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GEOLISTRIK DAN GEORADAR

Presented by :
GROUP 1
ANNISA OCTAVIANIE ARIYATI
AHMAD YUSUF FADILLAH ZEBUA
ARI WAHYU PATRIANGGA NASUTION
MUHAMMAD AL KINDI
PANDU CAHYA DEWANTARA
RAHMAT INSANI SAPUTRA HASIBUAN
GEOLISTRIK Metode geolistrik
merupakan salah satu
metode
geofisika yang
mempelajari tentang
sifat aliran listrik di
dalam bumi
berdasarkan hukum-
hukum kelistrikan.
Metode geolistrik ini
juga merupakan
metode yang
digunakan untuk
mengetahui sifat
aliran listrik di dalam
bumi dengan cara
mendeteksinya di
permukaan bumi.
PRINSIP KERJA

Prinsip kerja metode Metoda ini


geolistrik dilakukan menggunakan medan
dengan cara potensial listrik bawah
permukaan sebagai
menginjeksikan arus objek pengamatan
listrik ke permukaan utamanya. Kontras
tanah melalui sepasang resistivity yang ada pada
elektroda dan mengukur batuan akan mengubah
beda potensial dengan potensial listrik bawah
permukaan tersebut
sepasang elektroda yang sehingga bisa kita
lain. dapatkan suatu bentuk
anomali dari daerah
yang kita amati.
Teori utama dalam metoda
HUKUM yang BERLAKU resistivity sesuai dengan hukum
Ohm yaitu arus yang mengalir
(I) pada suatu medium
sebanding dengan voltage (V)
yang terukur dan berbanding
terbalik dengan resistansi (R)
médium, atau dapat
dirumuskan sebagai berikut :

V = I.R
METODE
Dalam pelaksanaan survey dikenal beberapa metoda
pengambilan data sesuai dengan peletakan eloktroda
yang dilakukan. Hal ini berpengaruh terhadap faktor
geometri peneletian resistivity yang kita lakukan. Adapun
aturan/metoda tersebut antara lain :

Metoda Wenner
Metoda Gradien
Metoda Schlumberger
Metoda Dipole-dipole
Metoda Pole-dipole
Biaya survei
relatif
murah
Peralatan Harga
relatif kecil peralatan
dan ringan murah

KELEBIHAN
Tidak bisa menjangkau
wilayah yang dalam Tidak efektif untuk
karena jankauannya pemakaian di
berkisar 1000-1500 kawasan karst
kaki

KEKURANGAN

Tidak bisa
membedakan air
mengalir dan yang
statis
SUSUNAN
ELEKTRODA
KONFIGURASI
WENNER
1
Simpulan
Berdasarkan Thehasil pengukuran
problems geolistrik dengan
can be formulated as
konfigurasi Wenner di daerah penelitian maka dapat
disimpulkanfollows:
bahwa Konfigurasi Wenner dapat
digunakan untuk mengalisis jenis material cair dan keras
terbukti dengan terdapat beraneka ragam jenis mineral
dengan nilai resistivitas yang berkisar antara 55,5-48911
Ωmeter dan jenis-jenis materialnya air tanah, batuan
gamping, konglomerat dan granit serta terdapat batuan
keras di sekitarnya
GEORADAR

To find out the improvement in


speaking
Regard to the achievement
problems of theof the
1
study
Tenth
above, Graders
here are theofobjectives
SMA LTI-IGMof the
Palembang in the school year
study:
2016/2017 after they are taught by
using communication games.

2
To find out the significant difference in
speaking achievement between the
Tenth Graders of SMA LTI-IGM
Palembang in the school year
2016/2017 who are taught by using
communication games and those
who are not.
I. Introduction
1.4 Significance of the Study

• The results of this study are expected to find out


Theoretically strategy of improving students’ speaking
achievement by using communication games.

• Teacher can reduce the difficulties of teaching


Practically English speaking and can encourage students to
speak English in the classroom by implementing
communication games strategy.

• The students can reduce their difficulties in


learning English speaking especially when they
want to express their thought or idea by using
spoken language.

