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QUANTUM AND

PARTICLE PHYSICS
FIS 3114 – PHYSICS
(FOUNDATION IN SCIENCE)

Prepared by:
• Quantum Physics
• Particle Physics
Planck’s Quantum Theory

• The foundation of the Planck’s quantum

theory is a theory of black body
• Black body is defined as an ideal system
or object that absorbs and emits all
that is incident on it.
• The EM radiation emitted by the
black body black body is called black body
Planck’s Quantum Theory

• In an ideal black body, incident

light is completely absorbed.
• Light that enters the cavity
through the small hole is reflected
multiple times from the interior
walls until it is completely
absorbed.
black body
Planck’s Quantum Theory

• The spectrum of Experimental

electromagnetic result
the black body Rayleigh -Jeans
(experimental theory Classical
result) is shown in physics
Wien’s theory
figure 1.

Figure 1 : Black Body Spectrum

Planck’s Quantum Theory

• Rayleigh-Jeans and Wien’s theories (classical physics) failed to explain

the shape of the black body spectrum or the spectrum of light emitted by
hot objects.
• Classical physics predicts a black body radiation curve that rises without
limit as the f increases.
• The classical ideas are :
• Energy of the e.m. radiation is related to the amplitude and does not
depend on its frequency or wavelength.
• An object at any temperature emits radiation (energy)
• Energy of the e.m. radiation is continuously.
Planck’s Quantum Theory
• In 1900, Max Planck proposed his theory that is fit with the experimental
curve in Figure 1 at all wavelengths known as Planck’s quantum theory.
• The assumptions made by Planck in his theory are :
• The e.m. radiation emitted by the black body is a discrete (separate) packets
of energy or quanta known as Photons. This means the energy of e.m.
• The energy size of the radiation depends on its frequency.
Planck’s Quantum Theory

• The energy is proportional to the frequency (E f ) of the radiation.

The greater the frequency , the greater the quantum of energy (f ↑, E↑).
• Each discrete energy value represents a different quantum state for the
molecule.
 When molecule is in n = 1 quantum state, its energy is hf. When
molecule is in n = 2 quantum state, its energy is 2hf and so on.
Comparison between Planck’ quantum theory and
classical theory of energy.
Planck’s Quantum Theory Classical theory
Energy of the e.m radiation is quantised. Energy of the e.m radiation is
(discrete) continously.

Photon
Energy of e.m radiation depends on its Energy of e.m radiation does not depend
frequency or wavelength on its frequency or wavelength (depends
on Intensity)
E  hf I  A2
Eclassical k BT kB  Boltzman' s constant
T  temperature
Planck’s Quantum Theory

• According to this assumptions, the quantum E of the energy for

radiation of frequency f is given by

E  hf c  f

Where h : Planck constant = 6.63 × 10-34 Js

hc
E Planck’s quantum theory

Photon

• In 1905, Albert Einstein proposed that light comes in bundle of energy (light
is transmitted as tiny particles), called photons.

• Photon is defined as a particle with zero mass consisting of a

quantum of electromagnetic radiation where its energy is
concentrated.

Quantum means “fixed amount”

• In equation form, photon energy (energy of photon) is

c
E  hf  h

Photon

• Unit of photon energy is J or eV.

• The electron volt (eV) is a unit of energy that can be defined as the
kinetic energy gained by an electron in being accelerated by a
potential difference (voltage) of 1 volt.
• Unit conversion : 1 eV = 1.60 × 10-19 J
• Photons travel at the speed of light in a vacuum.
• Photons are required to explain the photoelectric effect and other
phenomena that require light to have particle property.
Example 1
Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light, λ = 450 nm
(Given c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s
1 eV=1.60 x 10-19 J, me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg, e = 1.60 x 10-19 C)

c
E  hf  h
 1
3.00 10 ms
 6.63 10 Js 
8
34
9
450 10 m
 4.42 1019 J
Example 2
(a) What is the energy of a photon of red light of
wavelength 650 nm ?
(b) What is the wavelength of a photon of energy 2.40 eV ?

