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## It Computes two versions of the addition with

different carry inputs then selects the right one.

m-bit stages.

## The second stage computes two values: one assuming

that the carry-in is 0 another assuming that it is 1
Carry-select structure
The carry out of previous stage is used to select
which version is correct:

## Multiplexers controlled by the previous stage’s

carry-out choose the correct sum and carry-out.

## This scheme speeds up the addition, once the

carry-out is available the ith stage’s delay is limited to
that of two-input multiplexer
Manchester carry chain
Which computes the sum from P and G. Two bits
of a Manchester carry chain
The storage node, which holds the complement
of the carry (Ci’) is charged to 1 during the precharge
phase.

## If Gi=1 during the evaluate phase, the storage node

is discharged, producing a carry into next stage.

## If Pi=1, then the ith storage node is connected to

the i-1th storage node in this case, the ith storage node
can be discharged by the Pi-1 pulldown.

## Serial adders present an entirely different approach

to high-speed arithmetic

## They required many clock cycles to add two n-bit

numbers, but with a very short cycle time.

## Serial adders can work on nibbles or bytes,

0 1 1 0

Data format
LSB

The data stream consists of three signals the two
numbers to be added and an LSB.The LSB signal
clears the carry register.

## Subsequently, the two input bits added with the

carry-out of the last bit.

## The serial adder is small and has a cycle time

equal to that of a signal full adder.
ALU
An ALU can perform both arithmetic and bit-wise
logic operations.

## A basic ALU takes two data inputs and set of control

signals, also called an opcode.

## The opcode, together with the ALU’s carry-in,

determine the ALU’s function.

## For Ex:- if the ALU is set to add, then C0=0

produces a + b while C0=1 produces a + b + 1.
A three function block ALU
The ALU is built around an adder. The three
function blocks require a total of 12 opcode bits to
determine the ALU’s function.

## The two function blocks at the inputs compute

signals used to drive the adder’s, P and G inputs are
not a CLA functions.

## The two function blocks at the inputs compute

signals used to drive the adder’s P and G inputs,

## The ALU’s output is computed by the final

function block from the adder’s carry and the
propagate signal.
A two-input function block
It takes two data inputs and their complements
along with four control signals and can compute all 16
possible functions of the two data inputs.

## An ALU which implement only addition,

subtraction, and one or two bit-wise functions can
usually be implanted using static gates.