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# AS Level Further Mathematics – Complex Numbers

Lesson 1:
• What is a complex number?
• Real and imaginary parts of a complex number.
• Conjugate of a complex number.
• Adding and subtracting complex numbers.
Complex Numbers

## Solve the equation x2 – 4 = 0 ?

What about … x2 – 1 = 0 ?

What about … x2 + 1 = 0 ?
Similarly we can solve equations like:
x2 + 16 = 0
x2 + 9 = 0

## As a brief exercise solve:

x2 + 25 = 0
x2 + 11 = 0
Definitions: i2 = - 1
i = √(-1)

## Generally a complex number is number of the

form:
z = a + bi
where a is called the ‘real part’ and b is called
the ‘imaginary part’.
Definition:

## The ‘conjugate’ of a complex number z is

denoted by z*.

If z = a + bi
z* = a - bi
e.g. Given z = 3 + 4i

## Re(z) = 3 and Im(z) = 4.

Addition and subtraction of complex numbers:

Examples:
If z = 2 + 3i and w = 5 – 4i then evaluate
•z+w
•z–w
• z* + w
• z – w*
Exercise:
Given that s = 6 + 4i, t = 2i and u = -3 + 10i,
Evaluate the following:
i.) Re(s), Im(t) and Re(u).
ii.) s*, t* and u*.
iii.) s + u, s – u, s* + t , s* - t and u + t*
5 + 3i 4-i -3 + 7i -2 + 5i
5 - 4i -4 - 3i

2 + 3i -2 + 5i
AS Level Further Mathematics – Complex Numbers

Lesson 2:
• Multiplying and dividing complex numbers.
multiplication and division of complex numbers:

Examples:
If z = 2 + 3i and w = 5 – 4i then evaluate
• zw
• z/w
• z*w
• z/w*
Exercise:
Given that s = 6 + 4i, t = 2i and u = -3 + 10i,
Evaluate the following:
i.) st ii.) s/t
ii.) su iv.) s/u
v.) s*t vi.) s/t*
vii.) su* viii.) s/u*
Multiply
3 - 5i
x

3 + 4i 2 - 3i
Multiply
2 - 7i
x

5 + 4i - 14 + 8i
Generalise:
Given that z = a + bi and w = c + di
How do we generalise the following results?
i.) z+w ii.) z-w
ii.) zw iv.) z/w
AS Level Further Mathematics – Complex Numbers

Lesson 3:
• Proving general results about Complex Numbers.
Review Questions:
Given that z = 2 + 3i and w = 4 - 2i, calculate:
i.) Im(z)
ii.) Im(w*)
iii.) z + w
iv.) w – 2z
v.) (1+ z)(1 + w)
vi.) z / (w*)
Exercise:
Given that z = a + bi and w = c + di, prove that:
i.) (z + w)* = z* + w*
ii.) (z – w)* = z* - w*
iii.) (zw)* = z*w*
iv.) (z/w)* = z*/w*
v.) (z2)* = (z*)2
vi.) (1/w)* = 1/w*
End of Week Review

## 1.) Outline five key learning points from the past

week (last three lessons) – these should be things
that you did not know before that you know now.

## 2.) Make a note of anything that you found ‘tricky’

this week that you think might need close attention
when you come to revise for the module exam.
Homework

## FP1 – Complex Numbers – HW1

Posted online: tinyurl.com/amaths
AS Level Further Mathematics – Complex Numbers

Lesson 4:
• Plotting Complex Numbers on an Argand
Diagram.
Review Questions:
Given that z = 3 - 4i and w = 2 - 5i, calculate
i.) Re(z) =
ii.) Im(w*) =
iii.) z + w =
iv.) z – w =
v.) z2 =
vi.) zw =
vii.) z/(w*) =
Review Questions (Solutions):
Given that z = 3 - 4i and w = 2 - 5i, calculate
i.) Re(z) = +3
ii.) Im(w*) = +5
iii.) z + w = 5 – 9i
iv.) z – w = 1 + i
v.) z2 = - 7 - 24i
vi.) zw = - 14 - 23i
vii.) z/(w*) = (- 14 - 23i)/29
Argand Diagrams:
If z = 3 + 4i and w = 5 + 2i, plot z and w on an Argand
Diagram then illustrate z* and w*.
Questions:
1.) If z = -3 + 4i and w = 2 + 4i, plot z and w on an
Argand Diagram. Plot z* then determine the area of
the resulting triangle.
2.) If z = - 4 - 3i and w = 3 + 5i, plot z and w on
and Argand Diagram then plot z* and w*. Then
determine the area of the resulting trapezium.
3.) If z = 2 – 6i plot z and z* on and Argand
Diagram and determine the area of the circle whose
centre is z and whose radius is the distance between
z and z*.
Extension:
In a similar spirit to my three questions, construct
your own question and make it difficult! Provide a
AS Level Further Mathematics – Complex Numbers