Solution
a) c
E  hf  h
 1

 6.63 1034 Js 
8
3.00 10 ms
650 109 m
 3.06 1019 J
(b) Converting energy in eV to Joule (J)

c
E  hf  h

c
h
E
1

 6.63 1034 Js 
8
3.00 10 ms
2.40eV 1.60 1019 J 
 5.18 107 m  518nm
Photoelectric Effect
-Quantum And Particle Physics-
Photoelectric Effect

• The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from the metal

surface when electromagnetic radiation of enough frequency
falls/strikes/incidents /shines on it.
• A photoelectron is an electron ejected due to photoelectric effect
(an electron emitted from the surface of the metal when light strikes its
surface).

(light)
- - - - -- - - - - -
Metal surface
Free electrons
Photoelectric Effect
• The photoelectric effect can be measured using a device like
that pictured in figure below.
Cathode (emitter
or target metal) Anode(collector)
- -
-
glass
vacuum A
photoelectron
V

power supply
rheostat

The photoelectric effect’s experiment

Photoelectric Effect

• A negative electrode (cathode or target metal or emitter) and a positive

electrode (anode or collector) are placed inside an evacuated glass tube.
• The monochromatic light (UV- incoming light) of known frequency is
incident on the target metal.
• The incoming light ejects photoelectrons from a target metal.
• The photoelectrons are then attracted to the collector.
• The result is a photoelectric current flows in the circuit that can be
measured with an ammeter
Photoelectric Effect

• When the positive voltage (potential difference) is increased, more

photoelectrons reach the collector, hence the photoelectric current also
increases.
• As positive voltage becomes sufficiently large, the photoelectric current
reaches a maximum constant value Im, called saturation current.
• Saturation current is defined as the maximum constant value of
photocurrent in which when all the photoelectrons have reached
the anode.
Photoelectric Effect
• If the positive voltage is gradually decreased, the photoelectric current I also
decreases slowly.
• Even at zero voltage there are still some photoelectrons with sufficient energy
reach the collector and the photoelectric current flows is Io
Graph of photoelectric current against voltage
Photoelectric current, I for photoelectric effect’s experiment
Im

I0

Voltage, V
 Vs 0
B (After)A (Before reversing the
terminal)
Photoelectric Effect
• When the voltage is made negative by reversing the power supply
terminal as shown in figure below, the photoelectric current decreases since
most photoelectrons are repelled by the collector which is now negative
electric potential. E.M. radiation (incoming light)
Cathode (emitter
or target metal) Anode(collector)
- -
-
glass
vacuum A
photoelectron
Reversing power
V supply terminal
(to determine the
power supply stopping
B rheostat potential)
Photoelectric Effect

• If this reverse voltage is small enough, the fastest electrons will still reach the
collector and there will be the photoelectric current in the circuit.
• If the reverse voltage is increased, a point is reached where the photoelectric current
reaches zero – no photoelectrons have sufficient kinetic energy to reach the collector.
• This reverse voltage is called the stopping potential , Vs.

Vs is defined as the minimum reverse potential (voltage)

needed for electrons from reaching the collector.
• By using conservation of energy :
(loss of KE of photoelectron = gain in PE) ;
1 2
K.Emax = eVs eVs  mv
2
Einstein’s theory of Photoelectric Effect

• According to Einstein’s theory, an electron is ejected/emitted from the target

metal by a collision with a single photon.
• In this process, all the photon energy is transferred to the electron on the
surface of metal target.
• Since electrons are held in the metal by attractive forces, some minimum
energy,Wo (work function, which is on the order of a few electron volts for
most metal) is required just enough to get an electron out through the
surface.
Einstein’s theory of Photoelectric Effect

• If the frequency f of the incoming light is so low that is hf < Wo , then the
photon will not have enough energy to eject any electron at all.
• If hf > Wo , then electron will be ejected and energy will be conserved (the
excess energy appears as kinetic energy of the ejected electron).
• This is summed up by Einstein’s photoelectric equation ,
E  Wo  K .Emax
1 2 1 2
hf  W0  mv max but eVs  mv
2 2
hf  W0  eVs
Einstein’s theory of Photoelectric Effect

E  Wo  K .Emax Einstein’s
1 photoelectric
hf  W0  mvmax
2
equation
2
c
E  hf  h = photon energy

f = frequency of EM radiation /incoming light
1 2
K .Emax  mvmax
2
vmax = maximum speed of the photoelectron
Einstein’s theory of Photoelectric Effect

1 hc
E  Wo  K .Emax hf  W0  mvmax
2
Wo  hf o 
2 o
Wo = the work function of a metal.
= the minimum energy required (needed) to eject an
electron from the surface of target metal.
c fo = threshold frequency.
fo 
o = minimum frequency of e.m. radiation required to
eject an electron from the surface of the metal.