• Researcher can use the results of this study to be


reference.
II. Literature Review

2.1.3
Problems and
2.1.2 2.1.4
solutions in
Goals of Teaching Classroom
Teaching Speaking Speaking
Speaking Activities

2.1.5
2.1.1
Definitions Types of
2.1
of Speaking
Speaking Situation
Speaking Skill
II. Literature Review

2.2 Communication Games

2.2.1 Definitions of
Communication Games

2.2.2 Kinds of Communication


Games

2.2.3 Implementation of
Communication Games

2.2.4 Advantages of Using


Games in Teaching Speaking
II. Literature Review

2.2 Communication Games

2.2.5 Disadvantages of
Games

2.2.6 Suggestions in Using


Games

2.2.7 Previous Study

2.2.8 Research Hypotheses


II. Literature Review
2.1.1 Definitions of Speaking

Speak means saying or talking to


somebody about something.
(Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary)

Speaking is a productive skill. It


involves the speaker to use speech to
express meanings to other people.
(Spratt, Pulverness, & Williams, 2005)

Speaking proficiency is the ability to


perform linguistic knowledge in actual
communication such as expressing
idea, feeling, thought and need orally.
Fajariyah (2009, p. 22)
Verbal
II. Literature Review Communication

Pitch
Paralinguistic Stress
Elements
Intonation
Effective Oral
requires…
Communication
Gestures

Nonlinguistic Body
Elements Language

Intonation
(Shumin, 2002, p. 204)
II. Literature Review
2.1.1 Definitions of Speaking

Speaking skill is a productive skill in


communicating with others by
considering not only verbal
communication but also paralinguistic
and non-linguistic elements such as
pitch, stress, intonation, gestures, body
language, and expression to convey or
express something such as idea, feeling,
thought and need orally in actual
communication to reach particular goal.
II. Literature Review
2.1.2 Goals of Teaching Speaking

“Speaking is often the skill upon which


a person is judge ‘at face value”
(McDonough and Shawn, 1993, p. 151)

Speaking activities provide rehearsal


opportunity – chance to practice real
life speaking in the safety of classroom
(Harmer, 2007, p. 123)

The main goal of teaching speaking is


communicative efficiency.
(Chi, 2011, p. 214),
II. Literature Review

Kayi To teach the students to produce


the English speech sounds and
(2006) sound patterns

Use word and sentence stress,


intonation patterns and the rhythm
of the second language

Select appropriate words and


sentences according to the proper
social setting, audience, situation
and subject matter
II. Literature Review

Kayi Organize their thoughts in a


(2006) meaningful and logical sequence

Use language as a means of


expressing values and judgments

Use the language quickly and


confidently with few unnatural
pauses, which is called as fluency
II. Literature Review
2.1.2 Goals of Teaching Speaking

The goals of teaching speaking are to


help the students develop their ability to
interact successfully in the target
language and to know how well the
students communicate in real situation
with a good fluency and confidence in
and out of the classroom.
II. Literature Review
2.1.3 Problems in Teaching
Speaking
He reveals some important
Harmer (2007, points related to the teaching
pp. 345-348) of speaking namely
the reluctance of the students
to speak and take part.

Worry about Shy to express


speaking badly themselves

Madsa Fail to find suitable words to express themselves


(2012, p. 4)
Afraid of making mistakes
I. Introduction
2.1.3 Solutions in Teaching
Speaking

Harmer (2007, reveals some useful ways to minimize the


pp. 345-347) students’ reluctance in speaking English

Preparation Big or small


groups

The value of Mandatory


repetition participation
I. Introduction
2.1.4 Classroom Speaking
Activities

Acting from
Prepared talks
script

Communication
Questionnaires
games Harmer
states six
classroom
speaking activities.
Simulation and
Discussion
Role play

(Harmer, 2007, 4th Ed., pp. 348-352)


I. Introduction
2.1.5 Types of Speaking Situation

(Bashir et al., 2011, p. 38)

Partially
Interactive

Non-
Interactive Interactive
II. Literature Review
2.2.1 Definitions of
Communication Games

