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PATHOLOGY OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DODY NOVRIAL Department of Pathology, JSU
PATHOLOGY OF
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
DODY NOVRIAL
Department of Pathology, JSU
The Esophagus Congenital Disorders  Tracheoesophageal Fistula  Rings and Webs - ESOPHAGEAL WEBS - PLUMMER-VINSON
The Esophagus
Congenital Disorders
Tracheoesophageal Fistula
Rings and Webs
-
ESOPHAGEAL WEBS
-
PLUMMER-VINSON (PATERSON-
KELLY) SYNDROME
-
SCHATZKI RING
Esophageal Diverticula
Congenital tracheoesophageal fistulas. A. The most common type B. In a few cases C. The least
Congenital tracheoesophageal fistulas.
A. The most common type
B. In a few cases
C. The least common anomaly, the H type
The Esophagus Motor Disorders  Dysphagia, Odynophagia  Can be caused by: - Dysfunction of striated
The Esophagus
Motor Disorders
Dysphagia, Odynophagia
Can be caused by:
-
Dysfunction of striated muscle
-
Systemic diseases of skeletal muscle
-
Neurologic diseases
-
Peripheral neuropathy
Achalasia
Scleroderma
The Esophagus Hiatal Hernia  Symptoms of hiatal hernia, particularly heartburn and regurgitation  SLIDING HERNIA
The Esophagus
Hiatal Hernia
Symptoms of hiatal hernia, particularly
heartburn and regurgitation
SLIDING HERNIA
PARAESOPHAGEAL HERNIA
The Esophagus Esophagitis  Reflux Esophagitis  Barrett Esophagus  Eosinophilic Esophagitis  Infective Esophagitis 
The Esophagus
Esophagitis
Reflux Esophagitis
Barrett Esophagus
Eosinophilic Esophagitis
Infective Esophagitis
Chemical Esophagitis
Complicate Systemic Illnesses
Iatrogenic
The Esophagus Esophageal Varices  Dilated veins immediately beneath the mucosa that are prone to rupture
The Esophagus
Esophageal Varices
Dilated veins immediately beneath the
mucosa that are prone to rupture and
hemorrhage
They arise in the lower third of the
esophagus
Virtually always in patients with cirrhosis
and portal hypertension
The Esophagus Neoplasms  Benign are Uncommon  Esophageal Carcinoma Varies Geographically and Histologically  Environmental
The Esophagus
Neoplasms
Benign are Uncommon
Esophageal Carcinoma Varies
Geographically and Histologically
Environmental factors contribute strongly
to its development
Virtually all adenocarcinomas arise in the
background of Barrett esophagus
The Stomach
The Stomach
The Stomach There are three types of glands:  Cardiac glands are located in the cardia.
The Stomach
There are three types of glands:
Cardiac glands are located in the cardia.
Parietal (oxyntic) glands are found in the
body and fundus of the stomach.
Pyloric glands are situated in the antrum
and the pyloric canal.
The Stomach Congenital Disorders  Congenital Pyloric Stenosis  Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia  DUPLICATIONS, DIVERTICULA, AND
The Stomach
Congenital Disorders
Congenital Pyloric Stenosis
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
DUPLICATIONS, DIVERTICULA, AND CYSTS
SITUS INVERSUS
ECTOPIC PANCREATIC TISSUE
PARTIAL GASTRIC ATRESIAS
CONGENITAL PYLORIC AND ANTRAL
MEMBRANES
The Stomach Gastritis  Acute Hemorrhagic Gastritis, Associated with Drugs and Stress  Chronic Gastritis Autoimmune
The Stomach
Gastritis
Acute Hemorrhagic Gastritis, Associated with
Drugs and Stress
Chronic Gastritis
Autoimmune or Environmental
Environmental etiologic factors include
Helicobacter pylori and diet
Persons with autoimmune or multifocal atrophic
gastritis have greater risk of carcinoma of the
stomach
The Stomach Peptic Ulcer Disease  focal destruction of gastric mucosa and small intestine, principally the
The Stomach
Peptic Ulcer Disease
focal destruction of gastric mucosa and
small intestine, principally the proximal
duodenum, caused by the action of
gastric secretions
affects the distal stomach and proximal
duodenum
The Stomach Benign Neoplasms  Stromal Tumors in the Stomach Tend to Be Non Aggressive 
The Stomach
Benign Neoplasms
Stromal Tumors in the Stomach Tend to Be Non
Aggressive
Epithelial Polyps
Malignant Tumors
Carcinoma of the Stomach Relates to Many
Environmental Factors
Atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, subtotal
gastrectomy, and gastric adenomatous polyps are
factors associated with a high risk of stomach cancer
The Stomach  Gastric Neuroendocrine (Carcinoid) Tumors are Low-Grade Malignancies  Gastric Lymphoma Is the Most
The Stomach
Gastric Neuroendocrine (Carcinoid)
Tumors are Low-Grade Malignancies
Gastric Lymphoma Is the Most Common
Extranodal Lymphoma
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Have
Low Malignant Potential
The Small Intestine 1.The duodenum extends to the ligament of Treitz. 2.The jejunum is the proximal
The Small Intestine
1.The duodenum extends to the ligament
of Treitz.
2.The jejunum is the proximal 40% of the
remainder of the small intestine.
3.The ileum is the distal 60%.
The Small Intestine Congenital Disorders  Atresia and Stenosis  Duplications (Enteric Cysts)  Meckel Diverticulum
The Small Intestine
Congenital Disorders
Atresia and Stenosis
Duplications (Enteric Cysts)
Meckel Diverticulum