λo = threshold wavelength.
= maximum wavelength of e.m. radiation required to
eject an electron from thesurface of the target metal.
Einstein’s theory of Photoelectric Effect

1
K max  mvmax  eVs  hf  hf 0
2

where;

Kmax of the photoelectrons increases when the frequency of

Work Function, Wo
 W0 depends on the type metal used
Metal Work Function, W0 (eV)
Potassium 2.24
Natrium 2.46
Zink 3.57
Copper 4.16
Platinum 6.30
Einstein’s theory of Photoelectric Effect
hf > Wo vmax
hf hf
-
- v=0
W0 W0
Meta - Metal -
l
Electron is 1
emitted hf  W0  mvmax
2
hf  Wo Electron is
2 ejected.

hf

W0
hf < Wo Metal -

No electron is ejected.
Example 1
The work function for a silver surface is Wo = 4.74 eV. Calculate the
a) minimum frequency that light must have to eject electrons from
the surface.
b) maximum wavelength that light must have to eject electrons
from the surface.

(Given c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s

1 eV=1.60 x 10-19 J, me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg, e = 1.60 x 10-19 C)

a) Wo  hf o b) o  263 nm
f o  1.14x10 15 Hz
Example 2
What is the maximum kinetic energy of electrons ejected from
calcium by 420 nm violet light, given the work function for calcium
metal is 2.71 eV?
(Given c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s
1 eV=1.60 x 10-19 J, me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg, e = 1.60 x 10-19 C)

KEmax  E  Wo
hc
  2.71eV

6.63 1034 Js3.0 108 ms1 

420 10 m 9
 2.711.60  10 19

 3.97 10 20 J  0.25eV
Example 3
Sodium has a work function of 2.30 eV. Calculate
a. its threshold frequency,
b. the maximum speed of the photoelectrons produced when the sodium
is illuminated by light of wavelength 500 nm,
c. the stopping potential with light of this wavelength.
(Given c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s
1 eV=1.60 x 10-19 J, me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg, e = 1.60 x 10-19 C)
Solution
a. W0  hf 0

W 2.30 1.60 1019
f0  

h 6.63 1034 Js
 5.55 1014 Hz
Solution
(Given c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s
1 eV=1.60 x 10-19 J, me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg, e = 1.60 x 10-19 C)

b. hc 1
 W0  mv 2 c. 1 2
eVs  mv
 2 2
 hc 
2  W0  Vs 

1 9.111031 2.56 105 
2

v   2 1.6 1019
m
 0.19V
2
34

 6.63 10 Js 3.0 10 ms8 1
 
 2.30 1.6 10 19


  
500nm
9.1110 31 kg
 2.56 105 ms 1
Graph in Photoelectric Effect
 Generally, Einstein’s photoelectric equation;
E  Wo  K .Emax

K .Emax  E  Wo
K.Emax K .Emax  hf  Wo

y  mx  c

f ↑ K.Emax ↑
0 f
fo
Wo
Graph in Photoelectric Effect
Stopping voltage ,Vs f ↑ Vs ↑
K .Emax  hf  Wo
eVs  hf  Wo
h Wo
Vs  f 
e e
0 frequency , f
y  mx  c fo
W0

e
Graph in Photoelectric Effect
Variation of photoelectric current I with voltage V for the radiation of
different intensities but its frequency and metal are fixed.
Photoelect ric current , I
Intensity 2x

Intensity 1x

Voltage , V
Vs 0
When intensity is increased the maximum current attained is
higher showing that more e- are emitted.
Vs remains the same shows that the Kmax of photoelectron independent
of intensity of light
Graph in Photoelectric Effect
Notes:

