Anda di halaman 1dari 22

VALIDITY & RELIABILITY IN

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH


PROF. DR. RUHIZAN MOHAMMAD YASIN
WHAT IS VALIDITY IN RESEARCH METHOD ?
In general, VALIDITY is an indication of how sound
your research is. More specifically, validity applies
to both the design and the methods of
your research. Validity in data collection means
that your findings truly represent the
phenomenon you are claiming to
measure. Valid claims are solid claims.
WHAT IS VALIDITY IN EDUCATION?

Validity generally refers to how accurately a


conclusion, measurement, or concept
corresponds to what is being tested.
In assessments, Validity is defined as the
extent to which an assessment accurately
measures what it is intended to measure.
TYPES OF VALIDITY
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF RESEARCH VALIDITY:
1. INTERNAL VALIDITY
2. EXTERNAL VALLIDITY
INTERNAL VALIDITY – CAN BE CONTROLLED BY THE DESIGN OF THE
RESEARCH
EXTERNAL VALIDITY – RELATED TO THE SAMPLING OF THE RESEARCH
PARTICIPANT. RESEARCH IS SAID TOHAVE HIGH EXTERNAL VALIDITY IF
THE RESULT CAN BE GENERALISED TO A BIGGER POPULATION.
WHY INTERNAL VALIDITY IS IMPORTANT?
This idea that X causes Y
is important because internal validity is about
being able to justify that X actually caused Y. We
highlight the word actually because there are
many different reasons that can make it difficult
to know whether X causes Y.
Therefore it relates to WHAT YOU REALLY
MEASURE…
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO HAVE EXTERNAL
VALIDITY?
External validity is the extent to which results of
a study can be generalized to the world at large.
Because the goal of research is to tell us about
the world,external validity is a
very important part of designing a study. ... This
tension is also known as the tension between
internal and external validity.
TYPES OF VALIDITY IN
INSTRUMENTATION/MEASUREMENT
• Face Validity. In face validity, you look at the operationalization and
see whether "on its face" it seems like a good translation of the
construct. ...
• Content Validity. ...
• Predictive Validity. ...
• Concurrent Validity. ...
• Convergent Validity. ...
• Discriminant Validity.
CAN YOU BROWSE THRU WHAT ARE THOSE VALIDITY? DISCUSS WITH
PERSON NEXT TO YOU & SHARE WITH THE CLASS.
HOW DO YOU MEASURE VALIDITY?
Validity (accuracy) Validity of an assessment
is the degree to which it measures what it is
supposed to measure. This is not the same as
reliability, which is the extent to which
a measurement gives results that are very
consistent.
This is also depends on types of validity.
WHY RELIABILITY IS IMPORTANT TO YOUR
RESEARCH?
Reliability refers to the consistency of the results
in research. ... Reliability is highly important for
psychological/educational research. This is
because it tests if the study fulfills its predicted
aims and hypothesis and also ensures that the
results are due to the study and not any possible
extraneous variables.
HOW RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IS RELATED?
Reliability and validity are closely related. ... A
test can be reliable, meaning that the test-takers
will get the same score no matter when or where
they take it, within reason of course. But that
doesn't mean that it is valid or measuring what it
is supposed to measure.
WHICH IS MORE IMPORTANT?
Reliability is directly related to the validity of
the measure. There are several
important principles. First, a test can be
considered reliable, but not valid. ...
Second, validity is more
important than reliability.
WHY? CAN YOU THINK?
Types of Reliability In Quantitative
Research
• Reliability as stability:
• Consistency over time and samples;
(Test-retest reliability )
• Reliability as equivalence:
• Equivalent forms of same instrument;
• Inter-rater reliability;
• Reliability as internal consistency:
• Split half reliability (e.g. for test items)
WHAT IS CONCEPT OF VALIDITY AND
RELIABILITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?
Qualitative Validity. Depending on their philosophical
perspectives, some qualitative researchers reject the
framework of validity that is commonly accepted in
more quantitative research in the social sciences.
They reject the basic realist assumption that their is a
reality external to our perception of it.
COULD YOU RECALL WHAT ARE THOSE
PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVES?
WHAT IS TRUSTWORTHINESS IN QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH?
Instead of focusing on reliability and validity,
qualitative researchers substitute
data trustworthiness. Trustworthiness
consists of the following components: (a)
Credibility; (b) transferability; (c);
dependability; and (d) confirmability
WHAT IS DEPENDABILTY IN QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH?
... Dependability can be compared to
reliability in quantitative studies. In other
words, dependability is an evaluation of the
quality of the integrated processes of data
collection, data analysis, and theory
generation.
WHAT IS CREDIBILITY IN QUAL. RESEARCH?

These terms are used by Lincoln and Guba, to


replace 'reliability' and 'validity', which are
usually linked to
quantitative research. Credibility/trustworth
iness: The credibility is involved in
establishing that the results of
the research are believable.
WHAT IS MEANT BY TRIANGULATION IN
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?
Triangulation is a method used by qualitative
researchers to check and establish validity in their
studies by analysing a research question from
multiple perspectives is to arrive at consistency
across data sources or approaches, in fact, such
inconsistencies should not be seen as weakening
the evidence, but should be …an interesting data
to ponder..
WHAT DOES CONFIRMABILITY MEAN?
Definition of confirmability theory. : a
modification of the verifiability principle
according to which a requirement or criterion for
the meaningfulness of a factual statement is its
susceptibility to the possibility of being either
theoretically or actually supported by reference
to empirical facts.
WHAT IS TRANSFERABILITY?

Transferability refers to the degree to which


the results of qualitative research can be
generalized or transferred to other contexts
or settings. From a qualitative
perspective transferability is primarily the
responsibility of the one doing the
generalizing.
HOW TO OBTAIN TRUSTWORTHINESS IN
QUAL.RESEARCH?
The trustworthiness of a qualitative study can be
increased by maintaining high credibility and
objectivity. A research definition
of trustworthiness might be: “Demonstration
that the evidence for the results reported is
sound and when the argument made based on
the results is strong.”
WHAT IS A MEMBER CHECK?

In qualitative research, a member check, also


known as informant feedback or respondent
validation, is a technique used by researchers
to help improve the accuracy, credibility,
validity, and transferability (also known as
applicability, internal validity, or fittingness)
of a study.
YOU CAN FURTHER READ ANOTHER
SLIDE PRESENTATION FOR MORE
INFORMATION.(SLIDE BY DR. SAHLAN SURAT)
ANY QUESTION LETS DISCUSS IN CLASS OR ONLINE DISCUSSION.
GOOD LUCK
PROF. DR. RUHIZAN M. YASIN