Lesson 5:
Review: Complex Number Jigsaw 1
In Core 1 you will study in depth the discriminant of
the general quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0.

## ‘b2 – 4ac’ is the bit underneath the square root sign of

The b2 – 4ac part determines whether you are
able to solve the equation.
So with Δ = b2 – 4ac …

## If Δ > 0 the equation has two real roots.

Δ = 0 the equation has one repeated root.
Δ < 0 the equation has no real roots, thus two
complex roots.
We are going to be particularly interested in
cases where Δ < 0.
Examples:
Solve the following two quadratic equations,
plotting the roots of each equation on an
Argand Diagram.
i.) x2 + 5x + 7 = 0
ii.) 2x2 – 4x + 3 = 0
For each of the following quadratic equations,
calculate Δ, the discriminant and then determine
the roots of each equation illustrating the roots on
an Argand Diagram.
i.) x2 + 7x + 13 = 0
ii.) x2 + 5x + 8 = 0
iii.) x2 + 4 = 0
iv.) 2x2 + 16 = 0
v.) 4x2 + x + 1 = 0
Extension:
Further Pure Mathematics 1
Exercise 7B
Page 115
Question 3
AS Level Further Mathematics – Complex Numbers

Lesson 6:
Equations.
b>0 c<0

## Consider the quadratic equations ax2 + bx + c = 0, given an

example that satisfies the eight regions of the Venn Diagram.

## Two real roots

Easy!
a<0 passes through
(1, -1)

## Consider the quadratic equations ax2 + bx + c = 0, given an

example that satisfies the eight regions of the Venn Diagram.

Δ<0
Harder!
Give me an example of a quadratic equation …
i.) … with two real roots.
ii.) … with one repeated root.
iii.) … with two complex roots.
iv.) … whose root is (0,0).
v.) … with one real root and one complex root.
vi.) … with two complex roots that are not complex
conjugates.
viii.) … with discriminant (Δ) = i.
For example, x = -3 and x = -5 are the roots of the quadratic
equation x2 + 8x + 15 = 0.
Write down the quadratic that has the following pairs of complex
conjugates as roots:
i.) z= 3±i
ii.) z = -2 ± i
iii.) z = - 5 ± 3i
iv.) z = 4 ± 2i
v.) z = 2 ± 3i
End of Week Review

## 1.) Outline five key learning points from the past

week (last three lessons) – these should be things
that you did not know before that you know now.

## 2.) Make a note of anything that you found ‘tricky’

this week that you think might need close attention
when you come to revise for the module exam.
Homework

## FP1 – Complex Numbers – HW2

Posted online: tinyurl.com/amaths
AS Level Further Mathematics – Complex Numbers

Lesson 7:
• Square root of a complex number.
Review Questions:
Given that z = 5 - 4i and w = 2 - 3i, calculate
i.) Re(z) =
ii.) Im(w*) =
iii.) zw =
iv.) z*/w =
v.) z2 =
vi.) Calculate Δ for 2z2 – 3z - 11 = 0
vii.) Solve z2 + 2z + 10 = 0
Review Questions (Solutions):
Given that z = 5 - 4i and w = 2 - 3i, calculate
i.) Re(z) = 5
ii.) Im(w*) = 3
iii.) zw = - 2 – 23i
iv.) z*/w = (-2 + 23i)/23
v.) z2 = 9 – 40i
vi.) Calculate Δ for 2z2 – 3z - 11 = 0 Δ = 97
vii.) Solve z2 + 2z + 10 = 0 z = - 1 +/- 3i
Square root of a complex number:

Example,
Find the square root of 3 – 4i
Find the square roots of the following
complex numbers:
i.) 8 – 6i
ii.) 21 + 20i
iii.) 7 – 24i
iv.) 30i – 16
v.) 3 + 4i
AS Level Further Mathematics – Complex Numbers

