggalkan dibelakang mereka generasi
yang lemah, yang mereka khawatir terhadap
(kesejahteraan) mereka. Oleh sebab itu hendaklah
mereka bertakwa kepada Allah dan hendaklah mereka
mengucapkan perkataan yang benar.“

QS 4:9
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Konsep Biorefinery (Kilang Hayati)

 Salah satu industri pengolahan yang sedang


berkembang saat ini adalah BIOREFINERY

“Pengolahan menyeluruh dan mempertimbangkan kesatuan


fasilitas , yang merupakan peralihan dari platform minyak
mentah fosil kepada platform biomassa untuk menghasilkan
energi dan produk-produk kimia”

 Indonesia berada dalam fasa pertumbuhan ekonomi yang


tinggi serta memiliki bahan baku yang melimpah.
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Produk Domestik Bruto Indonesia dalam Trilyun


Rupiah dan persentase. [Sumber: BPS, 2013]

Lapangan Usaha 2008 2010 2012


1. Pertanian, Peternakan, Kehutanan
&Perikanan 716,7 14.5% 985,5 15.3% 1,190,4 14.4%
2. Pertambangan dan Penggalian 541,3 10.9% 719,7 11.2% 970,6 11.8%
Manfaatkan hasilnya:
Biorefinery 3. Industri Pengolahan 1,376,4 27.8% 1,599,1 24.8% 1,972,8 23.9%
A. Industri migas 237,8 4.8% 214,4 3.3% 254,4 3.1%
B. Industri bukan migas 1,138,7 23.0% 1,384,6 21.5% 1,718,4 20.9%
Penurunan
4. Listrik, Gas dan Air bersih 40,9 0.8% 49,2 0.8% 65,1 0.8%
5. Konstruksi 419,7 8.5% 660,9 10.3% 860,9 10.4%
6. Perdagangan, Hotel & Restoran 691,5 14.0% 882,5 13.7% 1,145,6 13.9%
7. Pengangkutan dan Komunikasi 312,2 6.3% 423,2 6.6% 549,1 6.7%
8. Keuangan, R.E&Jasa Perusahaan 368,1 7.4% 466,6 7.2% 598,5 7.3%
9. Jasa - Jasa 481,8 9.7% 660,4 10.2% 888,7 10.8%
PDB 4,948,7 6,446,9 8,241,9
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Kilang Hayati (Biorefinery)

“Kilang hayati merupakan konsep menyeluruh untuk


mengubah dan mengekstrak umpan biomassa menjadi
spektrum produk yang bernilai”
[Kamm, dkk 2006]

 Biomassa merupakan material yang berasal dari tanaman,


tumbuhan, ataupun limbah pertanian yang dapat digunakan
untuk sumber bahan bakar atau energi. (The American Heritage, 2009)

 Indonesia sebagai negara agraris dengan keanekaragaman


hayati terbesar di dunia tentu memiliki biomassa yang sangat
berlimpah.
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Kondisi Biomassa Indonesia

Perkembangan Produksi Kelapa Sawit Indonesia Jumlah produksi Kelapa Sawit Indonesia
Tahun 1995-2010 (Sumber: BPS, 2013) [Sumber: USDA, 2013]

Negara Produksi [Juta Ton]

Indonesia 28,00

Malaysia 19,00

Thailand 1,45

Nigeria 0,90

Colombia 0,85

A B
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Kondisi Biomassa Indonesia (Cont’d)

Rasio Limbah/Produk dan koefisien konversi energi Biomasa [Sumber:Biomass Handbook, 2008]

Sumber Rasio Koefisien Konversi Perkiraan Limbah

Biomasa Limbah/Produk Energi [Juta T]

[T/T] [GJ/T]

Padi 1,40 16,3 120-180

Singkong 0,28 6,0 6,7

Tebu 0,28 17,3 0,8

Tanaman Kayu 1,17 16,0 32,8

• Salah satu upaya mengatasi limbah adalah dengan mengubahnya


menjadi energi.
• Misal: Jika kita mampu mengelola 20% (5,6 juta ton) limbah sawit
Indonesia, energi yang dapat diperoleh sekitar 104 juta Gigajoule.
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Arah Kebijakan Energi Indonesia

Saat ini pemerintah sudah mencanangkan bahwa negara kita akan menyandarkan
konsumsi energi tidak hanya pada bahan bakar fosil namun sudah bergerak pada
energi baru terbarukan (EBT) dengan 25% kontribusi. Angka ini sudah jauh
melebihi Perpress 5/2006 yang menargetkan hanya 17% kontribusi EBT
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Contoh: Biorefinery Berbasis Sawit

Biorefinery  Menghasilkan berbagai produk (tidak hanya satu)


secara terintegrasi dalam suatu kilang hayati.

