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Acetic Acid production from

Carbon Dioxide

Done by

Luluwa Al-Mutairi 203113380


Modhi Al-Nassar 203114383
Zainab Al-Fadhli 202113449
Overview:
• Introduction.
• Properties of Carbon dioxide.
• Sources of Carbon dioxide.
• Capture and Regeneration of CO2.
• Physical Utilization of CO2.
• Chemical Utilization of CO2.
• Acetic Acid.
• Conventional method of Acetic Acid.
• Production of acetic acid from Carbon dioxide.
• Conclusion.
1. Introduction:
• CO2 is the major cause of global warming and it has a 64% of the
greenhouse effect .

• The essential greenhouse gases are water vapor that result about 36-
70% of the greenhouse influence, carbon dioxide (CO2) 9-26%,
methane (CH4)4-9%, ozone 3-7%.

• Global warming : as the result of greenhouse effect that trap in the


infrared rays of the sun.

 Influences of Global warming are :

– Increase temperature of the earth.

– Its responsibility of the appearance of new illnesses.


2. Properties of Carbon dioxide:
2.1Chemical Properties:

•Carbon dioxide dissolves very well in water.


• Not chemically reactive
• It is applied to extinguish fire hence it is not flammable gas.

2.2 Physical Properties:

• Colorless and odorless gas.


• Becomes a solid at -78.5 ºC.
• Slightly toxic.
• Much denser than air.
3.Sources of Carbon Dioxide:
3.1 Natural sources:

It is created naturally by human activities (respiration) and by the


decay of plants, also oceans is another large natural source of CO2.

3.2 Industrial sources:

-Types of industrial process CO2emissions:

1. Production and consumption of mineral products.


2. Production of iron and steel.
3. Chemical production (ammonia and petrochemicals).
4. Consumption of petroleum products in feedstock and other end uses .
Fig.1: Pie chart shows how CO2 is produced .
3.3The Essential Sources of CO2 in
the world

Fig .2: Shows the amount of CO2 emission per capita in the
world
3.4 The Essential Sources of CO2 in
Kuwait
Thermal Power Plants:

Fig.3. Thermal Power Plants in Kuwait.


Emission Carbon dioxide in power plant in Kuwait
Emissions of CO2 from Natural gas (ton/yr) from
power plant in kuwait

3%
Fig.4. Emissions of CO2 from
8% Shawaikh
28% Shuiwba
natural gas (ton/yr) from
35% Doha East power plant in Kuwait.
DohaWest
AlZour
12% Subia
14%

Emissions of CO2 from Crude or heavy oil (ton/yr)


from power plant in kuwait

25%
13% Fig.5. Emissions of CO2 from
23%
Doha East Crude or heavy oil (ton/yr) from
Doha West
AlZour
power plant in Kuwait.
Subia
39%
Refineries (Hydrogen plant):

Fig.6. the Refineries and Companies in Kuwait.


Refineries (Hydrogen plant):
Emissions of CO2 from Hydrogen plant (ton/day)
from refineries in kuwait

29%
37%
AL-Ahmadi
Mina Abdullah
Shuaiba

34%

Fig.7. Emissions of CO2 from hydrogen plant (ton/yr) from refineries in Kuwait.
4. Capture and Regeneration of CO2

• The carbon dioxide capture is an important concept


to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from sources
such as fossil fuel power plants and refineries
(mainly from hydrogen units).
Methods for CO2 capture:
Methods for
CO2 Capture

Membrane Cryogenic
Absorption Adsorption
Separation

Hybrid
Gas Separation Gas Absorption
Physical Chemical Absorption PSA TSA ESA
Membrane Membrane
Process

Organic
Amine

MEA

Inorganic

NA
K/ Carbonate/

ammonia

Fig.8: The following separation methods are used to capture CO2 from fossil fuel.
4.1.Absorption
• A specific gas can be separated from a mixture of gases by contacting the
mixture of gases with a solvent that will selectivity dissolve the specific
gas.

Fig 9. Schematic of the absorption process.


4.1.1 Chemical Absorption
• chemical absorption can be used at low CO2 partial pressures ,since CO2
is an acid.

• The most common chemical absorption processes are organic solvent


process (amine) , in organic solvent process and by caustic soda.

• The following Chemical solvents are used to remove CO2:

 Organic solvent( amines).

• The major method used to remove CO2 and operation condition is


depend on the type of amine( primary ,secondary and tertiary amines).