Lesson 8:
• Radians as a measure of turn.
Review: Complex Number Jigsaw 2

## Convert 50 degrees to radians:

Write each of the following angles in radians,
leaving the answers as multiples of π:
a.) 90° b.) 125° c.) 45° d.) 30°
e.) 72° f.) 18° g.) 120° h.) 22.5°

## For each of the angles stated in radians, convert

to degrees without use of a calculator:
a.) π/3 b.) π /20 c.) π/5 d.) π/8

## e.) π/9 f.) 2π/3 g.) 5π/8 h.) 3π/5

AS Level Further Mathematics – Complex Numbers

Lesson 9:
• Modulus and argument of a complex number.
Modulus and argument of a complex
number:
Example:
Plot z1 = 3 + 4i, z2 = -3 + 4i and z3 = 3 – 4i on
an Argand Diagram and find the modulus and
argument of z1, z2 and z3.
Find the modulus and argument of the
following complex numbers:
e.g. 3 + 4i e.g. -5 –12i
i.) 6 + 8i vi.) -8
ii.) - 5 + 12i vii.) -4i
iii.) 5 – 12i viii.) 6
iv.) 9 – 12i ix.) 7 + 24i
v.) 3i x.) 7 – 24i
Find the complex numbers that have the
following modulus and arguments:
Modulus Argument
e.g. 2 3π/4
1.) 3 π/2
2.) 1 π/4
3.) 4 π
4.) 5 3π/2
5.) 2 5π/2
End of Week Review

## 1.) Outline five key learning points from the past

week (last three lessons) – these should be things
that you did not know before that you know now.

## 2.) Make a note of anything that you found ‘tricky’

this week that you think might need close attention
when you come to revise for the module exam.
Homework

## FP1 – Complex Numbers – HW3

Posted online: tinyurl.com/amaths
AS Level Further Mathematics – Complex Numbers

Lesson 10:
• Solving Quadratic Equations with Complex Co-
efficents.
Review Questions:
Given that z = 1 + i and w = - 1 - i, calculate
i.) z+w=
ii.) z–w=
iii.) zw =
iv.) z*/w =
v.) z2 =
vi.) |z| + |w| =
vi.) arg(w) – arg(z) =
Review Questions (Solutions):
Given that z = 1 + i and w = - 1 - i, calculate
i.) z+w=0
ii.) z – w = 2 + 2i
iii.) zw = -2i
iv.) z*/w = i
v.) z2 = 2i
vi.) |z| + |w| = 2√2
vi.) arg(w) – arg(z) = π
Complex Coefficients

## Exercise: Page 129, question 2, using the

method of multiplying through by the
conjugate of the co-efficient z2.
Equations Solution

z2 – (3 + 2i) + (1 + 3i) = 0 1 + i, 2 + i

z2 + (1 - 3i)z – (8 – i) = 0 2 + i, -3 + 2i

z2 – (4 + 5i)z – 3 + 9i = 0 1 + 2i, 3 + 3i
Equations Solution

## (1 + i)z2 + (3 - 2i)z - (21 - 7i) = 0 3 - i , -7/2 + 7/2i

AS Level Further Mathematics – Complex Numbers

Lesson 11:
• Solving polynomial equations with complex roots
incorporating the Factor Theorem from Core 2.
Review: Complex Number Jigsaw 3
Solving Polynomial Equations with
Complex Roots

## Incorporating the Factor Theorem from

Core 2.
The Factor Theorem

## 1.) For any function f(x),

if f(a) = 0 ⇔ (x – a) is a factor.

## 2.) For any function f(x),

if f(a/b) = 0 ⇔ (bx – a) is a factor.
Examples:
Use the factor theorem and the method of
equating co-efficients to factorise the
following expressions:
f(x) = x2 + 9x + 20