Basis Kilang Hayati berbahan Minyak Sawit Mentah [Kemenprind, 2012]


Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Contoh: Biorefinery Berbasis Sawit (Cont’d)


Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

SUSTAINABILITY
"Sustainable development is development that meets
the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own
needs".
 It contains two key concepts: the concept of
'needs', in particular the essential needs of the
world's poor, to which overriding priority should be
given; and
 the idea of limitations imposed by the state of
technology and social organization on the
environment's ability to meet present and future
needs."

Brundtland Commission report on SD (World Commission on


Environment and Development (WCED), October 1987
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Tiga Pilar Ekonomi Berbasis Hayati Masa Depan


Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Defenition
 Biorefining is the transfer of the efficiency and logic of fossil-
based chemistry and substantial converting industry as well as
the production of energy onto the biomass industry.
 Biorefinery is the sustainable processing of biomass into
spectrum of marketable products and energy (Kamm)
 Biorefinery is an overall concept of processing plant where
biomass feedstock s are conveted and extracted into a spectrum
of valuable products (US DOE)
 A facility that integrates biomass conversion process and
equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass
(American National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Perubahan!
 Alternatif
– Energi: angin, surya, air, biomasa, nuklir (fisi dan fusi), dll.
– Bahan mentah: Biomasa
 Perubahan besar pada R&D dan Proses produksi
– Sinergi keilmuan
– Kombinasi teknologi, ekonomi dan ilmu sosial
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Beberapa Produk Biomassa dalam Sejarah

 Produksi Gula
– Tebu, Asia 6000 SM
– Import gula, abad 15
– Isolasi kristal gula (akar & umbi), Jerman 1784
 Hydrolysis Amilum
– Jerman 1811, kentang & asam  d-glucose
 Sakarifikasi Kayu
– Perancis 1819, kayu & asam konsentrat
 Furfural
 Selulosa dan Bubur kertas
 Asam Levulinat
 Lipida
 Vanila
 Asam Laktat
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Produksi Berbasis Hayati Terintegrasi

 Jerman 1940, P. Von Walden: Produksi 13 M.T


sellulos  5-6 M.T. limbah lignin
 1937 N.W. Pirie  technical separation and
extraction methods of green crops
 US 1925, “Chemurgy” (chemical and ergon,
“work”) artinya “chemistry from the acre” yaitu “
terhubungnya agrikultur dan industri kimia”
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Biorefinery
Biorefineries combine necessary technologies between biological raw materials and
the industrial intermediates and final products.

AGRICULTURE PRIMARY REFINERY INDUSTRY

Product
RAW CONVERSION OF LIGNIN Lines
MATERIAL RAW MATERIAL

CARBOHYDRAT Product
COMPLEX ES Lines
SUBSTANCES

FATS Product
Lines

INORGANIC
Product
SUBSTANCES PROTEINS Lines

SPECIAL Product
ENERGY SUBSTANCES Lines
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Structure of lignocellulose.

Microfib
ril

EM Rubin Nature 454, 841-845 (2008) doi:10.1038/nature07190


Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Precursors-Contained Biomass
Wood / Soft Cereals / Sugar-beet/ - Alfalfa / Grass /
Soya/Rape
Wood Maize cane Clover

Biomass- LIGNIN CARBOHYDRATES FATS PROTEINS


Precursors

Cellulose Starch Saccharose Oil Amino-acids

Straw chemical enzymatic


Bagasse
Leaf Lignin GLUCOSE Enzymes Feed
Levulinic
Acid bacterial 2,3-Pentanedione
Acetic Acid
Lactic Acid
Syngas Acrylic Acid
Energy Ethanol