• The most common types of amine solvents are MEA, DEA, DIPA and
MDE.
• Continue:

• The Most common amine is the monoethanol amine (MEA)


from the primary amines.

• This type has many advantages such as low cost, works at low
pressure and fast reaction kinetics.
Amine process:

Fig 10.Amine absorption unit for CO2 recovery from flue gas.
4.1.2 Physical Absorption
• It is as a good solution for capturing CO2 in hydrogen
production unit, as well as in power plants.

• Physical absorption is more suitable for higher partial


pressure .

• The removal efficiency of CO2 is around 90%.

• The most widely used process is flour process ,


purisol process, rectisol and sulfinol process.
• Flour process:

The flour solvent CO2 removal process is


intended primarily for the purification of gases
containing CO2 in high concentrations at high
pressure.

• Purisol process:

This process uses n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone also


known as NMP as a solvent. The solvent removes
CO2 and hydrocarbons.
4.1.3Hybrid process:
• Hybrid solvents combine the of both the chemical
and physical solvent and they are usually composed
of a mixture of components.
4.2 Adsorption:
• The intermolecular forces between gases such as CO2 and the
surface of certain solid materials permit separation by
adsorption .

• The solid adsorbents, such as activated carbon and zeolits


molecular sieves .

• Adsorption is widely used for the purification of hydrogen.

There are three types of adsorption such as :

1. Pressure swing adsorption PSA.


2. Temperature swing adsorption TSA.
3. Electric adsorption ESA.
4.3 Cryogenic:
• Cryogenic separation is widely used commercially for purification
of CO2 from streams that already have high CO2 concentration .

• In a cryogenic separation system, CO2 is physically


separated from other gases by condensing it into a liquid form at
an extremely low temperature
4.4Membranes:

• The selectivity of the membrane to different


gases is intimately related to the nature of the
material.

• The flow of the gas is usually driven by the


pressure difference across the membrane.

• There are many types of membrane materials,


such as polymers, metals and ceramics .
 The following two types of membranes systems :

1.Gas separation membranes:

There differences in physical or chemical interactions between gases


and a membrane ,causing one component to pass through the
membrane faster than another .

2.Gas absorption membranes:

- Micro-porous solid membranes.

- These membranes are used as contacting devices between gas flow


and liquid flow, through the membrane  the carbon dioxide
diffuses and is removed by the absorption liquid.
Principles of gas separation and gas
absorption membranes

Fig.11. principles of gas separation and gas absorption membranes


5. Physical Utilization of CO2:
• In the food industry.

• For fire extinguish and artificial rain.

• In well re-injection.

• In nuclear fields: as in power plant cooling.

• Dry Ice
Dry Ice
 What is Dry Ice?

-Dry ice keeps items colder ,with temperature 109 degrees below zero (-78.5°
C).

 How to Make Dry Ice?

-First Pressurizing (CO2)

- refrigerated to form liquid CO2; which is allowed to expand in an


atmospheric chamber.
- CO2 converts from liquid CO2 to gas,
-by an extreme drop in temperature some of the gas to freeze, yielding both
snow-like CO2 and vapor CO2
1) The “snow” is then hydraulically pressed into dry ice blocks and pellets.
2)The CO2 vapor is captured and recycled using a recovery system to
maximize the yield of dry ice from each pound of liquid CO2.
 Dry Ice Uses :

• To remove floor tiles , and skin imperfections.


• In the poultry industry ,baking industry.
• To lengthen the life of wet ice.
• To shrink metal
• To retard chemical catalysts.
• To improve porosity in oil wells.
• To pack ice cream on trips .
• To purge fuel tanks .
• By blood banks for shipping.
• By the concrete industry to prevent heat buildup .
• To freeze unstable ground .
• To germinate food.
• To freeze water lines without shutoff valves .
Fig 12. Shows carbon dioxide bubbles in a soft drink.

Fig 13. Shows small pellets of dry ice subliming in air.


6. Chemical Utilization of CO2
• In rubber and plastic industry

• In chemical industry: synthesis, polymers, inorganic


carbonates.

• Caron dioxide can be used in some chemical processes as an


inert gas, solvent and reagent.

• CO2 can be used to neutralize alkaline water.