## f(x) = x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6

Factorise the following expressions as far as possible:
1.) x3 – 2x2 – 5x + 6
2.) x3 + 5x2 + 2x – 8
3.) x3 + 3x2 – 10x – 24
4.) x3 – x2 – 10x – 8
5.) x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6
6.) x4 – 16
7.) x3 – 27
8.) x3 + x 2 – x – 1
9.) x3 – 3x2 + x - 3
Factorise the following expressions as far as possible:
1.) x3 – 2x2 – 5x + 6 = (x-1)(x+2)(x-3)
2.) x3 + 5x2 + 2x – 8 = (x-1)(x+2)(x+4)
3.) x3 + 3x2 – 10x – 24 = (x+2)(x-3)(x+4)
4.) x3 – x2 – 10x – 8 = (x+1)(x+2)(x-4)
5.) x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6 = (x+1)(x+2)(x+3)
6.) x4 – 16 = (x+2)(x-2)(x2+4)
7.) x3 – 27 = (x-3)(x2 + 3x + 9)
8.) x3 + x2 – x – 1 = (x+1)2(x-1)
9.) x3 – 3x2 + x – 3 = (x-3)(x2+1)
Complex Numbers - Homework 4
2.) Find the modulus and argument (in radians) of the following
complex numbers:
a.) 2 + 3i b.) -3 + 4i c.) -5i d.) -12
3.) Find the complex numbers which have the following modulus and
arguments:
a.) |z| = 5, arg(z) = π/6 b.) |z| = 3, arg(z) = - π/3
4.) Solve the following quadratic equations:
a.) z2 + 2z + 10 = 0 b.) (1+i)z2 – 2z + 11 = 0
5.) Explain in your own words the factor theorem.
6.) Factorise fully x3 – 2x2 -5x + 6 using the factor theorem.
The Factor Theorem – True or False
1. f(2) = 0 → (x + 2) is a factor of f(x).
2. f(2) = 0 → (x – 2) is a factor of f(x).
3. f(-3) = 0 → (x + 3) is a factor of f(x).
4. f(-3) = 0 → (x - 3) is a factor of f(x).
5. f(4) = 7 → (x – 4) is a factor of f(x).
6. f(4) = 7 → (x – 4) is not a factor of f(x).
7. (x - 3) is a factor of x3 – x2 – 3x – 2
8. (x - 3) is not a factor of x3 + x2 – 3x + 2
9. If f(x) = x3 – 6x2 – x + 6 and f(6) = 0 then it would be a good idea
to test f(3).
10. If f(x) = x3 – 6x2 – x + 6 and f(6) = 0 then it would be a silly idea
to test f(3).
Example:
The equation 2z3 – 12z2 + 25z – 21 = 0
has one real root. Use the factor theorem
to find it and hence find the other two
roots of the equation and plot them on an
Argand Diagram.
Practice:
Solve the equations below all of which have at least
one real root:
z3 – 7z2 + 19z – 13 = 0
2z3 – 2z2 – 3z – 2 = 0
z3 + 3z2 + 5z + 3 = 0
4z4 – 20z3 + 37z2 – 31z + 10 = 0
5z4 + 8z3 - 8z – 5 = 0
z3 – 1 = 0 (cube roots of 1)
Review:
Solve z2 + 4z + 5 = 0.

More generally:
If z is a root of a polynomial equation with real
coefficients then so is z*.
This should make solving equations with complex
roots easier because essentially, you get ‘two for
the price of one’!
Example:
Verify that - 2 - i is a root of
z4 – 3z3 – 11z2 + 13z + 60 = 0

## Hence or otherwise, find all four roots of the

equation and plot them on an Argand
Diagram.
Practice:
Further Pure Mathematics 1, Page 122, Questions 5
and 6.
FP1, January 2007, Question 5, 7 marks:
Complex Numbers – Homework 5
Solve the following equations:
1.) z2 + 4z + 5 = 0 Hints:
1.) to 4.) use the quadratic
2.) z2 – 2z + 4 = 0 formula.
3.) z2 + 6z + 10 = 0 5.) to 8.) use the factor
theorem to find the real root,
4.) 2z2 + 5z + 4 = 0 then find the complex roots.
5.) z3 + z = 0
6.) z3 – 5z2 + 9z – 5 = 0
7.) z3 + z2 - 2 = 0
8.) z3 – 8z2 + 25z – 26 = 0
Homework Solutions
Solve the following equations:
1.) z2 + 4z + 5 = 0 -2±i
2.) z2 – 2z + 4 = 0 1 ± i√3
3.) z2 + 6z + 10 = 0 -3 ± i
4.) 2z2 + 5z + 4 = 0 -5/4 ± (i√7)/4
5.) z3 + z = 0 0, ± i
6.) z3 – 5z2 + 9z – 5 = 0 1, 2 ± i
7.) z3 + z2 - 2 = 0 1, -1 ± i
8.) z3 – 8z2 + 25z – 26 = 0 2, 3 ± 2i
End of Week Review

## 1.) Outline five key learning points from the past

week (last three lessons) – these should be things
that you did not know before that you know now.