Communica- Communica
Games
tion -tion Games

An activity of expressing An enjoyable activity


idea and feelings or an with a set of rules or
activity of giving people terms against each other
information (Webster’s New
(Oxford Dictionary, 4th Dictionary, 1994)
ed, p. 84)
II. Literature Review

Not only to convey a


message that someone else
needs or to get information
An activity of which has not been known,
hearing or reading but more importantly to
and responding to interact with other people
the spoken or (Widiati & Cahyono, 2006,
written words p. 276)
(Bashir, Azeem, &
Dogar, 2011, p. 36)

Communication
II. Literature Review

An activity of sport involving


skill, knowledge or chance in
which a person follows fixed
rules and tries to win against
an opponent (Leon & Cely
(2010, p. 16-23)

An activity that is entertaining,


engaging, often challenging for learners
in which the learner plays and interacts
with others (Wright et al., 2006, p. 1)
II. Literature Review
2.2.1 Definitions of
Communication Games

Communication game is defined as a set


of games that is designed to help
students learning English in element of
fun or with joyful activity and is aimed to
get learners to communicate or talk as
much and fluently as possible.
II. Literature Review
2.2.2 Kinds of Communication
Games
Information Guessing
Gap Games

Search Matching
Games Games

Hadfield (1990)
II. Literature Review
2.2.2 Kinds of Communication
Games
(Wright et al., 1997, p. 211)

Picture Games

Word Games

Memory Games

Caring and Sharing


Games
Guessing and
Speculating games
II. Literature Review
2.2.4 Advantages of Games in
Teaching Speaking

Martinson and Chu (2008, p. 478) draw


games as effective tools for learning

Talak-Kiryk (2010, pp. 5-6) reveals that games


allow for creativity, independence and higher
order thinking, also can stimulate interactivity.

Can improve participation, self-esteem, and


vocabulary usage and allow the learners to see that
there are many ways to solve the same problem.

Games allow the students to work as a


team and to work collaboratively towards a
common goal.
II. Literature Review
2.2.4 Advantages of Games in
Teaching Speaking

Wright at al.
(2006, p. 2)

Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their


interest and work
Games can provide intense and meaningful practice of
language
Many games similarly provide repeated occurrence and use of a
particular language form or use of specific language structures
games must be regarded as central to a language teacher’s repertoire
and not merely a way of passing the time.
II. Literature Review
2.2.4 Advantages of Games in
Teaching Speaking

Teaching English by using games have


several benefits. Games can encourage
the students to express their opinions and
feelings freely in a joyful activity in which
the students interact with others to
practice more their English through
games activities.
II. Literature Review
2.2.5 Disadvantages of Games in
Teaching Speaking

The competitive nature A natural


of games creates a part of our
hostile learning world
environment

Candidates compete for jobs in the interview process

Teams compete in sporting events

Companies compete to retain or gain clients


II. Literature Review
2.2.6 Suggestions in Using
Games

Time

Choice

Preparation Management
II. Literature Review
2.2.7 Previous Study

4.80 Pre- First, the study about “Improving


test 1 Students’ Speaking Proficiency

1
5.31 1.25 Post- Using Games” in SMP Negeri 2 Baki
test 1 Sukoharjo that is done by Fajariyah in
6.05 Post-
2009
test 2

preliminary
Second, the study about under the title 1.34
“Improving Students’ Speaking

2
Ability through Story Board Game” 1.65 1.01 cycle 1
in SMA Negeri 1 Grabag that is done by
Utaminingsih (2013) 2.35 cycle 2
II. Literature Review
2.2.8 Research Hypotheses

There is no There is
(H01) significant significant (Ha1)
improvement improvement

There is no There is
(H02) significant significant (Ha2)
difference difference
III. Research Methodology