• In methane reforming.
Continue
• Hydrogenation

• CO2+ 3 H2  CH3OH + H2O methanol


• 2CO2+ 6H2  C2H5OH+ 3H2O ethanol
• CO2+ H2  C H3-O-CH3 dimethyl ether

• Hydrocarbon Synthesis

• CO2+ 4 H2  CH4 + 2H2O methane


• 2CO2+ 6 H2  C2H4 + 4H2O ethylene
Continue
• Carboxylic Acid Synthesis
• CO2+ H2  HC=O-OH formic acid
• CO2+ CH4  CH3-C=O-OH acetic acid

• Graphite synthesis
• CO2+ H2  C+ H2O
• CH4  C + H2
• CO2+ 4 H2  CH4 + 2H2O

• Amine Synthesis
• CO2+ 3 H2 +NH3  CH3 – NH2 + 2H2O methyl amine and higher
amines.
Continue
• Hydrolysis and Photo catalyst Reduction
• CO2+ 2H2O  CH3OH+ O2
• CO2+ H2O  HC=O-OH+1/2 O2
• CO2+ 2H2O  CH4+ 2O2

• Other Reaction
• CO2+ ethyl benzene  styrene
• CO2+ C3H8  C3 H6 + H2 +CO
• Dehydrogenation of propane

CO2+ CH4  2CO + H2 reforming
6.1 Acetic acid
• Acetic acid is an important chemical and the most produced acid
in the world.

• It is known as ethanoic acid, and the structural formula is


represented as CH3COOH.

• The major producers of synthetic acid are currently the United


States, Western Europe, Japan, Canada, and Mexico .

• The total capacity in these countries is close to 4*10^6 t/a and


production is 3*10^6 t/a.
6.1.1 Properties of Acetic Acid
• Physical properties: clear, colorless liquid with a pungent odor.

• Chemical properties: Although acetic acid is not unusually reaction, many


useful and commercially valuable materials can be prepared from it.

• reacts with alcohols or olefins to form esters.

• Acetic acid also can be converted to acetyl chloride using chlorination


agents (phosphorus trichloride or thionyl chloride).

• Acetic acid is a raw material for a number of commercial processes.

• Acetic acid also is used in the manufacture of acetic acid anhydride and
chloroacetic acid.
6.2 Uses of Acetic Acid
 in the production of vinyl acetate monomer,
acetic anhydride and ester production .

 in the manufacture of chloroacetic acid,


plastics,photographic chemicals, food.
6.3 Production of Acetic Acid
• Methanol carbonylation

 In this process, methanol and carbon monoxide react to


produce acetic acid according to the chemical equation:

CH3OH + CO → CH3COOH
• Acetaldehyde oxidation

 This method remains the second most important


manufacturing method
2 CH3CHO + O2 → 2 CH3COOH
6.4 .Comparison of Acetic acid
process
• Conventional process:

- Methanol carbonylation: In Acetic acid


production we find that Methanol carbonylation route
is the conventional process and more than 60% of the
world production is through this process.
Fig.14. flow sheet of acetic acid production by Methanol carbonylation.
6.6 Uses Carbon dioxide:
• Uses Carbon dioxide was new catalytic
process that produces acetic acid which is one
of potential chemical target.

• In principle, acetic acid can be produced by the


direct reaction of methane and carbon dioxide:

CH4 + CO2 CH3OOH


Fig.15. flow diagram for acetic acid using CO2 as a raw material .
6.7 Comparison of Acetic Acid Processes:
Process Methanol Carbonylation Use Carbon dioxide
(conventional method) .as a raw material
Raw material Methanol, Carbon Monoxide Methane, Carbon Dioxide

Reaction CO+CH3OH  CH3 COOH CH4+CO2 CH3COOH

Heat of reaction (DH) -135 kJ/mol 36 kJ/mol

Operating Conditions 450 K 350 K


temperature
Operating Conditions 30 bar 25 bar
pressure
Catalyst Use Hydrogen iodide catalyst Vanadium catalyst

Conversion 100% 97%

Equipment Reactor ,flash drum, four distillation Reactor ,distillation column


columns
7.Conclusion:

• When we make comparing between to process we should


study :

1. The cost of the equipments.


2. The purity of the feed.
3. The type of the reaction (what are they ?)
4. The conversion of the reactor.

• When we make comparing between exothermic and


endothermic reaction we see when use cooler for exothermic
reaction is less cost and safety than use steam for
endothermic reaction.
Hopefully you enjoyed our
presentation,
Please feel free to
ask any question =“)

Kind Regards