## 2.) Make a note of anything that you found ‘tricky’

this week that you think might need close attention
when you come to revise for the module exam.
AS Level Further Mathematics – Complex Numbers

Lesson 12:
• Loci on the Argand Diagram with Complex
Numbers.
Loci with Complex Numbers on the
Argand Diagram:

## Remember from our previous work that |z| (the

modulus of z) refers to the length or distance of
the complex number z from the origin.
Review Questions:
Given that z = 2 + i and w = - 1 - 3i, calculate
i.) z+w=
ii.) z–w=
iii.) zw =
iv.) z*/w =
v.) z2 =
vi.) |z| =
vi.) arg(w) =
Review Questions (Solutions):
Given that z = 2 + i and w = - 1 - 3i, calculate
i.) z + w = 1 – 2i
ii.) z – w = 3 + 4i
iii.) zw = 1 – 7i
iv.) z*/w = (1 + 7i)/10
v.) z2 = 3 + 4i
vi.) arg(w*) = π – tan-1 (3)
| z – (1 + i) | = 3
The distance of all the complex numbers from
the point (1 + i) is 3.

… | z – (1 + i) | > 3
… | z – (1 + i) | ≤ 3 ?
| z – (i) | = | z + (1) |
The distance of all the complex numbers from the
point (i) is the same as their distance from (-1)

… | z – (i) | > | z + (1) |
… | z – (i) | ≤ | z + (1) | ?
Generally:
| z – a | = b where a is a complex number and b is a real number

a
Practice:
Represent the following loci on an Argand Diagram
1.) |z–3|=2 7.) |z+2|≤5
2.) |z–2|=|z–4| 8.) | z – (1 + i) | > 2
3.) | z – (1 + i) | = 3 9.) | z | < 2½
4.) | z + 2i | = | z + 2 | 10.) Re (z) > 0
5.) |z+i|>3 11.) | z + 1 | > | z + i |
6.) | z – 3i | < | z + 2i | 12.) Im (z) < 0
Represent the following loci on an Argand Diagram:
2 < |z| ≤ 5 3 < |z - 5| < 7
Loci with Complex Numbers on the
Argand Diagram (Part II):
Remember from our previous work that
arg(z) refers to the size of the clockwise
angle between the real axis and the line
joining the origin to the plotted complex
number.
e.g. Find arg(z) for -3 + 4i
Simple Examples:
Indicate the regions on an Argand Diagram
which satisfy the following conditions.
- arg (z) = π/3
- arg (z - 1) = π/4
- 0 < arg (z) < π/2
- 0 ≤ arg (z – i) < π/2
Practice:
Further Pure Mathematics 1, Page 152, Questions 2
and 3.
What are the equations of Im
the coloured lines in the
form arg(z) = … y=x

