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There are eight major zones for the aircraft.
Each major zone is identified by the first digit of a three digits number.
The even numbers identify the zones on the right hand side of the aircraft,
while odd numbers identify the zones on the left hand side of the aircraft.
The aircraft structure is divided according to the ATA 100 specifications.
 

3  
3   3 ¦
  3 ¦ 
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@  V is the measurement of the


height perpendicular from a horizontal
plane located below the bottom of
the aircraft fuselage.
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Each major part of the aircraft


receives a section number.

The fuselage section base number


is 10.

The fuselage is divided into


various sections for manufacturing
Reasons.
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„ections 41 - 43 - 46 - 48
 


The station number is the distance in centimetres of a cross-section


from a reference point.
 

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ë      ë 

„trip the paint away assuming


the aircraft is paint.
With the paint removed it could
evident that the scratch may
have only been in the paint
and not in the aircraft.
Use Dye Penetrant to
confirm the damage, crack
or scratch etc.
ë      ë 

?easure the depth (DTI)


width and length
vernier calliper.
Check with the
„tructural Repair ?anual
(„R?)
if the damage is
allowable
or within tolerance.
NB a scratch will have
to have its sharp
edges removed prior to
measuring.
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Example :
From B737-
B737-300
„tructural Repair
?anual
ë 
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All damage must be classified to determine what


repair action
should be taken.

Ultimately, all discrepancies will be placed


into one of three
categories, negligible damage, non
non--repairable
damage or
repairable damage.

  ë 

Negligible damage is damage that can be


permitted to exist
³as is,´ or corrected by a single
cosmetic refinishing procedure
with no restrictions on flight operations.

This damage may also include some de


de--
lamination, disbonds
and voids.

   ë 



Non--repairable damage exceeds published criteria or limits.


Non
(„tructural Repair ?anual)

Non-repairable damage may be reclassified as repairable, if


Non-
the manufacturer prescribes a repair on an individual basis.

Normally, non-
non-repairable damage requires the changing
of components.
   ë 

Repairable damage is any damage to the skin or structure that


cannot be allowed to exist ³as is´ without placing performance
restrictions on the airframe.
   ë 

Replacement of
Leading Edge Panel?
à 

It will take more then


speed--tape to fix this one.
speed
3 
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Fuselage limitations on repairs in


region of static pressure ports,
pitot--static probes, angle of
pitot
airflow sensors.

Wing, ailerons, stabilizers,


elevators rudder, flats, leading
edge slats, spoilers

Nacelle and Pylon


 

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Restore the structural integrity of


the airframe.
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It is permitted for some types


of crack repair to drill a hole at
the end of each end of the crack
to prevent it from extending any
Further.
 

Complex repair for a Boeing 737


door aperture crack in the bottom
corner.

This includes multi external repair


plates and the crack is stop drilled.
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Riveting Terminology:

„pacing and Edge Distance Rivet spacing,


also referred as rivet pitch, is the distance
between the rivets in the same row and is
measured from the rivet centre to the rivet
centre.
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Edge distance for all rivets, except
those with a flush head, should not
be less than twice the diameter of
the rivet shank or more than four
times the diameter of the rivet shank.

Flush-head rivets require an edge


Flush-
distance of at least 2½ times the
diameter.
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Rivet pitch, is the distance
between the rivets in the same
row and is measured from the rivet
centre to the rivet centre.
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^
Transverse pitch is the distance
between the rows of rivets and
is measured from the rivet centre
to rivet centre.
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The proper length of rivet is an important part of the repair.
If the rivet is too long, the formed head will be too large or the rivet may bend
or be forced between the sheets being riveted.
If the rivet is too short, the formed head will be too small or the riveted material
will be damaged.

1½ x D+G=L

Where:
D = the rivet diameter
G = grip (total thickness of
material)
L = total length of the rivet.
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ë   
„tandard twist drills are used to drill rivet holes.
Note that there is a slight clearance in each case.
This prevents binding of the rivet in the hole.

TABLE OF „IZE„
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Rivet Forming Tool

Rivet Cutters

Rivet „nap Rivet Gun


Rivet Blocks
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