Material- Dilactide
Methanol
Precursors
Ethene
Ethyl lactate

Gasoline Polymers
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Three Generations of Biorefining Technologies


Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Four Biorefinery Systems


Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Four Biorefinery Systems (Cont’d)


Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
C6 SUGAR
(C5)

Aerobic Fermentation Anaerobic Fermentation

C1 Methanol CO2 / CH4

Acetic Acid
Ethylene Ethanol
C2

Acetaldehyde

1,3-Propandiol Acetone Propylene Lactic Acid


C3
Propylene
Diethyl ether oxide Acrylic acid

Malic acid Vinyl acetate


C4 Crotonaldehyde
C4+ 2,3-
Poly Butadiene Butandiol
Butyraldehyde
Itaconic
C5 Acid
Ethyl lactate

Sorbic Acid Citric Acid Aconitric acid Kojic Acid Dilactide


C6
C6+
Parasorbic Acid Isoascorbic acid Maltol Poly

C8
C8+ 2-etil hexanol
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Lignocellulosic Feedstock Biorefinery

Cellulose Sugar
‘biotech./chemical’
Raw Material

Residues
Lignocellulo
ses
Lignocellulosic Fuels,
Feedstock Hemicelluloses Chemicals,
(LCF) (Polyoses) Polymers and
‘bioctech./chemical’ Materials

Cogeneration
Residues
Heat and
Power,
Extractives

Lignin Lignin
‘chemical’ Raw Material
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

LC-Feedstock (LCF)
e.g. Cereals (Straw,Chaff); Ligno-Cellulosic Biomass (e.g. Reed,Reed Grass); Forest
Biomass (Underwood, Wood); Paper-and Cellulosic Municipal Solid Waste

Lignocellulose (LC)

Lignin Hemicellulose Cellulose


“Phenol-polymer” Pentoses,Hexoses “Glucose-polymer”

Plant Gum Cellulose-


Natural Binder Xylose Thickeners, Adhesives,
(Pentose) Protective colliods, applicants
and Adhesives Emulsifiers, Stabilizers

Glucose
Xylite
Sugar-subtitute HMF (Hexose)
Sub-bituminous (5-Hydroxymethyl-furfural)
Coal

Furfural
Softener + Fermentation
Sulphur-free Fural Resins Solvents Products
-Fuels e.g ethanol
Solid Fuel
-Organic Acids e.g.
Chem. Lubricants Lactic Acid
Products
-Solvents e.g.
Aceteone & Butanol
Nylon 6; Chemicals and
Nylon 6,6 Polymers
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

WHOLE-CROP BIOREFINERY BASED ON DRY MILLING

Cellulose
‘biotech./chemical’
‘physical/chemical’ Starch Line,Sugar
Raw Material

Whole Crop
Cereals – Dry
Mill- Fuels, Chemicals,
Fluor (Meal) Polymers and
‘physical/chemical’ Materials

Cogeneration
Residues Heat and Power,
Extractives

Straw Lignocellulosic
‘biotechn./chemical’ Raw Material
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Manfaat Produksi Etanol


Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Combustion Energy Fields
Energy Grain [cereals, corn, maize]

Seed Grinding Meal


Straw

Extrusion Direct Use


Decomposi Starch
-tion Evalated-
pressure
Co-

Decomposition to
Gasification
Extrusion

paste/pasting
Chemical
Biotechnologic
Conversion /
-al Conversion Modification
Plasticization

Glucose

Ether Formation
Hydrogenation

Red Animation

Esterification
Hemicellulose

Bio-
Fermentation
Celullose

Plastic
Lignin

Co- and
Ethanol Mix-
polymerisat
e

Acetate
Methanol

Glucosamine
Syngas

Starch
Sorbitol

Binder,
PHB

Adhesive,
Carboxy- Cement
methil Starch
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

WHOLE-CROP BIOREFINERY, WET-MILING

Grain Steep
(Steep Tank)
‘biotech./chemical’ Endosperm
‘physical/chemical’ Starch line,Sugar
Raw Material,
Amino Acids

Oils
Whole Crop Fuels, Feed,
Cereals – Wet Fats and Oils,
Mill- Grain Germ Chemicals,
‘physical/chemical’ Pharmaceutics
, Materials