Classical physics
energy
Light intensity , I 
time  area
Quantum physics
number of photons
Light intensity , I 
time  area
Light intensity  number of photons
Graph in Photoelectric Effect

Light intensity ↑ ,
number of photons ↑ ,
number of electrons ↑ ,
current ↑.
(If light intensity ↑, photoelectric current ↑).
Graph in Photoelectric Effect
Variation of photoelectric current I with voltage V for the radiation of
different frequencies but its intensity and metal are fixed.
Photoelect ric current , I
Im

Vs2 > Vs1

f2 > f1
f2
f1
Voltage , V
 Vs 2  Vs 1 0
K .Emax  hf  Wo
eVs  hf  Wo f ↑ Vs ↑
h Wo
Vs  f 
e e
Graph in Photoelectric Effect
Variation of photoelectric current I with voltage V for the different
metals but the intensity and frequency of the radiation are fixed.
Photoelectric current ,I

Im

W01
W02
Voltage ,V
 Vs 1  Vs 2 0
K .Emax  hf  Wo
W02 > W01
eVs  hf  Wo Wo , Vs 
h Wo Vs1 > Vs2
Vs  f 
e e
Example 6
K.Emax (x 10-19 J)

4.8

Use the graph above to find the value of

i) work function and
ii) the threshold wavelength.
Solution K .Emax  E  Wo
K.Emax (x 10-19 J) K .Emax  hf  Wo

y  mx  c

4.8

From the graph when K .Emax  0,

Wo  hf o f o  4.8 x1014 Hz 
 3.18 x 10-19 J
c
Threshold wavelengt h, o 
fo
 6.25 x 10-7 m
OBSERVATIONS:
The photoelectric effects experiment

1. Electrons are emitted immediately

2.Stopping potential does not depend on the intensity of light.
3.Threshold frequency of light is different for different target metal.
4.Number of electrons emitted of the photoelectron current depend on
the intensity of light.
EXPLAIN the failure of classical theory to justify the
photoelectric effect.
1. MAXIMUM KINETIC ENERGY OF PHOTOELECTRON

Classical prediction Experimental Result Modern Theory

The higher the intensity, Very low intensity but Based on Einstein’s
the greater the energy high frequency photoelectric equation:
imparted to the metal radiation could emit K max  hf  W0
surface for emission of photoelectrons. The The maximum kinetic energy
photoelectrons. maximum kinetic of photoelectron depends
energy of only on the light frequency .
The higher the intensity photoelectrons is
of light the greater the independent of light The maximum kinetic energy
kinetic energy maximum of intensity. of photoelectrons DOES
photoelectrons. NOT depend on light
intensity.
DEPENDENCE OF AND ON THE TYPES OF METAL SURFACE
2. EMISSION OF PHOTOELECTRON (energy)

Experimental
Classical prediction Modern Theory
Result
Emission of Emission of When the light frequency is
photoelectrons occur photoelectrons occur greater than threshold
for all frequencies of only when frequency frequency, a higher rate of
light. Energy of light of the light exceeds photons striking the metal
is independent of the certain frequency surface results in a higher rate of
frequency. which value is photoelectrons emitted. If it is
characteristic of the less than threshold frequency no
material being photoelectrons are emitted.
illuminated. Hence the emission of
photoelectrons depend on the
light frequency.
3. EMISSION OF PHOTOELECTRON ( time )

Experimental
Classical prediction Modern Theory
Result
Light energy is spread over Photoelectrons are The transfer of photon’s
the wavefront, the amount of emitted from the energy to an electron is
energy incident on any one surface of the instantaneous as its
electron is small. An electron metal almost energy is absorbed in its
must gather sufficient energy instantaneously entirely, much like a
before emission, hence there after the surface is particle to particle
is time interval between illuminated, even collision. The emission
absorption of light energy at very low light of photoelectron is
and emission. Time interval intensities. immediate and no time
increases if the light intensity interval between
is low. absorption of light
energy and emission.
4. ENERGY OF LIGHT