3.1 Research Design

3.2 Teaching Steps of


Communication Games

3.3 Learning Materials

3.4 Research Variables

3.5 Operational Definition


III. Research Methodology

3.6 Research Population and


Sample

3.7 Techniques of Data


Collection

3.8 Validity and Reliability of


instruments

3.9 Techniques of Data Analyses


Table I. Non-Equivalent Control Group Design

III. Research Methodology

3.1 Research Design

Quasi-experimental design:
Quantitative Non-equivalent control group
Research design as a method

Table I. Non-Equivalent Control Group Design


Suggested by Creswell

Group Pre-test Treatment Post-test


Experimental O1 X O2
Control O3 - O4
III. Research Methodology

3.2 Teaching Steps of


Communication Games

Opening Core Phase Closing


Phase / Pre- / Whilst- Phase / Post-
Teaching Teaching Teaching
III. Research Methodology

3.3 Learning Materials

Communication
Meeting Material
Games
1st meeting Pre test -
2nd meeting Describing People - Appearances Who am I?
3rd meeting Famous Things What am I?
4th meeting Public Places Matching games?
5th meeting Describing People - Personality Are you the one?
6th meeting Talking about Like and Dislike Find someone who?
7th meeting Describing People – Appearances (Review) Who am I?
8th meeting Famous Things (Review) What am I?
9th meeting Public Places (Review) Matching games?
10th meeting Describing People – Personality (Review) Are you the one?
11th meeting Talking About Like And Dislike (Review) Find someone who?
th
III. Research Methodology

3.4 Research Variables

Influence Get influenced

Independent Dependent
A cause variable variable
An effect

Communication Students’
Games Speaking
technique Achievement
III. Research Methodology

3.5 Operational Definition

Improving

Speaking
Achievement

Communication
Games
III. Research Methodology

3.6.1 Population of the Study

The The all tenth graders of SMA LTI-IGM


Palembang in the first semester of
population
the school year 2016/2017

No Class Students
1 XA 21
2 XB 20
3 XC 21
4 XD 21
5 XE 16
6 XF 17
Total 116
III. Research Methodology

3.6.2 Sample of the Study

Being taught by the same teacher


Purposive
Sampling Having the same number of students

Having low achievement in speaking

No Group Class Students


1 Experimental Group XC 21
2 Control Group XD 21
Total 42
III. Research Methodology
3.7 Techniques of Data
Collection

Pre test Post test


TEST

Experimental Control
Group Group

Describe their favorite idol (appearance and personality)


by using the target language but in the simple form of
sentence with the correct structure orally.
(Buku Bahasa Inggris Kelas X Semester 1, 2014, p. 64)
III. Research Methodology

3.8.1 Validity of Test

Validity is commonly referred to the


appropriateness, meaningfulness and usefulness
of the specific inferences researchers make
based on the data they collect.
(Fraenkel, Wallen & Hyun, 2012, p. 148).

Content Construct
Validity Validity

Refers to the content Refers to the characteristic


and format of the being measured by the
instrument instrument
III. Research Methodology

3.8.1 Validity of Test

Comprehension
The students are
expected to be able to Vocabulary Pronunciation
describe a picture in the Grammar Fluency
form of descriptive text.
Brown (2003, pp. 172-173)

Content Construct
Validity Validity

Refer to the basic Refers to the aspects of


competence in syllabus good speaking
of the 2013 curriculum
III. Research Methodology

3.8.2 Reliability of Test

A reliable test is
consistent and dependable
Teacher Lecturer
from LIA from IGM
English English
course
Inter-rater Department
reliability

Using rubric speaking score


design of Brown
(2003, pp. 172-173)
Analyzed by using Pearson Product Moment in SPSS 22 Program
> 0,70
III. Research Methodology

3.9 Techniques of Data Analyses

Using SPSS 22 program


by comparing the data
before and after the
treatment.
Distribution of Data
Frequency

Data Descriptions Paired Sample


T-Test

Independent
Hypotheses Testing Sample T-Test
III. Research Methodology

3.9 Techniques of Data Analyses

Using SPSS 22 program


by comparing the data
before and after the
treatment. to know the
summary score of
both groups
To know the significant
Data Descriptions improvement of
experimental group
To know the
significant difference
Hypotheses Testing between both groups