Re
More Complex Examples:
Find the points z which satisfy the following
pairs of conditions.
- arg (z) = π/4 and |z| = 5.
- arg (z + 2) = π/2 and arg (z) = 2π/3
FP1, Page 152, Questions 5 then 4.
Complex Numbers – Homework 6
Plot the following loci on separate Argand diagrams:
1.) |z| = 3 2.) |z| > 4
3.) |z| < 5 4.) |z – i| = 3
5.) 2 < |z| < 5 6.) |z + 1| = |z + i|
7.) arg(z) = π/3 8.) arg(z) = - π/3
9.) arg(z – 1) = π/4 10.) arg(z + i) = π/2
11.) -1 < |z – 1| < 1 12.) -2 < |z + 2| < 5
13.) - 2 < |z + 2i| < 5 14.) |z| = -5
15.) i < |z| < 3 + i 16.) arg(z) = 3i + 4
Review Questions on Complex Numbers
Complex Number Summary
Preliminary:
i.) Use of radians to measure angles. (C2)
ii.) The factor theorem. (C2)
Main learning:
i.) What is an imaginary number, a complex number, real and imaginary parts of a complex
number, conjugate of a complex number.
ii.) +, -, x and ÷ of complex numbers.
iii.) Plotting complex numbers on an Argand Diagram.
iv.) The square root of a complex number.
vi.) Solving quadratic equations with a.) real b.) complex co-efficients.
v.) Solve a.) cubic b.) quartic polynomials where one or two roots are found using the factor
theorem.
vi.) The modulus and argument of a complex number.
vii.) Loci problems using a.) the modulus b.) the argument.
Multiplying Complex Numbers: Dividing Complex Numbers:
Complex Number Revision (1)
m = 3 + 4i, n = 2 – 5i, p = -4 + 2i & q = i
1.) Re(m) 2.) Im(n)
3.) n* 4.) p*
5.) m+n 6.) p–n
7.) mn 8.) m/p
9.) (n + p)/q 10.) np/(n + q)
11.) (1/m) + (1/n) 12.) (1/p) – (1/q)
If w = a + ib & z = c + id, then prove
13.) (w + z)* = w* + z* 14.) (w – z)* = w* - z*
15.) (wz)* = w*z* 16.) (w/z)* = w*/z*
Exam Question on Complex Numbers
Exam Question on Complex Numbers
Complex Number Revision (2)
1.) Find the square roots of the following complex
number:
i.) 1.5 + 4i ii.) 0.75 + 2i
iii.) 1.25 + 6i iv.) 2.25 + 6i
2.) Solve the following quadratic equations which
have complex roots:
i.) x2 + 4x + 5 = 0 ii.) x2 – 2x + 4 = 0
iii.) x2 + 6x + 10 = 0 iv.) 2x2 + 5x + 4 = 0
v.) z2 – (3 + i)z + (1 + 3i) = 0
vi.) z2 + (1 - 3i)z – (8 – i) = 0
Complex Numbers Revision: Modulus, Argument and Loci

## 1.) Find the modulus and argument of z = 3 – 4i.

2.) Sketch the locus given by |z| = 5 on an Argand Diagram.
3.) Sketch the locus given by |z + 2i| = 2 on an Argand Diagram.
4.) Sketch the locus given by |z + i| = |z – 1| on an Argand
Diagram and then state its equation in the form y = mx + c.
5.) Find the point z for which arg(z) = π/6 and |z| = 3.
Complex Number Revision (3)
1.) Find the modulus and argument of the following complex numbers:
i.) 3 + 4i ii.) -5 + 12i
iii.) -6 – 8i iv.) 9 – 12i
2.) Find the complex number that have these modulus and argument giving
decimals to 3sf if necessary:
i.) |z| = 1, arg(z) = π/4 ii.) |z| = 2, arg(z) = 2π/3
iii.) |z| = 4, arg(z) = 5π/4 iv.) |z| = 3, arg(z) = 7π/4
3.) Sketch the following loci on an Argand Diagram:
i.) |z| = 3 ii.) |z – 3i| = 2
iii.) |z -1| = |z + i| iv.) arg (z) = π/6
v.) 0 ≤ arg (z) ≤ π/2 vi.) arg (z) = π/4 and |z| = 2
Exam Question on Loci

## The loci C1 and C2 are given by |z – 2i| = 2 and

|z + l| = |z + i| respectively.

and C2. [5]

## (ii) Hence write down the complex numbers

represented by the points of intersection of C1 and C2.
[2]
January 2007, Question 4, 6 Marks
i.) Sketch on an Argand Diagram the locus given by
|z – 1 + i| = √2.
1 ≤ |z – 1 + i| ≤ √2.
Complex Number Revision (4)

## Examples of Solving Equations:

Use the Factor Theorem (Core 2) then Equating Co-efficients (Core 1) to
solve the equations below:
1.) z3 – 5z2 + 9z – 5 = 0
2.) z4 – 1 = 0 (the 4th roots of 1)
Complex Number Revision (4)

Practice:
Use the Factor Theorem (Core 2) then Equating Coefficients (Core 1) to
solve the equations below all of which have at least one real root and two
complex roots (FP1):
1.) z3 – 7z2 + 19z – 13 = 0
2.) 2z3 – 2z2 – 3z – 2 = 0
3.) z3 + 3z2 + 5z + 3 = 0
4.) 4z4 – 20z3 + 37z2 – 31z + 10 = 0
5.) 5z4 + 8z3 - 8z – 5 = 0
6.) z3 – 1 = 0 (cube roots of 1)
January 2007, Question 5, 7 Marks
i.) Verify that z3 - 8 = (z - 2)(z2 + 2z + 4).
ii.) Solve the quadratic equation z2 + 2z + 4 = 0 giving