Classical Experimental
Modern Theory
prediction Result
Energy of light Energy of light According to Planck’s quantum
depends only on depends on theory which is
amplitude frequency E=hf
( or intensity) and not Energy of light depends on its
on frequency. frequency.
Dependence of photoelectric current on intensity of incident light
• Experimental observations deviate from classical predictions
based on Maxwell’s E.M. theory. Hence the classical
physics cannot explain the phenomenon of photoelectric
effect.
• The modern theory based on Einstein’s photon theory of
light can explain the phenomenon of photoelectric effect.
• It is because Einstein postulated that light is quantized and
light is emitted, transmitted and reabsorbed as photons.
SUMMARY : Comparison between classical physics
and quantum physics about photoelectric effect experiment
Feature Classical physics Quantum physics

Threshold frequency An incident light of any To eject an electron, the

frequency can eject electrons incident light must have a
(does not has threshold frequency greater than a
frequency), as long as the certain minimum value,
beam has sufficient intensity. (threshold frequency) , no
matter how intense the light.
Maximum kinetic Depends on the light Depends only on the light
energy of intensity. frequency .
photoelectrons
Emission of There should be some delays Electrons are emitted
photoelectrons to emit electrons from a metal spontaneously.
surface.
Energy of light Depends on the light Depends only on the light
intensity. frequency .
Wave Properties of Particles
Wave Particle Duality

is a phenomenon where under certain

circumstances a particle exhibits wave
properties and under other conditions a
wave exhibits properties of a particle.
Classical Physics

• Deals with 2 categories of phenomena

(a) Particles
• tiny objects like bullets, electron, proton, neutron.
• they have mass & obey Newton’s Laws.
(b) Waves
• travels through an opening or around a barrier the wave
diffracts & different parts of the wave interfere.
• both have properties that are mutually exclusive.
The de Broglie Wavelength

• Wave-Particle Duality is the phenomenon where under certain

circumstances a particle exhibits wave properties, and under other
conditions a wave exhibits properties of a particle. But we
cannot observe both aspect of its behavior simultaneously,
The de Broglie Wavelength

• According to the Quantum theory, a photon of electromagnetic

radiation of wavelength λ has energy :

E  hf
c
Eh ….(1)

where h : Planck constant
c : speed of light in vacuum
The de Broglie Wavelength
• According to Einstein’s Theory of special relativity, the energy
equivalent E of a mass m is given by:

E mc 2
(2)
Equating (1) & (2):

hc
mc 2

h
mc

The de Broglie Wavelength
• So, the momentum p of a photon with wavelength λ is given by
h
p  mc  and

h
p  mv  for a particle

h
 De Broglie wavelength
p
Property
of wave v ,  
Property of
particle
The de Broglie Wavelength
Evidences to show duality of light
Light can behave as

PARTICLE WAVE
Photoelectric Effect Young’s Double Slit experiment
Compton effect Diffraction grating experiment

Particle behaves as a wave Electron diffraction

Example 1
In a photoelectric effect experiment, a light source of wavelength
5 x 10-7 m is incident on a potassium surface. Calculate the
momentum and energy of the photon used.
(Planck’s constant, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s)

h
p p  1.33 1027 kg m s 1

Eh
c E  3.98 10 19 J

Example 2
An electron and a photon has the same wavelength of 0.25 nm.
Calculate the momentum and energy (in eV) of the electron
and the photon.
For an electron :
h 6.6x10 34 24 1
pe    2.64 x10 kg m s
 0.25x10 9 24
pe  2 .64 x10 1
pe  meve  ve  31
 2.90 x 10 6
m s
me 9. 11x10
hve (6.6x1034 )( 2.90x106 )
E  hf  
 0.25x109
7.65x1018
 19
 47.8 eV
1.6x10
Solution
For a photon :

h
p photon   2.64 x 10 24 kg m s 1

hc (6.6 3 x 10 34 )(3 x 108 )
E 
 0.25 x 10 9
7.96 x 10 16
 19
 4972.5 eV
1.6 x 10
Electron Diffraction
diffraction
graphite film screen pattern
anode

+4000 V
cathode
electron
diffraction
Electron diffraction tube
Electron Diffraction
Electron Diffraction

