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KONSEP RISIKO & PENGENALAN

MANAJEMEN RISIKO

HUSEN, SST.K3,MSi
2013
KONSEP RISIKO
• Dalam K3 memahami konsep risiko adalah
sangat penting, salah satu pola pikir dalam K3
adalah bagaimana mengurangi risiko-risiko
(dampak negatif) yang berkaitan dengan
aktifitas pekerjaan.
• Upaya pengelolaan risiko yang tepat dibutuhkan
pemahaman konsep risiko yang tepat, meliputi
jenis, pola, asesmen atau pengkajian yang
dibutuhkan, nilai/tingkat risiko, sehingga upaya
pengendalian risiko tepat, efektif & efisien.
KONSEP RISIKO
The likelihood that hazard will result injury,
illness, loss or damage people, to the
environment, property, plant or equipment
and the potential severity of that injury,
illness, loss or damage
KONSEP RISIKO
Kemungkinan bahwa bahaya akan
mengakibatkan cedera, sakit,
kehilangan atau kerusakan orang,
lingkungan, aset atau peralatan dan
potensi keparahan yang cedera, sakit,
kehilangan atau kerusakan
RISIKO
(dalam konteks K3)
Suatu risiko dapat diartikan sebagai
suatu besarnya kemungkinan & tingkat
keparahan potensi kerugian yang muncul
HAZARDS & RISK
CO. RISIKO
• Risiko terjadinya ledakan di suatu
laboratorium kimia
• Risiko timbulnya penyakit
akibat/hubungan kerja (misalnya: asma
karena debu) pada karyawan di suatu unit
kerja
(unit proses di pabrik semen)
• Risiko pencemaran air laut akibat
tumpahan minyak di pengeboran lepas
pantai
FUNGSI DARI RISIKO

RISIKO = KONSEKUENSI X PROBABILITAS


SUMBER RISIKO

• Agen
• Media
• Proses kerja
• Prosedur kerja
• Manusia
(perilaku kerja)
JENIS-JENIS RISIKO

• RISIKO KESELAMATAN KERJA


• RISIKO KESEHATAN KERJA
• RISIKO LINGKUNGAN
• RISIKO FINANSIAL
• RISIKO PUBLIK
OHS RISK MANAGEMENT
(PENGENDALIAN RISIKO K3)

Suatu upaya pengelolaan risiko-risiko


keselamatan kerja & kesehatan kerja yang
ada pada suatu aktifitas kegiatan kerja
TAHAP-TAHAP
PENGELOLAAN RISIKO

• IDENTIFIKASI BAHAYA / RISIKO


• ANALISA RISIKO
• EVALUASI RISIKO
• PENANGANAN RISIKO
• MONITORING & REVIEW
Tujuan Manajemen Risiko

Mengurangi & menurunkan tingkat risiko yang


ada sehingga dapat diterima oleh sistem
kerja yang ada
ANALISA RISIKO

SUATU PROSES YANG SISTEMATIS DALAM


MENGGAMBARKAN & MENGKUANTIFIKASI
RISIKO-RISIKO YANG BERHUBUNGAN
DENGAN FAKTOR BAHAYA DALAM SUATU
PROSES KEGIATAN KERJA
ANALISIS RISIKO

• KUALITATIF
• SEMI KUANTITATIF
• KUANTITATIF
ANALISIS RISIKO
KESEHATAN
Qualitative Exposure Rating

Kategori Deskripsi

0 No exposure No contact with agent

1 Low exposure Infrequent contact with agent at low


concentrations.

2 Moderate exposure Frequent contact with agent at low


concentrations or infrequent contact with
agent at high concentrations.

3 High exposure Frequent contact with agent at high


concentrations.

4 Very high exposure Frequent contact with agent at very high


concentrations
Qualitative Health Effect Rating

Kategori Deskripsi

0 Reversible effects of little concern or no known or


suspected adverse health effects.

1 Reversible health effects of concerns

2 Severe, reversible health effects of concern.

3 Irreversible health effects of concerns.

4 Life threatening or disabling injury or illness.


Qualitative Risk Assessment
ANALISIS RISIKO
KESELAMATAN
Semi quantitative Rating
Factor Consequences

Description Rating
Factor
Consequenc Catastrophe: multiple fatalities damage over $1million, 100
es closure of activity, permanent extensive damage
Possible environmental.
outcomes of Disaster fatality: permanent local damage to 50
event environment, loss $500,000-$2,000000
Very serious: permanent disability/ill health, non 25
permanent environmental damage $50,000-$500,000
loss
Serious: Serious but non permanent injury or ill health. 15
Adverse effect on environment $5000-$50,000 loss
Important: Medical attention needed, off site emission 5
but no damage. $500-$5000 loss
Noticeable: Minor cuts and bruises or sickness, minor 1
damage <$500 short loss of production, small loss of
containment no off site consequences
Semi quantitative Rating
Factor Exposure

Description Rating
Factor
Exposure Continuously or many times daily 10
Frequency of Frequently approximately once daily 6
exposure to the Occasionally once a week to once a 3
hazard month 1
Infrequent once a month to once a year 0.5
Rare has been known to occur 0.1
Very rare not known to have occurred
Semi quantitative
Rating Factor Likelihood

Description Rating
Factor
Likelihood Almost certain Is the most likely 10
Likelihood that outcome if the event occurs
particular Likely not usual perhaps 50-50 6
consequence chance
follows the Unusual but possible 3
event Remotely possible a possible 1
coincidence
Conceivable Has never happened in 0.5
years of exposure but is possible
Practically impossible not to 0.1
knowledge ever happened anywhere
Semi quantitative Level of Safety Risk

Risk Level Comment Action

>350 Very high Stop activity until risk


reduced
180 - 350 Priority 1 Deal with immediately
70 - 180 Substantial Correction required
20 – 70 Priority 3 Attention indicated
<20 Acceptable Make as low as reasonably
practical
RISK ANALYSIS
RISK CONTROL
Sekian