Cogeneration
Residues Heat and Power,
Extractives

Straw Lignocellulosic
‘biotechn./chemical’ Raw Material
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Cultivation Harvest,Storage, Mechanical pre-Treatment

Straw (Stalks,
Corn Grain Foliage,Chaff,etc
Nodes)

Steep Tank Straw Chipping Straw Meal

Corn steep Degerminati


Cellulose and
liquor on -Feed
Paper
-Fuels
Industry
-Chemical Industry
Endosperm Germ
(Hydrolyzate &
Fermentation
Expel and Extract Products)
Grind and Wash

Edible Oil Germ Meal (Feed)


Hull Centrifuge
(animal feed,
chemicals) Dextrose
Fatty Acids
Starch (Industry)
GlutenMeal
(Amino Acid) Fermentation
-Corn Starch (Industry Product:
Syrups (Industry, & Cosmetics, Food) -Ethanol
Food) - Dextrins (Industry) - Organic Acids
- Biochemicals
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

A “Green Biorefinery” System


Press Juice
‘biochemical’
‘biotechnol./chemi
cal’ Proteins,
Soluble Sugars

Residues

Green
Biogas Fuels, Feed,
Biomass
Cogeneration Chemicals,
techn. Press
Heat and Polymers and
Power (CHP), Materials
Hydrogen

Residues

Press Cake
‘hydrothermal’ Cellulose
‘enzymatic’ Lignocellulose
‘thermal chemical’
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Green Crop Drying Plant Green (Wet) Raw Material Fields
Wet Fractionation Grass, Lucerne, Alfalfa, Herbia

Energy
Power Station, Press Press Cake Green Pellets for
Heat, Electricity drying to Pellets + Bales Fodder

Press Juice
Pellets or Bales
Biogas Valueable Products
for Solid Fuel
Separation
Decanter
Enzymes
Fermentation Raw Material for
Fermenter Syngas
Lactic Acid +
Derivatives Flavourings
Raw Material for
Carbohydrate Amino Acids Hydrocarbons
Sources Dyes

Proteins
Pre- Raw Material for
Carbohydrates Biogas
Treatment
Enzymes

Proteins
Whole Crops,
Organic Acids Raw Material for
Straw, Seeds,
Starch, Fibres + Fleece
Hydrolyzate, and Chemicals
Molasses, a.o. Ethanol
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

THE SUGAR PLATFORM AND THE SYNGAS PLATFORM

Sugar Platform
(SP)
‘biochemical’ Sugar Raw
Material

Residues

Biomass Cogeneration Fuels, Feed,


Heat and Chemicals,
Power (CHP), Polymers and
Extractives Materials

Clean Gas

Syngas Platform (SGP)


‘gasification’
Conditioning
‘thermal chemical’ Gas
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Aldehydes,
Acids,
SYNGAS-BASED PRODUCT Alcohols Surfactan
s
Polymers,
Adhesives, Oligomer
Polymers Oxiran
Paints s
Syngas

CH3Cl H2C=CH2
Methyl CH3COOH
R-OH H2C=CH-COOH
Chloride Acetic Esthers,
Alcohols Acrylic Acid
Acid Ethers
HCl -H2O
CO, H2
HCHO C2H5OH
CH3OH
Plastics Formaldehy Ethanol
Metanol
de

NH2CONH2 CO2 N2
NH3 CO + H2 Pt/Alumina
Urea Ammonia Aromatic
Syngas Alkanes
s
H2 O H2 O
Gasoline
fermentation & Waxes
Biogas : CH4 Biomass
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005
Pengantar Teknologi Bioproses
Harvard| Kuliah 05
iGEM 2005

Latihan
1. Apakah yang dimaksud dengan Biorefinery?
2. Bagaimana konsep Bioekonomi?
3. Mengapa Bioerfinery penting bagi Indonesia?
4. Biomass apa yang sesuai dengan kondisi Indonesia untuk membuat Bioerfinery?
Mengapa?
5. Gambarkan skema makro/mikrofibril, lignin, selulosa, hemiselulosa, glukosa dan
hexosa/pentosa dalam semuah tanaman!
6. Sebutkan masing-masing 2 produk yang dapat anda buat dari :
 Lignin
 Lemak
 Karbohidrat (Selulosa)
 Protein