• In 1927 , two physicists C.J Davission and L. H Germer carried out electron
diffraction experiment to prove the de Broglie relationship.
• A graphite film is used as a target.
• A beam of electrons in a cathode-ray tube is accelerated by the applied
voltage towards a graphite film.
• The beam of electrons is diffracted after passing through the graphite film.
• A diffraction pattern is observed on the fluorescence screen.
• This shows that a beam of fast moving particles (electrons) behaves as a
wave, exhibiting diffraction – a wave property.
Electron Diffraction

• Davisson and Germer discovered that if the velocity of electrons is

increased, the rings are seen to become narrower showing that the
wavelength of electrons decreases with increasing velocity as
predicted by de Broglie relationship.

h
 ….(1)
mv
v ,  
Electron Diffraction
• The velocity of electrons can be determined from the accelerating
voltage (voltage between anode and cathode) i.e :
U K
1 2
eV  mv
2
2eV ….(2)
v
m
(2) into (1) ,
h

2 meV
V = accelerating voltage
Example 3
An electron is accelerated from rest through a potential difference
of 1200 V. Calculate its de Broglie wavelength.
(me= 9.11 x 10-31 kg)
(Potential Energy  Kinetic Energy)
h
 eV  12 mev 2
2meV
2eV
v
me
or
v  2.05x107 m s 1
h h 6.6x1034
p   
 me v (9.11x1031 )(2.05x107 )
 3.53x10 -11 m
Example 4
An electron and a proton have the same kinetic energy. Determine the
ratio of the de Broglie wavelength of the electron to that of the proton.
(me= 9.11 x 10-31 kg, mp = 1.67 x 10-27 kg)

h
e 2me K e 2m p
   42.8
p h 2me
2m p K p
Electron Microscope
• A practical device that relies on the wave properties of electrons is
electron microscope.
• It is similar to optical compound microscope in many aspects.

• The advantage of the electron microscope over the optical

microscope is the resolving power of the electron microscope is
much higher than that of an optical microscope.
The resolving power is inversely proportional to the wavelength
- a smaller wavelength means greater resolving power, or the ability to
see details.
Electron Microscope
• This is because the electrons can be accelerated to a very high
kinetic energy (KE) giving them a very short wavelength λ
typically 100 times shorter than those of visible light.
• As a result, electron microscopes are able to distinguish details
- Thus, an electron microscope can distinguish clearly 2 points
separated by a distance which is of the order of nanometer.
- But an compound microscope can only distinguish clearly 2
points separated by a distance which is of order of micrometer.
Electron Microscope

• In the electron microscope, electrons are produced by the electron gun.

• Electrons are accelerated by voltages on the order of 105 V have
wavelengths on the order of 0.004 nm.
• Electrons are deflected by the “magnetic lens” to form a parallel beam
which then incident on the object.
• The “magnetic lens” are actually magnetic fields that exert forces on
the electrons to bring them to a focus.
• The fields are produced by carefully designed current-carrying coils of
wire.
Electron Microscope

• When the object is struck by the electrons, more penetrate in some

parts than in others, depending on the thickness and density of
the part.
• The image is formed on a fluorescent screen.
• The image is brightest where most electrons have transmitted.
The object must be very thin, otherwise too much electron scattering
occurs and no image form.
Electron Microscope

a) transmission electron microscope,

which produces a two-dimensional image.
b) scanning electron microscope ,
which produces a three-dimensional image.
Transmission Electron
Microscope
Scanning Electron Microscope
Bohr’s Atomic Model

• At the beginning of the 20th century, scientists were failed to explain

the characteristics of the spectra emitted by the atoms.
• In 1913, Neils Bohr provided an explanation of the atomic spectra.
• Using the simplest atom, Bohr try to explain why the atom was stable.
Bohr’s Postulates
• He proposed a quantum approach to the motion of electrons within the atom.
• Postulate:
• The electrons move only in certain circular orbits, called stationary states
or energy levels. When the electron is orbiting in one of these orbits, it
• The only allowed orbits are those with discrete set of numbers for which
the angular momentum of the electron equals an integer multiple of h .
2
• Emission or absorption of electromagnetic radiation occurs only when an
electron makes a transition from one allowed orbit to another. The
frequency of the emitted electromagnetic radiation is given by hf =Ei – Ef .
Bohr’s Postulates

• He proposed a quantum approach to the motion of electrons within the atom.

• Postulate:
• Electrons move about the nucleus in circular orbits determined by the
Coulomb’s and Newton’s law.
• Only certain orbits are stable. The electron does not radiate EM energy in
these special orbits, and the energy is constant with time these are called
stationary states.
• A spectral line of frequency f is emitted when an electron jumps from a
initial orbit of energy Ei to a final orbit of energy Ef, where
hf =Ei – Ef .
Energy Level Diagram

13.6
En   2
eV
n
where n  1, 2, 3, ...

• The minus sign tells us that much energy is needed to raise the electron to the
zero level.
• When n = ∞, the energy is zero and the electron is completely removed from
the atom.
Energy Level Diagram
• The excitation energy is the
energy that must be supplied to
the atom to raise the electron
from the ground state to an
excited state.
• The ionisation energy is the
energy that must be supplied to
liberate the electron from the
atom when the electron is in the
ground state.
Example 5

• One of the lines in the line spectrum of cadmium has a wavelength of

467.8 nm. What is the difference in eV, between two energy levels
which are involved in the emission of the line.

Solution:
hc
E 

6.63  10 34 Js 3.0  108 ms 1  

1 

9 19
467.8  10 m  1.60  10 C 
 2.66eV
Example 6
• The diagram below shows some of the energy levels for a hydrogen atom.

a) the energy required for the transition of hydrogen from the ground state to
the first excited state is 10.2 eV. Determine the value of the energy level E2.
b) Calculate the wavelength of the lowest-energy photon that could excite a
hydrogen atom in the ground state to the n = 4 level.
• Solution:
a) E2  13.6eV  10.2eV
 3.40eV

b) hc

E

6.63  10 34

Js 3.0  108 ms 1   1 

 0.85eV    13.6eV  19
 1.60  10 C 
 9.75  10 8 m
Example 7

• The electron in hydrogen atom makes a transition from E2 = -3.40 eV

energy state to the ground state E1 = 13.6 eV. Fine the energy in joule
and the wavelength of the emitted photon.
• Solution:
E  E high  Elow  E 2  E1
  3.40eV   13.6eV 

 10.2eV

 10.2 1.6 1019  hc

 1.63 10 18 J E

6.63 10 34

Js 3.0 108 ms1 
1.63 1018 J
 1.22 107 m
 122nm
Line Spectrum

• The line spectrum of an element results from the emission of photons with
specific energies from the atom.
• When a photon is emitted, the internal energy of the atom changes by an
amount equal to the energy of the photon.
• According to Bohr, each atom can exist only with certain specific values of
internal energy.
• The electron in an atom can make a transition from one energy level to a
lower level by emitting a photon with energy equal to the energy difference
between the initial and final levels.
Line Spectrum

1  1 1 
 R 2  2 
 n n 
 f i 

RH = 1.097 × 107 m-1

nf = quantum numbers of the final energy states
involved in the transition
ni = quantum numbers of the initial energy states
involved in the transition
Spectrum of Hydrogen Atom
• Bohr atomic model states that the spectrum
series arises when an electron jumps from
an initial stationary orbit (with principle
quantum number ni) to the final orbit (with
principle quantum number nf).
• Spectral series for hydrogen are known as:
• Lyman (ultraviolet)
• Balmer
• Paschen (infrared)
• Brackett
• Pfund
• Basis of Bohr’s electron transitions from
one energy level to another.
Spectrum of Hydrogen Atom
Series Equation
1 1 1 
Lyman series  R 2  2  n = 2, 3, 4, …….
 1 n 

1  1 1 
Balmer series  R 2  2  n = 3, 4, 5, …….
 2 n 

1  1 1 
Paschen series  R 2  2  n = 4, 5, 6, …….
 3 n 

1  1 1 
Brackett series  R 2  2  n = 5, 6, 7, …….
 4 n 

1  1 1 
Pfund series  R 2  2  n = 6, 7, 8, …….
 5 n 
Example 8
• Find a wavelength for a line spectrum in Lyman series when the electron
makes a transition from the n = 4 level.
• Solution:

1  1 1 
 R 2  2  for Lyman series, n1 = 1
 n n 
 f i 
1

 
7  1
 1.094  10  2  2 
1 
1 4 
  0.972 10 7 m
 9.72 10 8 m
Example 9

a) Calculate the greatest wavelength that can be obtained by any energy

transition from the energy levels given.
b) What is the lowest frequency of the visible spectrum emitted?
c) Determine the maximum number of line spectra by transition of energy level.
• Solution:
hc
a) The wavelength of photon is given by   . For the
E
greatest wavelength, ∆E must be the smallest.
E  E4  E3   0.85eV   1.50eV 
 0.65eV

 0.65 1.6 1019 
 1.04 10 19 J
hc hc
The wavelength,   
E 1.04 10 19
 1.9110 6 m
• Solution:

b) For visible spectrum, n = 2 and ∆E = hf

To obtain the lowest frequency, ∆E must be the lowest.
E  E3  E2  1.50eV    3.40eV   1.90eV

 1.90 1.6 1019 
 3.04 1019 J
The frequency, f 
 E 3.04  10 19
J

h h 14
 4.59 10 Hz
c) n =4
n =3

n =2

n =1

X-ray

• X-ray is a type of EM wave with wavelength, λ between 10-12 – 10-8 m.

• It produced by bombarding a target metal with high speed electron.
• Electron are produced by thermo-ionic emission from a hot filament.
• 1% of the kinetic energy of the electrons is converted into X-ray.
• 99% of the kinetic energy is transformed into heat.
Properties of X-ray
Travel in
straight lines
Causes fluorescent Not deflected by
substances to glow electric or magnetic
and ionizes gases field

X-ray
Can be diffracted by
Invisible for eye but crystal lattice where the
darkened a size of its atom ≈
photographic film wavelength of x-ray

Penetrating through
numerous materials
impermeable for light
X-ray tube
Production of X-rays

• When filament is heated, thermionic emission occurs and electron are

emitted by filament.
• Electron are accelerated towards metal by a high voltage
• These high speed electron strike the metal target, rapidly decelerate and lose
kinetic energy.
• These kinetic energy lost is transformed into x-rays are produced.
• 2 type of x-ray produce:
• Continuous X-rays (Bremstrahlung)
• Characteristic of X-rays
Bremsstrahlung
• Produced when fast moving electron strikes the target metal.
• Electron is attracted toward the nucleus and is thus deflected from its original
direction.
• The electron may lose energy and be slowed down/decelerated when its
direction changes.
• The kinetic energy lost by the electron emitted directly in the form of radiation.
• X-ray emitted cover a wide range of wavelength and frequency because:
• Electron encounter different number of collisions with target
• Electron decelerate at different rate
Picture bremsstralung
Minimum wavelength

• If the energy of the bombarding electron, E = eV is completely absorbed by

the atom, then the X-ray has maximum energy:
hf max  eV c
f max 
min
hc
min 
eV
• λ minimum occurs when a high speed electron loses all its kinetic energy in
one collision.
• λ minimum depends on the maximum voltage, V that is applied across the
tube.
Characteristic X-rays

• Some high energy electron penetrate deep into the atoms of the
target. They knock out an electron from an inner orbit of lower energy
level (K shell).
• An electron in one of the outer shells of higher energy levels (L or M
shells) can then fall into to fill the vacancy.
• An x-ray photon is emitted in this process.
hc
E  hf 

Characteristic X-rays

• An electron, A is produced by thermo-ionic emission.

• This electron is then accelerated at high velocity and sufficient energy to
reach the electron of the atom in the inner most shell.
• Subsequently, it knocks out one of the electrons from the innermost shell of a
target atom- the K shell electron, B.
• The vacancy in the K shell is then filled up by an electron, C from L shell by
jumping to K shell.
Characteristic X-rays

• However, there is a difference in energy between two shells.

• The energy of L shell is higher than the energy in K shell.
• When C move to K shell, extra energy ∆E will be emitted as X-ray with
wavelength, hc
E  hf 

• The wavelength of line spectrum is independent of the voltage across the X-ray
tube but is dependent on ∆E which is the characteristic of the target metal.
Characteristic X-rays

• The K-series of the X-ray lines are due to movement of electrons of the
target atom from the L (Kα line) or M (Kβ line) shells to the K shell.
The X-ray spectrum that is transmitted from the anode of X-ray tube.